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f LIBRARY 

| TJ. 8., PATENT OFFICE 

j Wo V^.-' • class k 



THE 

AMERICAN 

JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 

PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OF THE 

PHILADELPHIA COLLEGE OF PHARMACY. 

EDITED BY 

JOHN M. MAISOH. 



PUBLISHING COMMITTEE FOR 1873. 
WILLIAM PROCTER, Jr., CHARLES BULLOCK, 

THOMAS S. WIEGAND, JAMES T. SHINN, 

AND THE EDITOR. 



VOLUME XLV. 
FOURTH SERIES, VOL. III. 



PHILADELPHIA: 
MERRIHEW & SON, PRINTERS, 
No 135 North Third Street. 
1873. 



THE 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



JANUARY, 1873. 



OLEATE OF MERCURY AND MORPHIA. 

Br Charles Rice. 

This combination, suggested by Prof. John Marshall, F.R.S., and 
first prepared by Mr. Frank Clowes, has been in considerable demand 
in this city, but its preparation offers some difficulties, which do not 
seem to have occurred to Mr. Clowes, owing to a difference either in 
the character or quality of the solvent, or in the manipulation. 

In using pure oleic acid as a solvent for oxide of mercury no dif- 
ficulty is encountered, the oxide- — both the red and the yellow varie- 
ties — being completely soluble in it, without any, or with only a very 
slight reduction to the metallic state.* This is not the case, however, 
with the commercial oleic acid, at least that which I have been able 
to procure in this city. It is, like the English, a residuary product 
in the manufacture of stearin candles, commercially termed " Red 
Oil," has a deep sherry-wine color and a peculiar greasy odor ; ex- 
posure to moderate cold causes the separation of a considerable 
amount of solid acids, consisting chiefly of palmitic acid. Its sp. gr. 
•is 0.895 at 62° F. This substance certainly dissolves the oxide of 
mercury, but it requires a greater degree of heat than the pure acid 
to effect the solution, while at the same time some of the oxide is in- 
variably reduced to the metallic state, owing to the presence of some 
readily oxidisable impurities in the acid, or perhaps due to the oxida- 
tion of the acid itself. The amount of reduction is in direct propor. 
tion to the degree of temperature employed, as might have been 
anticipated, and was proved by a number of experiments : 



*The only objection to the employment of the pure acid is its high price. 

1 



2 Oleate of Mercury and Morphia. { AM j a J n 0U ?; 5?£*- 

192 grains of oxide of mercury, corresponding to 177*7 grains of 
metallic mercury, heated with ten times the weight of oleic acid, 
gave the following reductions : 

At 300° F. amount of reduced Hg, . . 175 grains. 

At 280° F. " " . 152 " 

At 212° F. " " 69 " 

At 200° F. " " . 35 " 

Between 200° and 180° F. the amount of reduction varied between 
20 and 40 grains, according to shorter or longer exposure to heat ; 
but I have been uusuccessful in effecting a solution unaccompanied 
by reduction, This makes it necessary to estimate the strength of 
each fresh lot of solution. 

The strength of the preparation as prescribed by different physi- 
cians has varied from twenty per cent, to two per cent, of oxide of 
mercury, with variable quantities of morphia ; but of late a uniform 
strength of six per cent, of oxide of mercury and two per cent, of 
morphia is deemed sufficient for most purposes, and the following is 
the process which I employ for its preparation : 

Expose the commercial oleic acid to a temperature of 40-50° F.^ 
and express the liquid portion, which is oleic acid, deprived of the 
greater portion of the accompanying solid acids. Take of oleic acid,, 
prepared as above, 1536 grains ; oxide of mercury, perfectly dry, 
192 grains. Rub the oxide in a mortar with some of the oleic acid 
to a smooth paste ; add the remainder of the acid ; place the mortar 
on a water bath, and promote solution by frequently stirring, taking 
care not to allow the temperature to exceed 200° F. 

As soon as all the oxide has disappeared, or rather as soon as the un- 
dissolved residue is of a pure gray color, remove the mortar from the 
water bath and allow it to stand for twenty-four hours. Then pour 
off the clear solution into a tared capsule ; wash the residue thoroughly 
with ether and add the washing to the liquid in the capsule. Expose 
the latter to a very gentle heat, until all the ether has evaporated and 
weigh. The residue, after being properly washed and carefully dried 
(without heat), may be weighed as metallic mercury, which is in prac- 
tice sufficiently correct. 

Supposing the weight of the obtained solution to be 1698 grains 
and the weight of the reduced mercury to be thirty grains (assuming 
therefore that there has been no loss incurred during heating and 
during the subsequent washing of the residue, whilst in practice a. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Jan. 1, 1873. J 



Oleate of Mercury and Morphia. 



3 



small loss always occurs), we first calculate the amount of Hg0 2 , to 
which the thirty grains Hg correspond : 

200 Hg : 30 = 216 Hg0 2 , : x 
X = 32.4 grains. 

The solution, therefore, weighing 1698 grains, only contains 159.6 
grains of Hg0 2 , or 9.4 per cent. 

This solution is now to be reduced to the strength of six per cent, by 
the addition of more oleic acid, until it weighs 2660 grains, but we 
also want two per cent, of morphia. The balance wanting (2660 — 
1698 =962 grains) is obtained by dissolving fifty-three grains of 
morphia in 909 grains of oleic acid and adding it to the first obtained 
solution of 1698 grains, making a dark brownish red liquid, of sp. 
gr. 0.975 at 60° F, and containing six per cent. (159.6 grains) of 
Hg0 2 , and two per cent. (53 grains) of morphia. 

It is scarcely ever used for the purpose of producing the constitu- 
tional effects of mercury, but rather as a resolvent for articular 
anchylosis, and it has produced excellent effects in cases of chronic 
articular rheumatism and in gout, by removing the stiffness and pro- 
ducing flexibility of the joint. 

New York, Nov. 18, 1872. 



Since the above was written, I have succeeded in obtaining 
a sample of oleic acid in this city, which dissolves the oxide 
completely, and, if previously separated by cooling from the solid 
acids, does not produce the least reduction. I also found that a much 
lower degree of heat is sufficient to effect solution, (160° — 180° F.). 
A lot of oxide of mercury mixed with half its weight of carbonate 
was employed in a few instances, and gave even better results than 
the oxide alone. The resulting product, made with this kind of oleic 
acid, is of the consistence of thin cream and of a light brownish yel- 
low color. 

A sample of the English oleic acid, expressly imported by a friend, 
gave invariably a greater or lesser reduction, and so do all the other 
varieties which I have hitherto tried, with the exception of the last. 
As soon as I have traced the latter to its source I shall not fail to 
make it known. 

New York, Dee. 15, 1872. 



4 



TJnguentum Zinci Oxidi. 



K Am. Joto. Pharm. 
X Jan. 1, 1873. 



UNGrUENTUM ZINCI OXIDI. 
By Alfred H. Bolton. 

In making oxide of zinc ointmont by the officinal process I have 
experienced great difficulty in making a smooth ointment, which diffi- 
culty prompted me to resort to some other method of manipulation. 
The idea of using the paint-mill suggested itself to me. Now as 
paints are brought to a fine and smooth condition by the use of the 
mill, I thought why could not the oxide of zinc ointment be manipulated 
in the same way ? In the way of experiment a paint-mill was ob- 
tained, and the result of my trial was a success ; the ointment thus 
made is perfection in every respect. I proceeded as follows : 

Placed the lard in a capsule and applied heat until fluid; then added 
the oxide of zinc ; removed from the fire and stirred it occasionally 
until it acquired a semi-fluid consistence ; then benzoinated it with 
tincture of benzoin, (made in the proportion of three troy-ounces to 
eight fluid-ounces of alcohol), using four fluid-drachms to every troy 
pound of the ointment, which preserves it from rancidity. I intro- 
duced the lard and zinc thus prepared into the mill, previously 
warmed, and passed it through, regulating the mill by the use of a 
thumb-screw attached to the same, and keeping the ingredients at the 
same consistence by the use of a spirit lamp placed underneath the 
mill. The use of a spirit lamp is superfluous in summer, and in a 
warm room in winter. The oxide of zinc ointment, which most phar- 
macists experience so much trouble with, can be made in this way 
perfectly smooth, and with a great deal less labor than rubbing it on 
the ointment slab as some do. The cost of a mill may be an objection 
to some, but for those who prepare large quantities of zinc ointment, 
I think it worth the price of a mill. 

A perfect ointment is always admired by the pharmacist, the phy- 
sician and the patient who uses it. This ointment is used largely by 
every practitioner of medicine, and deserves to be prepared in the 
best possible manner. In summer time the addition of two troy 
ounces of white wax to a troy pound of the ointment gives it a better 
consistence. The ointments of carbonate of zinc, carbonate of lead 
and others, might be prepared in a similar manner. 
Philadelphia, December, 1872, 



A Va 0u r;i P 8 73 RM '} Suppository Moulds of Plaster Paris. 5 

SUPPOSITORY MOULDS OF PLASTER PARIS. 

By Charles E. Dwight. 

Pharmacists who have had many suppositories to make with the 
old moulds have undoubtedly often hurt their fingers by pounding in 
trying to remove the suppositories. I have been for some time using 
a mould which parts through the centre and is made of plaster Paris, 
which gives so much satisfaction that I can but wish for others to try 
it ; it may have been used by others, but is entirely original with 
myself. 

The expense of buying moulds of metal which part through the 
centre has probably been detrimental to their universal use, while 
they are undoubtedly superior to those old finger smashers in being 
easily cleaned and oiled, and also facilitating the extraction of the 
suppositories when cold. For the benefit of those unused to the 
manipulation with plaster, I will give a general plan for preparing 
the moulds. 

Into a vessel of about six inches long by two wide and one deep, (a 
pasteboard box will do), pour in plaster mixed to the consistency of 
thick cream, until half full ; have ready six suppositories, moulded of 
wax, from other moulds of good shape, and while the plaster is yet soft 
immerse them to half their diameter, with their large end close to the 
edge of the box, all in a row and a uniform distance apart. When 
the plaster has set, gently remove the wax, and with a knife smooth 
off the surface and trim the edges of each mould sharp, and between 
each depression made by the wax suppository dig a small cavity 
about the size and shape of a small pea cut through the centre* 
Now we have half of our mould. When the face has become hard, 
oil or grease with linseed oil or lard, replace the wax suppositories 
and raise the edges of the box by wrapping heavy paper around, 
which will extend about another inch above the surface of the face ; 
mix another portion of the plaster equal to the first, and in the same 
way, and gently pour over the greased surface until it will be about 
one fnch deep above the other or lower half. When hard, the two 
parts .can be easily pulled apart, the edges trimmed off and each part 
boiled for about an hour in linseed oil, which will prevent the adhe- 
sion of the substance to be moulded. The plaster must be mixed 
thin and well stirred to be substantial. 

By following the above plan almost any number of sizes can be 



6 



Elixirs. 



f Am. Joto. Phabm. 
\ Jan. i, 1873. 



made at small expense, and will, I think, be found to answer admira- 
bly. If this. will in any way alleviate the frown which comes over 
the face of the pharmacist when he finds he has to make suppositories, 
the object of the writer will be fully attained. 
Wheeling, W. Va., Nov. 28, 1872. 



ELIXIRS. 
By C. G. Polk, M. D. 
Within the last six or eight years a class of pharmaceutical pro- 
ducts termed elixirs have acquired extensive use and grown into an 
undeserved popularity, both with physicians and the community at 
large. But while purporting to be definite solutions of officinal and 
well esteemed remedies, they are as varying in their constituents as the 
proprietary bitters, and of really less value than some of them. In 
appearance, articles bearing the same name vary in hue from an 
inky blackness to the color of officinal syrup, with almost every inter- 
mediate tint. Their taste is as different as their color, but in thera- 
peutical value they generally agree ; most of them being utterly 
worthless. 

The whole thing is radically wrong and strikes at the very founda- 
tion of rational pharmacy. In the first place the articles are so nu- 
merous that they must modify the action of the principal article to a 
degree that envelops the therapeutical result in mystery, and leads the 
physician to grope in darkness and uncertainty to an extent as great 
as though he were using Scheitz's or Hostetter's Bitters. Secondly, it 
is morally wrong to tamper with human health and rob the sick of their 
money without an equivalent benefit. Thirdly, they are the creations 
of private formulas, many of which are unknown to any one else than 
the manufacturer, and are practically proprietary medicines. Fourthly? 
they are a flag of truce to homoeopathy initiatory to a surrender, 
withouc half the therapeutic merit of aconite, belladonna, pulsatilla, 
bryonia and veratrum, even homoeopathically administered. Fifthly, 
they are not what they profess to be. They are base frauds. Most 
of the elixirs of calisaya are nothing more than a finely flavored solu- 
tion of sulphate of cinchonia in proportion of about half a grain to 
the ounce, and do not contain the least trace of any other alkaloid of 
the cinchona bark. The ferrated elixirs generally contain the stated 
amount of the citrated iron in which their virtues mainly consists, but 



Am. Jour. Pbarm. ) 
Jan. 1, 1873. J 



Elixirs. 



1 



even these have no advantage over a syrup of the citrate of iron 
properly flavored, and are often not as good. 

The tinctura cinchonse comp., well prepared, with fresh orange peel 
and combined with compound tincture of cardamom and syrup to meet 
each individual case, is preferable to any elixir I have ever seen for 
general use. If iron and quinia are desired, the citrate of the two 
in combination may be given in pilular form or in a finely flavored 
syrup combination. 

Bromide of potassium may be administered with compound tincture 
of cardamom, which nearly conceals its disagreeable taste, and the 
iodide of potassium given in syrup, compound tincture of cardamom 
and Curagoa cordial can be taken without difficulty. The bitter taste 
of quinia may also be nicely concealed by a similar combination, so 
that a grain may be administered in dessert-spoonful doses. An 
elixir of copaiba containing half a drachm in half an ounce of the 
menstruum, and so covered with aromatics as to be palatable, would be 
really a pharmaceutical triumph I but one which has not yet been 
gained. 

The evils of the elixirs are recognized, deplored and condemned by 
the better class of physicians and pharmacists, and yet the remedy is 
plain. Make them officinal, strip them of their novelty, and adopt 
formulas that every retail druggist can follow. Uniformity of 
strength, taste and appearance would be established ; only one bottle 
of each would be required; physicians prescriptions could- always 
(when they are ordered), be filled in letter and spirit, and all the mist 
and uncertainty which now envelop elixirs would be cleared away, 
and a class of remedies well suited for infant therapeutics would be 
at least definite in their constituents, convenient for physicians and 
druggists, easy to administer and reliable in their action. Those mis- 
erable go-betweens of homoeopathy on the one hand and quack reme- 
dies on the other would either cease to exist or become patent medi- 
cines, sold by printer's ink. 

It has been suggested by several pharmacists that there be a simple 
elixir, to be used as a menstruum, wherever it is necessary to cover the 
taste of disagreeable medicines. Although several objections can be 
urged against any formula I could offer, either of my own emanation 
or have seen offered by others, I doubt not that pharmaceutical skill 
oan supply this great desideratum. 

But however much I may condemn the wholesale quackery into 



8 Solania in Solatium Ly coper sicum. { k ^n V \[mC^ 

which the elixirs have been run, I do not wish to be understood as 
condemning them in toto. Valerianate of ammonia is so disagreeable 
in odor and taste as to be neglected for these, unless they be covered, 
and the formula in the United States Dispensatory does this suffi- 
ciently well to render it available, and could assafoetida also be cov- 
ered in taste and smell without interference with its therapeutical 
action, one of our best nervines and anti-spasmodics would come into 
general use. 

I hope that this subject will receive the consideration of more able- 
and experienced minds, and a great evil be remedied. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



SOLANIA IN SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM. 

By George W. Kennedy. 

Having had a strong desire to know whether or not the commoa 
tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum) contained any solania, and never 
having seen any analysis of the plant, I was induced to make a series 
of experiments. The fruit of the plant has been examined by several 
pharmacists, but I believe there was no solania discovered. Tha 
amount of citric acid obtained by the experimenters has varied very 
considerably, thus suggesting that the fruit of different varieties has 
been examined, or that the fruit was collected at different periods of 
the year. 

In giving the result of my examination I hope it may give a little 
more light on a plant of some importance, which I have found to con- 
tain the alkaliod solania. The process for extracting the alkaloid 
was similar to that of "Wackenroder, except a slight change in the 
maceration and in using ammonia instead of hydrated lime for pre- 
cipitation. 

I took a quantity of the living plant, leaves and stems, and bruised 
them with water into a pulp in a mortar. This pulpy mass is next, 
macerated for forty-eight hours with water enough to cover it, pre- 
viously acidulated with sulphuric acid so as to have a strong acid 
reaction. The liquid is then expressed, and the residue treated again 
with sulphuric acid and water, as in the first maceration. It is now ex- 
pressed as before, the two liquids are mixed, and, after standing for 
some days, filteredand treated with water of ammonia, sp. gr. 0.960, in 
excess. The precipitate that forms is separated by straining dried 



AM jan. c i,' i8 fl 73 RM '| Impurities in Rhizome of Cypripedium. 9 

in heated air at 120° F, and then boiled several times with alcohol.. 
The alcoholic solution, having been filtered while hot, will, upon cool- 
ing, deposit the solania in small feathery-like crystals, resembling 
quinine in appearance, having a smell like that of potatoes, and a 
taste rather nauseous, bitter and somewhat sweetish. With sulphuric 
acid, it gives a bright red color, passing into reddish brown. With, 
iodine a characteristic yellowish brown color is produced. Besides 
solania, I also found in the herb some fixed oil, gum, chlorophyll and 
inorganic salts. 

Pottsville, Dee. 2, 1872. 



ON SOME IMPURITIES IN THE COMMERCIAL RHIZOME OF 
CYPRIPEDIUM. 

By John M. Maisch. 
Bead at the Pharmaceutical Meeting, held Dec. 11th. 

In a paper read before the pharmaceutical meeting, held in April 
last, I called attention to the fact* that two different rhizomes 
are met with in commerce under the name of cypripedium or ladies' 
slipper. Through the kindness of several readers of the American 
Journal of Pharmacy, I was subsequently enabled to convince myself 
that the two plants furnishing the commercial article are Cypripedium? 
pubescens, Willd. and 0. parviflorum, Salisb., of the rhizomes of which 
I gave a short description. f I then stated that the rhizomes and root- 
lets of these two species are the only ones constituting the commercial 
article, with which I have had but a limited acquaintance and experi- 
ence, and the commercial specimens obtained several years ago for my 
cabinet prove the correctness of my observation. 

Recently, however, Mr. G. L. Truckenmiller, a student of this col- 
lege, directed my attention to an admixture with the rhizome of Hy- 
drastis canadensis, Lin., which he had observed in commercial cypri- 
pedium, stating that an herbalist of this city had informed him that 
it was almost impossible to collect the latter free from the former^ 
since the two plants grew together in the same localities, and their 
interwoven rootlets rendered the separation of the two rhizomes ex- 
tremely difficult. 

The two species of cypripedium prefer bogs and marshes, but are 



^American Journal of Pharmacy, 1872, p. 194. flbid, 297. 



10 Impurities in Rhizome of Cypripedium. { AM ian*£ Im?*' 

said to be also found in rich low woodlands, in localities in which 
hydrastis grows. I have observed this latter plant to be pretty frequent 
in some localities in the mountains of the northeastern section of 
Schuylkill County, Pa., but did not find any cypripedium there, and 
it seems to me as if hydrastis could hardly grow in swamps, where 
the other plants probably thrive best. 

However this may be, it is a fact that occasionally, at least, cypri- 
pedium is mixed with a considerable proportion of hydrastis, which 
may escape detection on superficial examination, particularly if Cypri- 
pedium parviflorum has been principally collected, the color of the 
rhizome of which is a brownish grey, resembling the yellowish grey of 
the corky layer on hydrastis, while the rhizome of Cypripedium pubes- 
cens has a blackish brown color externally. There is, however, no diffi- 
culty in distinguishing the admixture by its growth, as well as by its 
structure and color internally. Cypripedium parviflorum has the cup- 
shaped scar3 of the overground stems directly upon and above the rhi- 
zome, which is hollowed out considerably and bent zigzag up and 
down ; hydrastis has an oblique rhizome, with very distinct nodes, and 
"bears the stem scars upon short but distinct branches, of which only the 
older ones have concave or cup-shaped terminations. It breaks 
with a short fracture, exhibiting a resinous lustre and a reddish 
to brownish yellow color in which the eight to twelve almost linear 
light yellow ligneous rays are distinctly visible, enclosing an orange 
yellow pith. The rhizomes of both species of cypripedium break 
likewise short, parviflorum usually circular, pubescens often nearly two- 
edged upon the fracture, which has little lustre, is white, almost mealy 
in appearance, and, with the scattered bundles of ligneous tissue, very 
indistinct. The rootlets exhibit a similar difference, those of hydrastis 
being bright yellow, with a central ligneous cord of a quadrangular 
or triangular shape. 

In another specimen of ladies' slipper root, some senega and roots 
of other dicotyledonous plants, not further determined, were observed. 

It appears from the foregoing that the pharmacist must exercise 
care in selecting ladies' slipper root for medicinal use, lest it may be 
contaminated with other medicinal and non-medicinal roots to such an 
extent that garbling may be too tedious and expensive an operation. 



^ M j a J u°T;m3 RM } Ceresina Substitute for White Wax. 11 



CERESIN A SUBSTITUTE FOR WHITE WAX. 
By Joseph P. Remington. 

Mead at Pharmaceutical Meeting of Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

A sample of this article was put into the writer's hands for the 
purpose of examination. It had been sent to a large manufacturing 
house in Philadelphia from an agent in Germany, with the intention 
of introducing it here as a substitute for beeswax. 

In appearance it is very similar to white wax, in a flat cake, white, 
shining, nearly inodorous, breaking shortly with a fracture like wax. 
Its specific gravity is .850, and its fusing point 135° F., volatilizable 
by heat, and the sublimed ceresin is reddened by the application of 
sulphuric acid ; it dissolves slowly in ether, phenol, turpentine, petro- 
leum-benzin, chloroform, carbon bisulphide, and freely in these 
solvents, if heated, depositing in gelatinous white flocks on cooling, 
nearly insoluble in alcohol and methylic alcohol. It is indifferent 
to the strong mineral acids, with the exception of hot sulphuric acid, 
which acts on it easily, forming a ruby red liquid, which rapidly 
passes to black with the evolution of sulphurous acid. This is 
due to the deoxidation of the sulphuric acid : its action is first to 
carbonize the ceresin, and the carbon then abstracts oxygen from the 
sulphuric acid, and sulphurous acid is liberated ; neither potassa 
nor soda would saponify it. Prof. John M. Maisch kindly informed 
the writer of an account in Hager's Pharmaceutische Centralhalle, 
(Oct. 10th), of some of the properties of this substance. The points 
are as follows : 

Ceresin — fusing point between 62° and 63° R. Acids and alkalies 
do not attack it either cold or hot. 

At high temperature it volatilizes and distils without change. 
Ceresin price in Vienna, 100 guilders. 
Paraffin price in Vienna, 70 guilders. 

Paraffin slowly cooled becomes opaque, and resembles wax more 
than if cooled rapidly. 

Probably obtained from fossil wax (Erdwachs) of Gallicia, which 
yields such a paraffin. 

An imitation of yellow beeswax is in German commerce. It con- 
sists of paraffin, colored yellow by curcuma. 

The Journal of Applied Science contains the following: 

Ceresin is a new product, destined to play an important part as a 



12 Permanganate of Potassium^ etc. {^•iS"' 

lighting material. It is obtained from ozokerit or fossil wax by the 
following process. Ozokerit is heated up to a temperature ranging 
from 250° to 300° C, in order to separate by volatilization and sub- 
quent condensation the liquid oils. The mass being cooled down to 
60°, it is treated with from 10 to 26 per cent of Nordhausen sul- 
phuric acid. The temperature is then raised to 100°, and care is> 
taken to maintain this heat until the precipitation of the carbon takes 
place and forms a viscous residue, which is carefully separated from 
the supernatant oils, heated and then treated with about 10 per cent 
of diluted sulphuric acid and afterwards neutralized by aid of an 
alkali. The mass is then heated to about 180°, poured upon plates 
and pressed through linen cloths in order to separate the greasy mat- 
ters ; this residue of wax can then be melted and filtered. The pro- 
duct is ceresin, which is employed in the manufacture of candles. 

To summarize the results obtained by the writer, ceresin is undoubt- 
edly one of the paraffins, although it differs from common paraffin 
in several respects. It is not unctuous to the touch, as is paraffin, is 
not as translucent and does not break with the characteristic fracture 
of paraffin, and has a higher fusing point, although the fusing point 
of paraffin is sometimes lower than 135° F. It seems to hold a. 
middle place between paraffin and wax. It would serve as a sub- 
stitute for wax in pharmacy in a number of cases. A very white and 
firm simple cerate was made with it, using it in the same proportion- 
as wax — that is two parts lard, one part ceresin. 



PERMANGANATE OF POTASSIUM — A MODIFIED FORM OF' 
CRYSTAL. 
By Joseph P. Remington. 
Read before Pharmaceutical Meeting of Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 
A sample of permanganate of potassium was recently examined in 
which the prismatic character of the salt was almost entirely wanting. 
It was imported from Germany and offered in New York market. 
The crystals, when thrown into a heap, resembled a miniature pile of 
anthracite ; the pyramidal summits were present on some of ihem r 
but in a number of cases this characteristic was absent. Tested vol- 
umetrically, a given portion of the solution was exactly decolorized 
by the requisite quantity of solution of ferrous sulphate, thus indi- 
cating a pure salt. The only explanation that is suggested to the 



A ^nX'w£™' } Adulterated Heavy Magnesia. 1 3 

writer is that some foreign salts were presented in the solution from 
which it was crystallized, which interfered with their proper devel- 
opment. 

On one occasion, in obtaining crystals from a large quantity of 
solution, 50 or 60 gallons, a similar effect was noticed, there being 
present in the solution, besides pure permanganate, chloride and sul- 
phate of potassium. The crystals, on examination, proved to be 
the double salt of perchlorate and permanganate. 



ADULTERATED HEAVY MAGNESIA. 
By Richard Y. Mattison. 

A short time ago I had occasion to purchase a quantity of heavy 
magnesia, and the order was given one of our large wholesale houses 
to fill. The quantity sent me presented a fine appearance, and a por- 
tion of it was put up in Z'v and 3ii packages for dispensing, some of 
which was returned with the remark, " There must be some mistake 
here; this does not taste like magnesia!" Upon examining a portion 
of the package presented I was struck with the peculiar taste, which 
was strongly saline and cooling, bearing some resemblance to that of 
tartaric acid when in combination with an alkaline base. Upon exam- 
ining the remainder, which had not been placed in packages, it was 
found to be of the same character. 

The physical properties of the powder, differing so widely from 
pure magnesia, suggested the propriety of a chemical investigation, 
and it was analyzed at the College laboratory, under the supervision 
of Prof. Maisch. The powder, submitted to the action of boiling 
water and the mixture filtered, gave a filtrate of a strong alkaline 
reaction with turmeric paper, and yielding no precipitate upon cooling; 
after the addition of ammonium chloride and oxalate, a slight tur- 
bidity was produced, indicating the presence of a little calcium. The 
magnesium salt dissolved was thrown out of the filtrate by the addi- 
tion of solutions of ammonium hydrate and ammonium orthophosphate 
and boiling. The abundant precipitate produced by these reagents 
gave evidence that this almost insoluble alkaline earth had entered 
very largely into solution. This precipitate was removed by filtration, 
evaporated and calcined in a porcelain crucible with a few drops of 
nitric acid added occasionally, until reduced to whiteness, and all 
traces of ammonium had disappeared. The portion remaining in the 



14 Gleanings from the European Journals \ { AM j£.°i; i?7 A ™'' 

crucible was dissolved in water acidulated with hydrochloric acid, and 
the solution concentrated, when upon the addition of platinic chloride 
a precipitate of the double chloride of platinum and potassium was 
produced. 

The mixed precipitate and supernatant liquid was evaporated to 
dryness, and yielded to a small portion of water a nitrate which col- 
ored the flame of a Bunsen burner a bright yellow, and gave a crys- 
talline precipitate of sodium antimoniate, when a solution of potas- 
sium antimoniate was added. 

As the original powder charred when placed upon platinum foil and: 
heated, the presence of one of the organic acids was indicated, and 
another portion of the powder was boiled in water, filtered, and the 
magnesium salt separated as before. The filtrate from this produced 
a precipitate with barium chloride, partly soluble in nitric acid,, 
showing the presence of a small quantity of sulphuric acid, probably 
existing in combination as sodium sulphate. With another portion of 
this filtrate argentic nitrate produced a white precipitate, soluble in 
solution of ammonium hydrate, and in nitric acid. This precipitate^, 
upon being heated to 212° F., instantly blackened from the reduction 
of the silver. 

To another portion of the filtrate solution of calcium hydrate was 
added, and a dense white precipitate was the result. This precipitate- 
was soluble in solution of ammonium chloride, tartaric acid, and also* 
in solution of potassium hydrate, from which, upon boiling, it was 
reprecipitated. This corroborative testimony proved the presence of 
tartaric acid, which ^existed, combined with potassium and sodium, as 
Rochelle salt in the powder, mixed with magnesia and imported for 
our market and sold under the name of Heavy Magnesia. 

Philadelphia, Dec. 23, 1872. 



GLEANINGS FROM THE EUROPEAN JOURNALS. 
By the Editor. 

Nitrate of silver and crystallized sugar, when acting upon eack 
other, (at 130° C), do not yield optically neutral sugar, as stated by 
Maumene\ N. Borodylin obtained instead invert sugar and oxalate 
and cyanide of silver. — Pharm. Zeitsch. f. Bussl. 1872, No. 17. 

Analysis of Barberries. — Dr. Graeger fouud in 100 parts of the re- 
cently collected ripe fruit of Berberis vulgaris, Lin., exclusive of the 



AM ja^'j873 RM '} Gleanings from ilie European Journals. 15 

stalks, 15.58 integuments and seeds, 17.20 soluble solid constituents 
and 67.22 water. The constituents of the juice, calculated for 100 
parts of fresh berries, are 5.92 malic acid, 4.67 sugar, 6.61 gum, 
67.16 water and 0.06 salts of potassium and calcium. The integu- 
ments and seeds yielded 2.20 ashes, mainly consisting of phosphate 
of calcium. The berries are well adapted for the preparation of 
malate of calcium.— N. Jahrb.f. Pharm., 1872, Oct. 201-203. 

Hyoseyamia, according to Dr. G. Merck, is generally obtained in 
the form of a soft amorphous mass. If this mass is carefully dis- 
tilled in a current of hydrogen, a colorless distillate is obtained, 
which is probably the pure alkaloid. It is a somewhat oily liquid, 
resembling conia in odor and appearance, readily soluble in alcohol 
and ether, also in water, partly soluble in benzin and chloroform ; 
in contact with the air it rapidly becomes yellow and brown, acquires 
a thicker consistence and an intense disagreeable odor, and is then 
but partially soluble in ether. It has a strong alkaline reaction and 
neutralizes the acids completely. The salts are crystallizable with 
difficulty.— Ibid, 203, 204. 

Depilatory. — Prof. Boettger recommends the following as safe : 1 
part of crystallized sulphhydrate of sodium is rubbed to a very fine 
powder, and mixed with three parts of prepared chalk. The mixture 
keeps well in closed vials. Mixed with water and applied to the skin, 
the hair becomes soft in two or three minutes and is readily removed 
by water. A longer application is apt to corrode the skin. — Ibid., p. 
230. 

[This appears to be an improvement on Boudet's depilatory, which 
consists of 3 parts of crystallized sulphhydrate of sodium, 10 parts of 
quick-lime and 10 p. of starch. — Editor.] 

An unlmrtful hair-dye is suggested by Dr. Hager, as follows : 10* 
parts of subnitrate of bismuth and 150 p. of glycerin are mixed in a 
glass vessel and heated in a water-bath ; solution of potassa is then 
added in small portions and with continued agitation, until a clear 
solution has been obtained, to which a concentrated solution of citric 
acid is added until merely a slight alkaline reaction is observed. 
Enough orange-flower water is added to make the whole liquid weigh 
300 parts ; the addition of a small quantity of solution of an anilin 
color completes the preparation. — Pharm. Centralhalle, 1872, No. 46. 



16 Gleanings from the European Journals. { AM 7 a ™i, Km*' 

Peschiers Tapeworm Pills are made, according to Hager, of 1*6 
grm. (25 grs.) each of oleo-resin and powdered male fern, divided into 
20 pills, which are rolled in lycopodium, and taken 10 in the evening 
and the remaining 10 next morning. An hour after the last dose a 
clyster is given, consisting of 2 grm. oleo-resin of male fern, 15 grm. 
gum arabic, and sufficient water. — Ibid., No. 47. 

Death from the Inhalation of the Vapors of Phosphorus Paste. — 
An apothecary had poisoned several bushels of wheat with strychnia, 
which was to be used for the destruction of field-mice, but previously 
to be covered with phosphorus paste. Instead of performing the last 
operation in the open air, upon small quantities, the deceased worked 
upon the wheat, in two portions, in his cellar, and continued at this 
labor notwithstanding he fainted several times. The inhalation of the 
gases evolved prostrated him completely, and he died within a week. 
— Pharm. Zeitung, No. 96. 

Potassa Soap for Soap Liniment and Liquid Opodeldoc is recom- 
mended by G. H. Barckhausen, on account of its perfect solubility in 
alcohol even at the freezing temperature. The commercial soft soap, 
however, is unfit for this purpose, because it contains variable quanti- 
ties of free alkali, is often adulterated with starch, &c, and varies 
considerably in color. The author suggests the following manipula- 
tion : 100 parts of rape-seed oil are mixed, near the temperature of 
boiling water, with 15 parts of potassa, previously dissolved in some 
alcohol ; the remaining alcohol is then added, and the digestion con- 
tinued until the oil is dissolved, when the water is added, whereby the 
complete saponification is facilitated. This gives a slight excess of 
alkali, which, however, is necessary to avoid retaining unsaponified 
oil in the solution. Alcohol decomposes soaps when dissolving them, 
setting alkali free ; hence less alkali is requisite if the soap is made 
in alcohol. Based on the amount of fatty acids, the author finds that 
100 parts of rape-seed oil are equal to 300 p. potassa soap, or 150 p. 
Oastile soap.— Archiv d. Pharm., 1872, Oct., 289—299. 

Decomposition of Dilute Hydrocyanic Acid. — Pettit states that 
aqueous hydrocyanic acid containing 10 per ct. of acid, decomposes 
very rapidly, while if dissolved in 1000 parts of water (= T \ per ct. 
acid), it will keep for six months almost without alteration. If a 10 
^er ct. acid, which has already commenced to decompose, is diluted 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Jan. 1, 1873. j" 



True Zero of Thermometers. 



17 



to T - per ct., the alteration does not progress. Ammonia does not 
appear to induce this decomposition. Gautier, however, infers from 
his experiments with the concentrated acid that ammonia hastens the 
decomposition. — Chem. Cent. Blatt, 1872, No. 42, from Bull. Soc. 
Chim. 

The action of iodoform and phosphorus produces, according to Gau- 
tier, an orange-yellow body, which is insoluble in most solvents, and 
yields with boiling water another lighter colored compound and the 
products of decomposition of tri-iodide of phosphorus. The new body 
is probably the phosphorus compound corresponding to cyanic acid, 

Phosphorus does not re-act upon chloroform at a temperature of 
200° Q.—Ibid. 

Action of Oxygen upon Aqueous Infusions. — Laborde filled a glass 
globe, the neck of which was drawn out to a fine point, with infusions 
and decoctions of vegetables, heated to boiling, and when the air was 
expelled closed the opening hermetically. The liquids remained un- 
altered while portions of the same liquids rapidly spoiled by mould 
whon left in contact with the air. The generation of oxygen within 
the globe by means of electricity, did not cause any alteration, but 
mould appeared in a few days when contact with the atmosphere was 
re-established. — Journ. de Pharm. et de Chim., 1872, Aug., 118. 

Value of Apomorphia in Oases of Poisoning.— -Dr. Loeb relates a 
case of poisoning of a young man who had swallowed a portion 
of a solution of 3 oz. oil of bitter almonds in 1J pint of strong 
alcohol. Half an hour afterwards the patient was found with a livid 
countenance, rational, but very weak, vision impaired, pulse 96, heat 
of body not altered. A subcutaneous injection of 0*008 grm. (|- gr.), 
produced emesis in 8 minutes, which was repeated in 5 minutes. 
The young man felt better at once, and was well the next morning, 
with pulse 12.—Apoth. Zeitung, 1872, NoA5. 



ON THE DETERMINATION OF THE TRUE ZERO OF THER- 
MOMETERS. 
By Cn. Tellter. 

It is generally admitted that the 0° of the Centigrade and Reau- 
mur thermometers varies after a longer or shorter time, and the deli- 
cate and sensitive thermometers therefore become altered as regards 

2 



18 



True Zero of Thermometers. 



f Am. Jotre. Pharm. 
\ Jan. 1, 1873. 



the indication of the 0° when placed in melting ice or snow. Accord- 
ing to the observations on the supersaturation of water with cold (see 
Chemical News, vol. xxvi, p. 107) thermometers are much less vari- 
able than is generally supposed, and the cause of the differences which 
are observed is probably due to an error made in the determination of 
the 0°. It may be readily conceived that unless special precautions 
are taken at the time of the gradation of the thermometer, the water 
in which it is plunged, and which is supposed to be precisely at the 
temperature of melting ice, may in reality be slightly above that tem- 
perature ; this is the case if the walls of the vessel containing the wa- 
ter and ice admit more heat to the water than the melting ice can 
overpower: this is natural; ice does not melt instantaneously, but 
only in the ratio of its surface, and in proportion to the difference of 
the temperature of the water in which it floats, and its own tempera- 
ture ; and it is consequently quite possible that the water which con- 
tains the ice is not at a temperature of 0°. The colder the water the 
more slowly will equilibrium of temperature be established between 
the two bodies, and in the same ratio will the chances of error be 
greater. The error of indications of the thermometers brought on by 
time either depends upon a modification in the glass, as usually admit- 
ted, or it is due to the result of an erroneous estimation of the 0°. In 
the first case the alteration would rather tend to plus in one case and 
minus in the other, and there is no plausible reason why it should be 
otherwise; in the second case (erroneous estimation of the 0°) the 
error should be always plus, because the water must be above U . My 
experiments have confirmed these views. I have taken seven ther- 
mometers with the gradations engraved on the stem and made by one 
of the best makers; only one of these instruments has been found to 
indicate 0° correctly, all the others indicated a difference — 
2 indicated + 0-1 

1 " + 0-2 

2 " + 0-3 
1 " + 04 

Not one of these thermometers indicated below 0°. 

The determination of the 0° by placing the thermometer in melting 
ice is therefore not an absolutely certain method of operating. In 
order to find the true 0° another plan must be followed, which is that 
found and described by me, and called terminus of congelation. The 
operation is carried on as follows : — A glass vessel is placed in a re- 



AM jfn U i,m3 RM } Tinct. and Syr. of Orange Peel, etc. 19 

frigerating mixture, and the temperature of the water contained in 
the vessel is thereby readily lowered to — 2 or to — 3 : this having 
been done, the vessel is removed from the mixture, and the thermom- 
eters to be graduated are placed in it, with a small piece of ice ; here- 
by the water becomes suddenly frozen, while at the same time the 
temperature rises to 0°. When one has no ice at hand, and in order 
not to complicate the operation, the temperature of the water should 
be brought down to — 4°, when, by giving a gentle tap with a glass 
rod to the bottom of the vessel, the phenomenon of congelation of the 
water will be observed, the temperature rising to the true 0° abso- 
lutely. I draw from the foregoing the two following conclusions : — 

1. That the expression of melting ice does not exactly indicate the 
true 0°, and that therefore it ought not to be the basis of the deter- 
mination of that point. 

2. That by applying the term of terminus of congelation it is quite 
possible to estimate with certainty the exact point which separates 
liquid water from ice, and that point is the true 0°, which should be 
the starting point of the graduation of the thermometer scale. — Revue 
Hebdomadaire de Chimie. — Qhem. News, 1872, Nov. 22. 



TINCTURE AND SYRUP OF ORANGE-PEEL, AND TINCTURE OF 
QUININE. 

By Charles Symes, Ph. D. 

The preparation of tincture of orange from fresh peel is a matter 
which has engaged my attention more or less during the last twelve 
years, and some few remarks on the observations I have made from 
time to time might not be out of place, especially as very vague con- 
clusions appear to have been arrived at on this subject at the last 
Pharmaceutical meeting, after a description of some (to my mind) un- 
satisfactory experiments by the President. 

On March 8th, 1868, I brought the subject before the members of 
the Liverpool .Chemists' Association, exhibiting a sample of the pre- 
paration in question, and advocating its general adoption (vide Phar- 
maceutical Journal, 2d series, vol. IX, p. 522), but it received com- 
paratively little attention, and it was overruled by Mr. Shaw (in the 
chair) that the inconvenience of being unable to obtain fresh peel at 
all seasons of the year was sufficient to justify the continuance of the 
process according to the B. P. 



20 Tinct. and Syr. of Orange Peel, etc. { A Vn?£wi MU 

Tincture of orange is essentially a flavoring agent, possessing slight, 
stomachic properties ; nevertheless, it is the most important of its, 
class, largely prescribed, and therefore meriting attention. In dry- 
ing the peel, however carefully this is performed, a large percentage 
of the aroma is lost, which, if retained, makes a tincture of unques- 
tionably superior flavor ; such being the case, any difficulty in procur- 
ing the fruit at some seasons is quite secondary. How easy would it 
not be to make many of the tedious pharmacopoeia preparations if we 
could rest satisfied with inferior results ? When this tincture has 
been kept twelve months the flavor is not quite so fine as when freshly 
prepared, but even then its superiority to tincture from the dry peel 
is evident. 

Six ounces of peel, cut thinly from the fruit, weigh two ounces when, 
dry; it will be evident then that this quantity will be required to- 
make one pint of tincture, and that four ounces of water must be 
omitted in making the proof spirit. Although rectified spirit might 
be the best solvent of the volatile oil, etc., in the peel, there is an ob- 
jection to its use, as it tends to harden the peel, rendering it more crisp, 
and less permeable. In the winter I usually make sufficient to carry 
me safely through the summer, when the fruit is difficult to procure, 
but taking the quantity of the pharmacopoeia for example I proceed 
thus : — Six ounces of thin fresh peel, cut small, are macerated 48 
hours with four ounces distilled water ; 12 ounces of rectified spirit 
are then added, and the maceration continued with occasional agita- 
tion for one month ; filtered, pressed, and the product made to mea- 
sure one pint with proof spirit. Set aside in a moderately cool place 
for use. 

Tincture of Quinine, prepared from the foregoing tincture in the- 
summer, deposits in the winter — so it frequently does when prepared 
with the B. P. tincture — presuming, of course, that pure quinine be- 
used (not the unbleached, which frequently, if not always, contains 
cinchonine). Now, to prepare, say two pints, tincture suitable for 
comp. tincture of quinine, I proceed thus : — Take six ounces fresh 
peel, two ounces dry peel (in fine shreds, known as machine cuttings), 
add four ounces water, and after forty-eight hours, 32 ounces rectified, 
spirit ; allow to stand as before, but, after pressing, make up the de- 
ficiency with rectified instead of proof spirit. Thus a tincture is ob- 
tained of fine flavor, and capable of retaining the quinine in solution. 
Here it might be objected that I am introducing a third strength of 



AM jaa. u r;m3 ARM ' } Silver in Subnitrate of Bism u th , 21 

spirit, and with its complication. This is to some extent true, and I 
should be the last to do so if no practical results were to be gained, 
but it must have occurred to many persons as being somewhat incon- 
sistent that in the B. P. we should have but two strengths of spirit 
(and these more or less arbitrary) as being best capable of dissolving 
and preserving the active principles of the whole materia medica. 

Syrup of Orange Peel.— Most of what I have written with re- 
gard to the tincture from fresh peel will apply to the syrup made from 
that tincture, but with this exception, it does not lose anything of its 
fine aroma by age. Sugar appears to possess a preservative influence, 
and this suggests an experiment worth trying when Seville oranges 
are again in season, viz.: — Take the six ounces of fresh peel and beat 
well with an ounce or two of sugar, before adding the water and spirit 
for producing the tincture ; will it retain its fresh flavor quite un- 
changed ? — Pharm. Journ. and Trans., Nov. 16, 1872. 



THE PRESENCE OF SILVER IN COMMERCIAL. SUBNITRATE OF 
BISMUTH. 
By Charles Ekin, F. C. S. 

In the June number, 1868, of the Pharmaceutical Journal, will be 
found a short paper of mine on " Commercial Bismuth,'' in which I 
pointed out that, whilst the tests given in the Pharmacopoeia for bis- 
muthum purificatum excluded copper, and the process for purifying 
it eliminated arsenic and antimony, no notice was taken of the prob- 
able presence of silver, notwithstanding that it was known that com- 
mercial bismuth frequently contained silver.* 

My attention was again called to the matter by receiving the other 
day from a well-known and highly respectable firm of manufacturing 
-chemists a sample of subnitrate of bismuth, containing so much sil- 
ver that when exposed to the light it became of a deep bluish-black 
tint. I obtained a sample from another firm of at least equal stand- 
ing as manufacturing chemists, and to my surprise I found that even 
this too contained a very appreciable amount of silver. Upon this I 
decided to investigate the matter further, and obtained samples from 
four of the first dispensing houses in the country, for examination. 

Each sample was dissolved in nitric acid, diluted with an equal vol- 
ume of water, the insoluble residue, if any, was collected on a filter, 
well washed first with/liluted nitric acid, and afterwards with w r ater, 
and then treated on the filter with ammonia. The presence of silver 
*See American Journal of Pharmacy, 1871, p. 292. 



22 Silver in Subnitrate of Bismuth. { An j a J n OU M P 873 Rlfe - 

was considered sufficiently proved by the residue on the filter being: 
blackened by exposure to light, by its being soluble in ammonia, and 
giving in its ammoniacal solution a light lemon colored precipitate* 
with iodide of potassium. The chloride was precipitated from the ni- 
tric acid solution and weighed as chloride of silver in the usual way. 
In no case did diluted sulphuric acid give any precipitate, thus show- 
ing the absence of lead. 

Sample 1. The one first mentioned above. A very short exposure 
to light blackened it. Was not examined further, as the manufac- 
turers acknowledged the contamination of silver. 

2. The second sample mentioned above contained much less silver 
than sample 1, but sufficient to give a distinct bluish tint when ex- 
posed to light for two or three days. 

3. Not a subnitrate at all, but a basic subchloride, containing chlo- 
rine equal to 90 per cent, of BiOCl ; not completely soluble in nitric; 
acid, and contained silver. 

4. Contained silver and 3*9 per eent. of subchloride. 

5. Contained traces of subchloride, but no silver. 

6. Traces both of subchloride and silver. 

7. Neither silver nor subchloride. 

8. Contained silver and 4*9 per cent, subchloride. 

9. Neither silver nor subchloride. 

10. Silver and traces of subchloride. 

11. Neither silver nor subchloride. 

12. No silver, but 6*5 per cent, subchloride. 

13. No silver ; traces of subchloride. 

14. No silver ; about one per cent, subchloride. 

15. Neither silver nor subchloride. 

The samples showed great diversity in density and appearance* 
Sample No. 1 was a damp powder, having a strongly acid smell and 
reaction. I am assured by manufacturers that subnitrate prepared 
strictly according to the Pharmacopoeia, after having been kept for 
about two months, developes so much acid as actually to effervesce 
with carbonates. After rewashing, however, it becomes more basic 
and more stable. 

In sample No. 3, obtained from a London dispensing house, the 
substitution by the manufacturer of a subchloride for a subnitrate is 
of course unpardonable. I have understood that, owing to its being 
prepared at a less cost, there is a great deal of subchloride sold as 
subnitrate, but this is the first sample I have ever met with. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
Jan. 1, 1873. J 



Chromic Acid. 



23 



The subchloride in the other samples, although in one instance it 
amounts to as much as 6'5 per cent., I consider to be rather the work 
of careless manufacture than an adulteration. It would appear that 
after the bismuth is dissolved, the silver, which, as we have seen, must 
be frequently present, is precipitated as chloride bj hydrochloric acid, 
and removed by decantation. If this is done carefully, there could 
be no objection to such a process, but that it is not generally done 
carefully is sufficiently proved by the presence of varying quantities 
of subchloride, and in seven samples out of fifteen, of chloride of sil- 
ver. Samples 7, 9 and 11, which are very pure, I find, on inquiry, 
were manufactured by Howards & Sons, Stratford. — Pharm. Journ. 
and Trans. , Nov. y 16, 1872. 



NEW METHOD OF PREPARING CHROMIC ACID * 
By E. Duvillier. 

The chromate of barium is decomposed at a boiling beat, with an 
excess of nitric acid. The almost insoluble nitrate of barium is pre- 
cipitated in a crystalline form, and chromic acid remains in solution. 
The latter is purified by successive evaporations, and by finally treat- 
ing with a suitable quantity of dilute sulphuric acid. 

The process is as follows : Boil for ten minutes 100 parts chromate 
of barium, 100 parts water, 110 parts nitric acid, sp. gr. 40° B. 

The water should first be poured on the chromate of barium to form 
a kind of magma, and the nitric acid added afterward. This is im- 
portant, because, if the opposite order is followed, the result is not 
as good, and the nitrate of barium formed incloses in it chromate of 
barium. 

To the red liquor add 200 parts of water, and allow it to boil for 
ten minutes. The nitrate of barium settles rapidly when left quiet. 

The supernatant liquid, when cold, contains 4 parts of nitrate of 
barium to 100 of soluble substances. This is decanted and evaporated 
to nearly the volume of the acid used. During this operation the 
greater part of the dissolved nitrate of barium is precipitated, and 
when the liquid cools chromic acid is obtained, containing only 0'5 per 
cent, of nitrate of barium. 

The excess of nitric acid is expelled by evaporating nearly to dry- 

* Translated for the Journal of Applied Chemistry from Dingler's Polytech- 
nisches Journal. 



24 



Chloroform as Solvent, etc. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Jan. 1, 1873. 



ness, adding water, and repeating the operation several times, until a 
stopper with ammonia no longer gives white fumes. The sufficiently 
concentrated chromic acid crystallizes in black warts, exactly similar 
to the plates obtained in a vacuum by Bolley's method. In this way 
chromic acid, sufficiently pure for most uses, can be prepared in a few 
hours. 

To obtain a perfectly pure product it is only necessary to precipi- 
tate the remainder of the barium by adding a sufficient quantity of 
sulphuric acid to the boiling solution. 

This method possesses the advantage over all those previously de- 
scribed of quickly furnishing all the chromic acid contained in the 
chromate of barium used, and also that the acid is absolutely pure. 
It can also be employed on a large scale by observing the above-given 
proportions. The excess of acid would then be collected in a suit- 
able distilling apparatus so as to use it for another operation. The 
nitrate of barium could be used in making the chromate of barium, 
so that no loss would be sustained. 



CHLOROFORM AS SOLVENT FOR AND MEANS OF SEPARAT- 
ING POISONOUS YEGETABLE SUBSTANCES IN FORENSIC 
INVESTIGATIONS. 

I. Nowak has instituted a series of experiments which prove that 
chloroform quickly and perfectly extracts the following long list of 
vegetable substances from alkaline solutions, viz. : Strychnia, quin- 
ia, quinidia, chinchonia, caffeina, theobromina, emetina, atropia, 
hyoscyamia, aconitina, veratrina, physostigmia, narcotina, codeina, 
thebaina, nicotina and conia. It dissolves brucia, colchicia and 
papaverina more slowly. Sabadillia is only taken up by it when 
warm, while narceina is taken up from alkaline solutions in small 
quantities only. Picrotoxin is acted upon by chloroform more readily 
from acid than alkaline solutions. Morphia and solania do not 
dissolve in chloroform, either from acid or alkaline solutions. 

Further experiments also show that all those substances which are 
taken up by chloroform from aqueous alkaline solutions are again 
given up by it on shaking repeatedly with acidulated water, while 
fatty and other foreign substances mixed with them remain in the 
chloroform. A systematic course of search for poisonous vegetable 
substances, founded upon the above facts, was instituted, and its prac- 
ticability tested by actual experiments as follows: A weighed quantity 



<SLm Jour. Pharm. ) 
Jan. 1, 1872. J 



Vanillic Acid. 



25 



of different poisons was mixed with pieces of flesh selected for the 
purpose, and then tested for. The results obtained showed that in 
many cases the whole quantity of the poison mixed with the flesh was 
recovered, and in most cases the greater part was found. The results 
gave general satisfaction, especially on account of the great purity of 
the alkaloids obtained from the chloroform, so that the reactions for 
Identifying them could be made at once. — Journ. App. Chem., Dec, 
1872. 



VANILLIC ACID.* 
By P. Carles. 

After being preserved for a certain time vanilla generally becomes 
covered with crystalline needles. As this crystallization is considered 
to be a mark of good quality, sometimes it is sought to impart it to 
inferior vanilla, and this is done by simply putting some of the crys- 
tals already formed into the case containing it. The chemical compo- 
sition of this efflorescence does not, however, appear to be perfectly 
understood. 

Formerly, and the error has been repeated in recent works, Vogel 
asserted that it consisted of benzoic or cinnamic acid ; Wittstein 
thought it to be coumarin. M. Vee,f comparing the melting-points 
of these various substances, detected the error and showed that it was 
a peculiar acid. About the same time, M. GobleyJ investigated the 
-chemical characters of these crystals, compared them with coumarin, 
and proposed for them the name vanillin, or aromatic principle of 
vanilla. Later, in Germany, Stokkebye§ took up the subject. He 
fixed the melting-point at 82° C, instead of 76° C. (Gobley), or 78° 
O. (Yee), and in virtue of its acid properties called it vanillic acid. 
Finally,- while Gobley had attributed to it the formula C 20 H 6 O 4 , Stok- 
kebye represented it by C 34 H 22 O 20 .|| These differences in the formulae 
and melting-points attributed to it seemed to show that even if their 
authors examined the same crystals, they were at least not of equal 
purity. M. Carles was therefore induced to undertake the present 
investigation. 

Instead of extracting the vanillic acid directly from the vanilla, M. 

* Abstract of paper in L'Union Pharmaceatique, xiii, 294. 
f Journ. de Pharm. et de Cliimie, [3] xxxiv, 412. 
% Ibid., 404. 

I Zeitschrif't fur Chemie, 1865, p. 467. 

'jj These formulae are according to the old notation, 



26 



Vanillic Acid. 



( Am. Jour. Phabj®. 
\ Jan. 1, 1873. 



Carles preferred to purify the deposit found at the bottom of the cases 
in which vanilla had been kept. From a mixture of specimens from 
various sources he made a concentrated aqueous solution by boiling,, 
and after the addition of animal charcoal, passed it through a moist- 
ened filter. Upon cooling, the acid was deposited, and it was submit- 
ted to two or three successive crystallizations. If cooled slowly the* 
crystals appeared as colorless transparent prisms, sometimes more 
than two centimetres long. When fresh and very pure their odor 
was very feeble, but was increased by heat, and their taste was- 
piquant. Vanillic acid, so obtained, melts at between 80° C. and 81° 
C. Heated on platinum foil, it volatilizes without decomposition, but 
it distils with difficulty in a retort at about 280° C. It is very solu- 
ble in cold alcohol, ether, chloroform, sulphide of carbon, and the 
fixed and volatile oils. Water at 15° C. dissolves 1-2 per cent., but in 
boiling water it is very soluble. It decomposes the bicarbonates with, 
effervescence ; and saturates perfectly the alkaline bases in the cold,, 
and the earth bases with heat. Pure concentrated sulphuric acid turns 
it yellow in the cold, but if the acid contain traces of nitric acid a. 
scarlet color is produced, and the same result follows with pure sul- 
phuric acid and resinous crystals. Dilute nitric acid attacks it feebly^ 
but concentrated quickly converts it into oxalic acid. Chlorine, bro- 
mine, and iodine yield products of substitution. It is precipitated by 
acids from concentrated aqueous or alcoholic alkaline solutions with 
little evident modification, even after being exposed for several hours 
to a temperature of 100° C. It colors the persalts of iron blue, re- 
duces nitrate of silver and is precipitated plentifully by the acetates 
of lead. Its formula is given by M. Carles as C 16 EI 8 6 (C s H 8 0. d ). 

Found. Calculated. 
I. II. 
Carbon, . . 63-14 63-13 63-15 

Hydrogen, . . 5-55 5-69 5-26 

The author describes the following compounds of vanillic acid ob- 
tained by him : 

Vanillate of Lead (C 16 H 7 Pb0 6 ). — Tufts of white crystals radiating, 
from a common centre, deposited upon cooling after mixing a hot 
aqueous solution of vanillic acid and a solution of neutral acetate of 
lead. 

Vanillate of Magnesia (C 16 H 7 Mg0 6 ).— Colorless, inodorous crystals 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Jan 1, 1873. j 



New Quinimetric Process. 



27 



slightly soluble in cold water, insoluble in alcohol and ether. Ob- 
tained easily by double decomposition between fresh vanillate of 
baryta and sulphate of magnesia, or by saturating a boiling solution 
of vanillic acid with magnesia hydrate or carbonate, and allowing to 
cool slowly. 

Vanillate of Zinc (C 16 H 7 Zn0 6 ). — Deposited in white crystals upon 
cooling a hot solution of vanillic acid, saturated by oxide or carbonate 
of zinc. Slightly soluble in boiling water. 

Iodine Compounds (C 16 H 7 IO G and C 16 H 6 T 2 G ). — The first consisting 
of white pearly crystals of faint odor, slightly soluble in alcohol and 
ether, melting at 74° and subliming without decomposition, was 
deposited after some hours from a mixture of 2 grams of vanillic acid 
dissolved in 50 grams of water and 1*5 gram of iodine dissolved in 50 
grams of alcohol. The second was obtained when iodine was used in 
excess, also as pearly crystals. It is slightly soluble in boiling water, 
insoluble in cold chloroform, soluble in hot ether and alcohol. 

Bromine Compound (C 16 H 6 B 2 6 ). — Pearly, yellowish, odorless crys- 
tals, very slightly soluble in water, more so in alcohol, ether and chlo- 
roform, obtained by gradually adding slight excess of bromine to a. 
concentrated aqueous solution of vanillic acid, and crystallizing the 
precipitate first from alcohol and then from boiling water. 

Vanillic acid being ignited with potash, and the mass afterwards 
treated with water, hydrochloric acid and ether yielded small white 
inodorous prismatic crystals, which product the author considers to be- 
a new acid and proposes to call oxyvanillic acid, with the formula 
C 18 H 8 8 . When vanillic acid was heated in a sealed tube with hydri- 
odic acid, the methyl-hydriodic was obtained. 

From these experiments M. Carles is led to conclude that the efflo- 
rescence on vanilla is neither of the substances that have heretofore 
been described, but is a peculiar acid, isomeric with anisic, formoben- 
zoic, methylsalicyclic, creasotic, oxytoluic, and many other acids. — - 
Pharm. Journ., Lond., Nov. 23, 1872. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW QUINIMETRIC PROCESS. 
By P. Carles. 

Having ascertained, by experiment, that the quinimetric methods in 
use are not suited for extracting, in a sufficiently pure state to admit of 



"28 



New Quinimetric Process. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Jan. 1, 1873. 



"weighing, all the quinia contained in the cinchona barks (the decoc- 
tion method extracts coloring matter and changes the active princi- 
ples, while the lixiviation process yields very weak liquors, in which 
a portion of the alkaloids are kept in solution), I have devised a method 
which may be carried out as follows : — A good average sample of the 
bark is ground to powder, and passed through a fine horse-hair sieve ; 
20 grms. of this powder are intimately mixed with from 6 to 8 grms. 
of slaked lime, mixed with 35 grms. of water, and the mixture of 
quina bark and pasty lime dried at a gentle heat ; the cake thus 
formed is reduced to a coarse powder and pressed into a conically- 
shaped glass tube (or a funnel with stop-cock and glass stopper) ; 
chloroform is then gradually poured on to the contents, care being 
taken to cork the tube at the top ; 150 grms. of chloroform will be a 
sufficient quantity, but it is best to ascertain if the bark is exhausted 
by evaporating a few drops of the last portion of the chloroform in a 
porcelain basin ; the residue should be treated first with dilute sul- 
phuric acid, and next with chlorine water and ammonia. The chlo- 
roform which adheres to the mixture of lime and bark is displaced by 
the addition of water, and the fluid is next evaporated upon a water- 
bath until a dry residue is left. If desired to save the chloroform, it 
can be distilled off in a retort upon a water-bath : the distillation 
should not, however, be carried on to dryness, but the remainder of the 
fluid is to be evaporated to dryness in a porcelain capsule, and then 
treated with dilute sulphuric acid. The solid dry residue consists of 
the alkaloids of the bark, mixed with about their own weight of waxy- 
. resinous {cereo resineux) matters ; the alkaloids are taken up by dilute 
sulphuric acid (1 to 10), of which fluid from 10 to 12 c. c. are sufficient. 
This solution is filtered through a very small, previously moistened, 
filter, and the filtrate is colorless ; the filtrate is next heated to 100° 
upon a water bath, and, when hot, ammonia — at first concentrated, 
afterwards dilute — is added, so as to cause the filtrate to become very 
nearly saturated, — to be left very slightly acid ; all the quinia will 
then crystallize in the shape of sulphate. This crystallization pro- 
ceeds rapidly, and the peculiar odor emitted by the fluid, as well as 
the aspect of the crystals, are of some value in ascertaining before- 
hand the quality of the bark operated upon. When the liquid has 
become completely cold the crystalline matter forms a solid cake, 
which has only to be placed upon a double filter for the purpose of 
draining : the mother-liquor is displaced by a few drops of water, 



Am. Jouk. Pharm. \ 
Jan. 1, 1873. J 



New Quinimetric Process. 



29> 



after which the mass is gently pressed, dried, and weighed.* If the 
mother-liquor is found to be very acid, ammonia in slight excess* 
should be added, for the purpose of precipitating the rest of the' qui- 
nia. The other alkaloids remain in solution, and are next separated 
by precipitation, dried, weighed and tested with washed ether. 

This process is simple and expeditious, and yields good results, the 
quinia being obtained in a colorless state. I quote the following in- 
stances of its working : — (1). A mixture was taken of pure sulphate of* 
quinia, 0*60 ; cinchonia, 0*20 ; dilute sulphuric acid (1 to 10), 10 c.c. ; 
while hot I poured, by means of a pipette, first concentrated and then 
dilute ammonia nearly to saturation : result obtained — sulphate of 
quinia, 0*59 ; cinchonia, 0-22. (2). Sulphate of quinia, 0*50 ;, 
cinchonia, 0.25 : acid at y ff , 10 c. c, found sulphate of quinia 0*52 ;. 
cinchonia, 017. A. Yellow cinchona bark, 20 grms. has yielded per 
1000, by the use of Rabourdin's modified process (see Journ. de 
Pharrnacie, 1861), strongly-colored crystalline sulphate of quinia, 
23.00 ; with Le Maitre's process, somewhat yellow-colored sulphate- 
of quinia, 22.30 ; with my process, colorless sulphate of quinia, 
26-55. B. Yellow cinchona bark, same quantity, by Rabourdin's. 
process, strongly colored crystallised sulphate of quinia (per 1000), 
29-50 ; Le Maitre's process, yellow-colored sulphate, 26*75 ; my pro- 
cess, colorless sulphate, 31*25. Trials with other kind of bark yielded 
similar results, but I should mention that the separation of the qui- 
nia as sulphate only succeeds well when the quantity of quinia in* 
the bark greatly exceeds the cinchonia. 

To exhibit the effect of an excess of cinchonia I quote the follow- 
ing : — Sulphate of quinia, 0.40; cinchonia, 0*60; acid 10 c.c.,' 
yielded — sulphate of quinia, 0.58 (mixed with cinchonia) ; cincho- 
nia, 0*48 : the impure sulphate of quinia thus obtained may be 
purified, re-crystallised and tested with ether and ammonia. 

As sulphate of quinia is completely insoluble in a solution of 
sulphate of ammonia, there is no fear of any of the sulphate of qui- 
nia being left in the mother-liquor if the saturation with ammonia 
is sufficiently complete. To prove this experimentally, take a small 
quantity of sulphate of quinia, shake it up in a test-tube three parts, 
filled with cold distilled water, filter and add to the filtrate a few crys- 

*It is preferable to dry at 100°, and, after having weighed, to add the 12 per 
cent of water lost by the operation ; in that condition it contains 75 per cent., 
quinia. 



30 Cochineal Production in Cent, America. { AM j a n T;i873 ARM ' 

tals of sulphate of ammonia. After a few minutes the liquid will 
become a pasty mass : this is filtered, and not a trace of sulphate of 
quinia is found in the filtrate. — Chern. News, Nov. 8, from Bull. Soc. 
€him % , Paris. 



COCHINEAL PRODUCTION IN CENTRAL AMERICA* 
The insect is preserved during the winter upon branches cut off from 
the cactus, and ranged in long, narrow buildings, called almacenes, 
erected for the purpose. The roof of these buildings is from a yard 
to a yard and a-half wide, and for the first six weeks the front, which 
is open, is covered with a screen made of cotton cloth, to protect the 
young insect from a sort of fly that lays an egg among them, which 
in a few days turns into a caterpillar, and does a great deal of mis- 
chief, devouring a large quantity of the young animals ; after that 
period they are left open to the sun and air. It is so arranged that 
the insects begin to breed in the beginning of October, about which 
time the rains cease in Amatitlan, though somewhat later in the vi- 
cinity and most other parts of the State. The insect is carefully re- 
moved from the cactus as soon as it begins to deposit its young, and 
put into small, square pieces of muslin, calico, or the bark of a de- 
scription of palm-tree, the latter being cheaper and much more pre- 
ferable for the month of October, as it does not fall together when 
damp, like a cotton fabric. The four corners are pinned together 
with the thorn of a bush (a species of Mimosa), which is very abun- 
dant in the neighborhood. After about a hundred of the insects have 
been put in, one of these packets, called by the natives cartuchc, is 
attached to each leaf or two, or one to each side between two leaves, 
which latter method is generally preferred. If the weather is fine 
and warm, the insect breeds so quickly, that in a few hours each leaf 
contains a sufficient quantity of the small insect, when the bag must 
be removed and attached to another leaf; for if it is left too long, the 
leaf becomes too thickly covered with young insects, which, from being 
so numerous cannot obtain nourishment, and never attaining the 
proper size, produce, when dried, a small grained and very inferior 
cochineal called granilla, which is not worth more than half the price 
of the proper quality. As the cactus is always planted in rows of a 
certain length, it is usual to cover at one time the leaves of one 
or more rows with the bags containing the mother insect, and 

* Abridged from the Journal of Applied Science. 



AM jin. r i;m3. RM '} Cochineal Production in Cent. America. 31 

when they are sufficiently covered with the young animal, called 
<peojillia, to remove and attach them to other rows of cactus. This 
may be done once every day, if the weather is fine ; but if it is windy 
and cold, they have often to remain three or four days without mov- 
ing, for the wind blows away the insects as they creep out of the bag, 
and prevents them from attaching themselves to the leaves. The 
insect does not breed so fast if the weather is chilly, and a large por- 
tion is often killed on the leaves ; even a heavy dew will destroy 
many at the first stage. In the October seeding in Amatitlan, when 
it is never required to load the plant, the weather being fine, and the 
mother cochineal in a thriving state, the bags may often be shifted 
ten or twelve times before it has done breeding; but if the weather 
be at all unfavorable, or the mother cochineal in a sickly state, or too 
soon or too late gathered, it cannot be shifted nearly so often. 

When the mother cochineal has done breeding, or when the young 
insect begins to be sickly and of a dark red color, the bags are taken 
off, and their contents shaken out and dried in the sun ; and when 
sifted, they form what is denominated in the country zaceatilla, and 
in England " black cochineal," which always fetches a higher price 
than the silver cochineal, the name given to it when the insect is dried 
before commencing to breed. During the first stage of its growth, as 
already remarked, the young insect is very easily injured ; but when 
about ten days old, it is not nearly so easily destroyed. Still, as 
heavy showers of rain sometimes occur in October, it is nothing rare 
for the cochineal grower to find nearly all his labor and outlay lost, 
and a great part of his crop destroyed in a few minutes ; but when 
such misfortunes occur, all the growers suffer nearly equally, conse- 
quently the price is enhanced, and the loss is in some degree compen- 
sated by the increased value of what remains. In Amatitlan, such 
-accidents only occur to the first crop, seeded in October, the greater 
part of the produce of which is always used for seeding the cochineal 
•estates in old Guatemala in the month of January, and, when the 
crop is not large, fetches a much higher price than it would be worth 
if dried for exportation. In about twenty days after the young in- 
sect has attached itself to the leaf, it changes its skin, which is called 
the first muda (change or transformation) ; and in about a month 
more it again undergoes the same process, at each of which periods 
it slightly shifts its position on the leaf. At the time of the second 
change the male makes its appearance in the shape of a very small 



32 Cochineal Production in Gent. America. { AM j; f n.T,'m3. aiCL 

fly, but how it is produced is, strange to say, not quite determined,. 
All the natives, and even the foreigners, in Guatemala, who state* 
that they have made experiments for the purpose of ascertaining it„ 
assert that it is produced" by the female at the second change — that i& 
to say, about the middle of its growth ; but this would appear quite 
impossible from all data in natural history. 

I had not leisure to make proper experiments, but an intelligent. 
North American gentleman, a doctor by profession, who had done so,, 
informed me, that previously to, and some time after the second trans- 
formation or casting of its skin, the male and female insects are nearly 
equal in number, and cannot be distinguished on the leaf ; but, that 
about fifteen days after the first transformation, all the male grubs 
change into chrysalids, interring themselves in a downy covering, and 
weaving a small thread, let go their hold of the leaf, and hang by it 
for about fifteen days more, when the female is in the second change. 
About this time the chrysalis hatches, and the male makes it appear- 
ance as stated ; and almost immediately after impregnating the fe- 
male, falls off the leaf and dies. When the smallest quantity of rain 
occurs about this period, the males are washed off before the females 
are impregnated, and the insect is barren. 

In from eighty to ninety days, according to the nature of the 
weather, the cochineal insect attains its full growth in Amatitlan., 
and commences to breed. It is then left upon the leaf long enough 
to produce a sufficient quantity of young insects for the second crop, 
which attach themselves to the same leaves, and in the same manner 
as the first ; and the full-grown insect is removed by touching it with 
a small piece of cane, and offered for sale in flat baskets, each con- 
taining about twelve pounds weight of the insect. The greater part 
of the crop is sent, as before stated, to Old Guatemala for the purpose 
of seeding the cochineal estates there. This process is nearly iden- 
tical with that of the October seeding, in Amatitlan, already de- 
scribed, only that a larger quantity of the insects are allowed to at- 
tach themselves to the leaves ; and some parties attach the mother 
cochineal in small pieces of reed instead of bark or cloth. 

In Old Guatemala all the cochineal estates are seeded but once in 
the year, from the beginning of the month of January to the middle 
of February ; but as the climate there is considerably colder than in 
Amatitlan, the insect does not obtain its full size, so as to be fit for 
gathering, in less than a hundred days after it has attached itself to> 



\ 



A ^a J n°T,'i8?3 RM '} Cochineal Production in Cent. America. 33 

the plant ; and as the rainy season often commences in the beginning 
of May, a great part of the crop is frequently lost by being washed 
off by the rains before it is fit for gathering. In Amatitlan the sec- 
ond crop is ready for getting in eighty days after the first has been 
gathered, and is therefore always got in before the rains commence, 
which certainly gives it great advantages over Old Guatemala ; but 
the second crop is always much smaller grained and worth considera- 
bly less than the first. Labor is also much dearer in Amatitlan 
than Old Guatemala, and an estate of equal extent costs at least twice 
as much to keep it in order — the wages in the former place being 2J 
to 3 reals (equal to Is. 3d. to Is. 6d.) per day, and in the latter, 1J 
reals (equal to 9d). Beside this, the cactus and cochineal insect have 
a number of enemies in Amatitlan which do not exist in Old Guate- 
mala. The principal injury to the former is sustained from a species 
of large ant, called senpope, which eats all the young shoots of the 
cactus, so as to prevent its increasing. The nests of this insect are 
very large, and sometimes extend to a depth of twenty feet in the 
ground, along which they run for some fifteen or twenty yards, and 
the insects are often so numerous, that if let alone they will entirely 
destroy a cochineal estate. The natives have no means of destroying 
them, except digging them out of the ground; and though I discovered 
a means of poisoning them by pouring into their holes water in 
which a small quantity of corrosive sublimate had been dissolved, I 
do not suppose that the discovery will generally be made use of by 
the inhabitants, who are too stupid and ignorant to understand any- 
thing not palpable to the eye. 

The principal enemies of the cochineal insect are three sorts cf cat - 
erpillars, called by the natives " gusanos" (worms); the most common 
resembles an ordinary caterpillar, and is produced from the egg of a 
small fly, in shape like a wasp, but without a sting. These are some- 
times so numerous that two or three may be seen on each leaf of the 
•cactus, and if not speedily taken off, will, in a month — the period of 
their existence — eat up nearly all the cochineal insects. Another 
sort spin a web, with which, they entangle the insect and destroy it ; 
and the third, called " anguilla" (the eel), which is by far the most 
destructive, moves over the leaf like an earthworm, eating all the in- 
sects, when small, with surprising rapidity, and transferring itself to 
another leaf, proceeds as before. Luckily this last mentioned species 
only makes its appearance in soma years, and is never nearly so nu- 
merous as the first named. No means have yet been found of de- 

3 



M Cochineal Production in Cent. America. { AM jS* 

stroying these caterpillars, except employing people to pick them off, 
which is done at so much for every twenty grubs, according to their 
abundance or scarcity, the price being seldom under what is equiva- 
lent to a half-penny for each twenty, or above one penny for that 
number. Still, when the grubs are very numerous, it is sometimes 
necessary to abandon the crop of cochineal, which is not worth the 
expense of picking off the caterpillars ; this of course is, however, a 
rare occurrence, and never happens to the whole of an estate of any 
size. 

With all its objections cochineal growing has certainly been more 
profitable in Amatitlan than in Old Guatemala, or any other place 
yet discovered. Nearly all the cultivators in Amatitlan are well off ? 
and many who were without means a few years ago, are now rich for 
Central America, having a fortune of from 10,000 to 30,000 dollars; 
while nearly all who have attempted the cultivation in Old Guatemala 
have been ruine'd, and very lew have realized any money. Still the 
supposed fatality of the climate of Amatitlan has so great an effect 
as not only to raise enormously the price which must be paid to the 
workpeople to induce them to do the necessary labor, but keeps the 
value of cochineal estates rather lower than in Old Guatemala. 

The second crop of cochineal is fit for gathering in Amatitlan from 
the end of March to the 20th of April ; and the crop in Old Guate- 
mala from the middle of April till the 10th or 20th of May, accord- 
ing to the season. Nearly the whole of both these crops are dried 
and cleaned for exportation to Europe, of which they are the princi- 
pal source of supply. But a small number of insects are preserved, 
and being put into small bags, similar to those before described, are 
attached to leaves carefully ranged upon shelves under the long nar- 
row buildings, called almacenes, the leaves being seeded in a similar 
manner to the growing plants. The insects attain their full size and 
commence to breed again in about ninety days, which brings it to the 
month of July, when those so reared are gathered and attached in the 
same manner to fresh leaves of the cactus, ranged under cover as be- 
fore ; this crop is again ready for gathering in the month of October, 
when the rains cease in Amatitlan, and is sold for seeding the cochi- 
neal estates. The price being regulated by the supply, as compared 
with the demand, is but little affected by the value of dry cochineal ; 
the live insect being always then worth at least three or four times its 
value in the months of April or May, when it is dried for exportation. 
A good cochineal estate requires, in the month of October, from 100 



AM jin; i8^ M '} Cochineal Production in Gent America. 35 

to 140 pounds of the live mother insect to seed each mansana of 100 
Spanish or 89j English yards square, and each pound of the insect 
so used ought, if the weather be good and all circumstances favorable, 
to produce 8 lbs. in the crop time. The January seeding in Old Gua- 
temala being much heavier, as only one crop is there taken, from 150 
to 170 lbs. are generally used to seed each mansana. In Amatitlan^ 
the first crop collected in January generally yields from 800 to 1,200 
lbs. of the live insect from each mansana of cactus in a really good 
estate, which is sold at from 2J to 8 reals (Is. 3d., to 4s. sterling) a 
pound, according to the demand and the abundance of the crop, &c, 
but the first crop is, one year with another, calculated to pay all the 
expenses of weeding and managing the estate, and the cost of the 
seed cochineal insect and labor of seeding it, &c. The second crop 
is always dried, and each mansana will yield from 1,800 to 2,700 lbs. 
of the insect and from 600 to 900 lbs. of dry cochineal, which is con- 
sidered to be the net profit of the cultivation. 

In Old Guatemala, each mansana ought to give 3,150 to 4,050 lbs. 
of the live insect, and 1,050 to 1.350 lbs of dry cochineal ; three 
pounds of the live insect yielding as nearly as possible one of dry 
cochineal. 

The cost of production in Old Guatemala one year with another, 
allowing for the current losses from rain, &c, is rated at 4 reals (or 
2s. sterling) per pound. The cochineal insect, when not intended for 
breeding, is, as soon as gathered, spread out very thin upon fiat shal- 
low trays made of cane and covered with cotton cloth, and put into 
stoves constructed on purpose, each capable of containing from 100 
to 200 baskets, and either heated by burning charcoal put into large 
clay vessels made on purpose, or by a small brick flue into which wood 
can be put and lighted from the outside (the former method is the 
most costly and tedious, but gives the finest colored cochineal). When 
completely dry it is sifted, cleaned and packed in bales covered with 
an untanned ox-hide, containing 150 lbs., in which state it is sent to 
Europe for sale. During the wet season a cochineal estate requires 
almost constant attention in cleaning and keeping down the weeds, 
and this must be done at least five times in the year in Amatitlan, or 
the cactus will be injured ; though in Old Guatemala not more than 
two or three cleanings are given. The cactus must also be pruned 
at least twice in the year, once at the commencement of the rearing 
season in May, to make it sprout strongly, and again at the com- 
mencement of the dry season in October, when it is necessary to re- 



36 



Varieties. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Jan. 1, 1873. 



move the long shoots, which would by their weight break down the 
cactus, and to trim the plants so as to give them an equal weight and 
form. 



baviettcs. 



TJie International Exposition at Vienna, Austria, which will take place du- 
ring the coming summer, ia attracting considerable attention throughout the 
United States. The following, which we copy from the ''Journal of Applied 
Chemistry," has special reference to that group which will contain the crude 
articles and manufactured products of the drug business, and which, it is to be 
hoped, will not lack in variety and completeness : 

At a meeting of citizens of New York, convened upon invitation of General 
Thos. B. Van Buren, United States Commissioner, to devise measures to pro- 
mote the objects of the approaching Exhibition at Vienna in 1873, it was 
resolved to appoint an Advisory Committee, to consist of one member for each 
group, upon whom should devolve the duty of arousing public attention to 
the importance of securing a creditable representation of the resources and 
products of the United States in Austria. 

The undersigned, having been requested to take charge of the Department of 
Chemical Industry, begs leave to call the attention of all persons interested in 
the subject to the classification of the Austrian Commissioners given below, 
and to solicit specimens for transmission to Vienna, in the event of an appro- 
priation being made by Cougress to pay the expenses of transportation. 

CLASSIFICATION OF THE IMPERIAL COMMISSIONERS. GROUP 3. CHEMICAL INDUSTRY. 

(a) Chemical products for technical and pharmaceutical purposes — acids, 
salts, chemical preparations of all sorts. 

(b) Haw substances and products of pharmacy, mineral waters, &c. 

(c) Fats and their products — steariu, oil acids, glycerin, soaps, candles and 
tapers. &c. 

(d) Products of dry distillation, as refined petroleum, slate oil, paraffin, 
phenylic acid, benzin, aniliu, &c. 

(e) Etherial oils and perfumeries. 
(/) Matches, &<?. 

(g) Dyestuffs, mineral and organic. 

(h) Resins (washed, dyed or bleached), sealing wax, varnish, albumen, isin- 
glass, glue, starches, dextrin, &c. 

(e) Contrivances and processes used in chemical productions. 
(A:) Statistics of production. 

Application for permission to exhibit, inclosing statistics of production, should 
be addressed to General Thos. B. Van Buren, United States Commissioner, 
No. 51. Chambers street, New York, or to Charles F. Chandler, Ph. D., Chair- 
man of Group 3, Advisory Committe, School of Mines, Columbia College, For- 
ty-ninth street, corner Fourth avenue, New York. 

The following gentlemen will be consulted upon questions relating to Chemical 
Industry. 

Dr. M. Alsberg, Brooklyn, N. Y. Prof. James C. Booth. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Prof. J. H. Appleton, Providence, R. I. C. Elton Buck, Esq , Wilmington, Del. 
Prof. Geo. F. Barker, New Haven, Ct. Prof. G. C. Caldwell, Ph. D.,Ithaca,N.Y. 
William T. Blodgett, Esq., New York. Prof. W. H. Chandler, Bethlehem, Pa. 



Am. Joor. Pharm. > 
Jan. 1, 1873. j 



Varieties. 



37 



Prof. Albert H. Chester, E.M., Clinton, 
N. Y. 

Bela P. Clapp, Esq., Pawtucket, R. I. 
Peter Cooper, Esq., New York. 
Prof. R. Ogden Doremus, New York. 
Prof. Silas H. Douglass, Ann Arbor, 
Mich. 

Samuel Downer, Esq., Boston, Mass. 
Prof. John C. Draper, New York. 
William Duryea, Esq., New York. 
Edward P. Eastwick, Esq., Boston 
Mass. 

Prof. A. E. Foote, Ames, Iowa. 

Prof. F. A. Genth, Philadelphia. 

G. W Gesner, Esq., New York. 

Prof. Wolcott Gibbs, Cambridge, Mass, 

Prof. C. A. Goessman, Amherst, Mass. 

Wm. M. Habirshaw, Esq., N ew York. 

James L. Harway, Esq., New York. 

S. Dana Hayes, Esq., Boston, Mass. 

Prof. B. S. Hedrick, Washington, D.C. 

Prof. Eugene W. Hilgard, Ph.D., Ox- 
ford, Miss. 

Joseph Hirsh. Esq., Chicago, 111. 

Charles W. Hull, Esq.. New York. 

Prof. S. W. Johnson, New Haven, Ct. 

Prof. Charles A. Joy, New York. 

Martin Kalbfieisch, Esq , Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 

M. Lacour, Esq., New York. 



Jas. F. Magee, Esq., Philadelphia, Pa, 

Prof. Jno. M. Maisch, Philadelphia, Pa- 
Prof. John W. Mallett, University of 
Virginia, Va. 

Joshua Merrill, Esq., Boston, Mass. 

R. G. Mitchell, Esq., New York. 

Dr. James R. Nichols, Boston, Mass. 

Prof. John M. Ordway, Boston, Mass, 

C. C Parsons, Esq., St. Louis, Mo. 

H. Pemberton, Esq., Natrona, Pa. 

Charles Pfeizer, Esq., New York. 

Prof, W. B. Rising, Oakland, Cal. 

|Carl. H. Schultz, Esq,, New York. 

I Prof. Paul Schweitzer, Columbia, Mo. 

J Prof. Chas. A. Seely, New York. 

;Prof. B. Silliman, New Haven, Conn. 

Prof. J. Lawrence Smith, Louisville, Ky. 

Dr. Edward R. Squibb, Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Prof. F. H. Storer, Roxbury, Mass. 

B. Tilghman, Esq., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Prof. S. D. Tillman, New York. 

Dr. John Torrey, New York. 

John Tracy, Jr., Esq., New York. 

David K.Tnttle,Ph.D.. Baltimore, Md. 

Dr. Isidor Walz, New York. 

Prof. Cyrus M. Warren, Boston, Mass. 

William Weightman, Esq., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Prof. T. G. Wormley, Columbus, Ohio. 
Prof. Henry Wurz, New York. 



The International Exposition at Philadelphia in 187G. — The United States 
Centennial Commission has issued the following address relating to the contem- 
plated international exposition : 

Tothe People of the United States: — The Congress of the United States has 
enacted that the completion of the One Hundredth Year of American Inde- 
pendence shall be celebrated by an International Exhibition of the Arts, Manu- 
factures and Products of the soil and mine, to be held at Philadelphia, in 1876, 
and has appointed a Commission, consisting of representatives from each State 
and Territory, to conduct the celebration. 

Originating under the auspices of the National Legislature, controlled by a 
National Commission, and designed as it is to " Commemorate the first Cen- 
tury of our existence, by an Exhibition of the Natural resources of the Country 
and their development, and of our progress in those Arts which benefit man- 
kind, in comparison with those of older Nations," it is to the people at large 
that the Commission look for the aid which is necessary to make the Centennial 
Celebration the grandest anniversary the world has ever seen. 

That the completion of the first century of our existence should be marked by 
some imposing demonstration is, we believe, the patriotic wish of the people of 
the whole country. The Congress of the United States has wisely decided that 
the Birth-day of the Great Republic can be most fittingly celebrated by the 
universal collection and display of all the trophies of its progress. It is designed 
to bring together, within a building covering fifty acres, not only the varied 
productions of our miues and of the soil, but types of all the intellectual tri- 
umphs of our citizens, specimens of everything that America can furnish, whe- 
ther from the brains or the hands of her children, and thus make evident to the 
world the advancement of which a self-governed people is capable. 

In this " Celebration" all nations will be invited to participate ; its character 



38 



Varieties. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 Jan. 1, 1873. 



being International. Europe will display her arts and manufactures, India her 
curious fabrics, while newly opened China and Japan will lay bare the treasures 
which for centuries their ingenious people have been perfecting. Each land 
will compete in generous rivalry for the palm of superior excellence. 

To this grand gathering every zone will contribute its fruits and cereals. No 
mineral shall be wanting; for what the East lacks the West will supply. Un- 
der one roof will the South display in rich luxuriance her growing cotton, and 
the North, in miniature, the ceaseless machinery of her mills, converting that 
cotton into cloth. Each section of the globe will send its best offerings to this 
exhibition, and each State of the Union, as a member of one united body poli- 
tic, will show to her sister States and to the world how much she can add to 
the greatness of the nation of which she is a harmonious part. 

To make the Centennial Celebration such a success as the patriotism and 
the pride of every American demands will require the co-operation of the peo- 
ple of the whole country. The United States Centennial Commission has 
received no Government aid, such as England extended to her World's Fair, 
and France to her Universal Exposition, yet the labor and responsibility im- 
posed upon the Commission is as great as in eilher of those undertakings. It 
is estimated that ten millions of dollars will be required, and this sum Congress 
has provided shall be raised by stock subscription, and that the people shall 
have the opportunity of subscribing in proportion to the population of their 
respective States and Territories. 

The Commission looks to the unfailing patriotism of the people of every sec- 
tion, to see that each contributes its share to the expenses, and receives its 
share of the benefits of an enterprise in which all are so deeply interested. It 
would further earnestly urge the formation in each State and Territory of a 
centennial organization, which shall in time see that county associations are 
formed, so that when the nations are gathered together in 1876 each Common- 
wealth can view with pride the contributions she has made to the national 
glory. 

Confidently relying on the zeal and patriotism ever displayed by our people 
in every national undertaking, we pledge and prophecy that the Centennial 
Celebration will worthily show how greatness, wealth and intelligence can be 
fostered by such institutions as those which have for one hundred years blessed 
the people of the United States. 

Joseph R. Hawley, President, 

Lewis Waln Smith, Temporary Secretary. 

The Ferris Bringhurst Memorial Fountain. — The following, which we clip 
from the " Delaware Tribune," bears testimony that the unfortunate Ferris 
Bringhurst was as highly appreciated in his native city, Wilmington, as he was 
respected and beloved by a large circle of American pharmacists : 

In memory of and respect for the late Ferris Bringhurst, who, when living, 
was always a leading and unpretentious spirit in some philanthropic work, 
principal among which was the Wilmington Fountain Society, a drinking foun- 
tain of beautiful design has been erected at the intersection of Delaware and 
Pennsylvania avenues. 

The work of erection and finishing was completed November 15th. The 
base is of American gray granite, five feet high, while the column or shaft, 
eleven feet high, is of Aberdeen red granite, of Scotland, similar to that of which 
the Egyptian Obelisks were made, and said to be as durable, and will retain the 
bright polish for centuries. 

The capitol is of gray granite, while the beautiful urn on the top is of red 
Aberdeen granite. On the east side of the base is the following inscription : 
* 4 To the memory of Ferris Bringhurst, First President of the Wilmington 
Fountain Society.'' Another appropriate inscription, on the south side of the 
base, is : " Kindness to God's Creatures is a Service Acceptable to Him." 

The work has been done entirely by private subscription with the exception 



AM j a J rr;i P 87f M "} Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 39 

of a donation of $250 voluntarily made by City Council, the lot being presented 
by Mr. J. Taylor Cause, and the city granting a free use of the water. The 
fountain complete was made by Struthers aod Sons, of Philadelphia, at a cost 
of about $2000. The enclosure is yet to be neatly paved, and will have a neat 
iron railing of a light pattern when finished. 

The work is an appropriate memorial of one whose works were so charitable 
and benevolent, and at the same time so disinterested and unassuming. 



The Colleges of Pharmacy in the United States have larger classes during 
the present session than ever before. The Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 
has within the last seven years more than doubled the number of its students* 
and all other Colleges show similar marks of prosperity — a sure sign that the 
value of the scientific education of pharmacists is being more appreciated now 
than heretofore. 



The New York College of Pharmacy have arranged monthly conversa- 
tional lectures, which will be delivered by Mr. P. Balluff, Dr. E. R. Squibb and 
Professors Day and Chandler. 



The Louisville College of Pharmacy has received a donation to its cabinet 
from Messrs. E. Sachsse & Co., Leipzig, Germany, of 19 specimens of fine es- 
sential oils. The Board of Trustees, at their meeting of Dec. lGth, instructed 
the Corresponding Secretary, by a unanimous vote, to tender, through the 
" American Journal of Pharmacy," their cordial thanks to the said firm for its 
valued gift. Wm. G. Schmidt, Corresponding Sec'ry. 



The Faculty of the California College of Pharmacy has been constituted 
as follows: Max Tschirner. professor of Chemistry; Wm. T. Wenzell, profes- 
sor of Pharmacy : Wm. Searby, professor of Materia Medica, and fl. H. Behr, 
M. D., professor of Botany. 



The Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain held a pharmaceutical 
meeting Dec. 4th, Mr. A. F. Haselden presiding. 

Professor Bentley drew the attention of the meeting to a section of the 
baobab-tree, which had been forwarded to the Society by Mr. Baynes who was 
formerly the artist of the Livingstone expedition. Mr. Baynes stated that the 
bark was used as a substitute for quinia. In most manuals treating of the 
properties and uses of plants, the bark of the baobab-tree was reputed to be 
used medicinally, and as an authentication of that, Mr. Baynes' contribution 
was of value. 

Dr. Paul asked the attention of the meeting to a table which had been for- 
warded by Mr. Ekin, of Bath, in which the nutritive values of various articles of 
food were represented on the basis of the respective percentage of carbon and 
nitrogen. This mode of valuation was somewhat hypothetical, but it afforded a 
fair ground of comparison between different articles of food within certain lim- 
itations. The table was constructed in such a way as to show these comparative 
values graphically. Though the use of graphic formulae in chemistry were not 
to be recommended or regarded as very serviceable, he thought that in a case 



40 



Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 



J Am. Jour. Pharss^ 
t Jan. 1, 1873. 



like the present, and within certain limits, a table of that kind with the graphics 
method of representing fact might be of use. 

Professor Redwood called attention to an apparatus which had been placed 
in the room for the inspection of the members. It was a form of apparatus 
which was very generally used by pharmacists in Germany, and had at his sug- 
gestion been imported by Messrs. Zimmermann & Co., of the City. The appa- 
ratus provided in a small compass means for conducting the various pharma- 
ceutical operations of boiling, distilling, infusing, digesting, etc. 

Mr. Cooper exhibited a specimen of effervescing lozenges, which, "he said, he 
had been some years endeavoring to produce! He was in hopes that by means 
of these lozenges certain medicines might be administered in a more pleasant 
way than by the present methods. 

Professor Redwood remarked that Mr. Cooper seemed to have made an im~ 
portant step in the direction of elegant pharmacy. 

Mr. Cooper added that if these lozenges had been produced twenty years 
ago, homoeopathy would not have held its own. 

Mr. Wootton described several specimens of French elegant pharmacy,, 
which, he observed, were perhaps not very important, though interesting for 
the excellent manner in which they were made. Among those he referred es- 
pecially to some sulphovinate of soda (prepared as described in the Pharma- 
ceutical Journal of last June.) There was also on the table a drop measure,, 
which he said was the neatest thing he had ever seen, and was mathematically 
correct. The section of the tube was three milligrams in diameter. There was 
also a table showing the number of drops to the gram of various liquids, vary- 
ing from water 20 drops, to ether 98 drops to the gram. 

Mr. Williams said that within the last two months considerable demand had 
arisen for croton chloral hydrate, which, although not a new thing, having been, 
introduced two years ago, had not hitherto been much used in medical prac- 
tice in this country. It was stated to be of great value in nervous diseases af- 
fecting the face. It was made by passing dry chlorine into aldehyde, but the- 
first experiments failed ; it was found to be a very difficult body to manufac- 
ture, in consequence of the bad quality of the aldehyde. That prepared by the- 
process usually given was a very impure body, and, in fact, quite unfit for the 
purpose of making croton chloral. He had, therefore, brought a specimen of 
what he believed to be nearly pure aldehyde, a thing he had never seen before, 
and of which he thought few in the room had any knowledge. It was a power- 
tul body, and probably might be recommended for medicinal use. In the first 
place, it had great affinity for oxygen. If a stoppered bottle were half filled 
with it and left for a short time, the stopper would be held so tight that there 
would be a difficulty in removing it, for the whole of the oxygen left in that 
portion of the bottle was absorbed by the aldehyde. They knew very well that 
the spirits of nitre was a very favorite remedy. The Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia 
a few years ago ordered spirits of nitre to be made with nitrite of ethyl. He 
believed he was right in saying that that preparation did not give satisfaction,, 
and was not looked upon as a good medicinal article. An opinion had been 
held that aldehyde played an important part in the medicinal action of spirits 
of nitre. Medical men could now determine for themselves whether aldehyde- 
had any important medicinal action or not, but if they breathed this specimen^ 



Am. Joxm. Pharm. ) 
Jan. 1, 1873. $ 



Minutes of the College. 



41 



he thought they would agree with him that it was likely to be a very potent one 
indeed. Speaking theoretically, he thought it ought to prove one of the most 
powerful anaesthetics known. The croton chloral hydrate smells of lemon. It 
is formed by two molecules of aldehyde, less one molecule of water, the three 
atoms of hydrogen being replaced by three atoms of chlorine; croton chloral 
was the result, the hydrate forming the beautiful crystalline body before them. 

The following papers were then read and discussed: Apparatus for Macera- 
ting, by Mr. R. W. Giles ; On the Extracts containing Chlorophyll, by Mr. J. 
B. Barnes : A Dispensing Note on Chloral Hydrate, by Mr. J. G. Plumer; On 
Sulphuretted Antimony, Official and Commercial, by Mr. J. Moss. 

The North British Branch of the Pharmaceutical Society opened its new 
rooms on November 22d. The president, Mr. H. C. Baildon, delivered the in- 
troductory address, after which Mr. J. Mackay read a paper on Pharmaceutical 
Education, which elicited an animated discussion. A number of specimens and 
books were presented to the museum and library, both of which are being made 
available to all connected with the society every day from 10 A. M. till 4 P. M. 9 . 
and, Saturdays excepted, in the evening from 6 till 10 o'clock. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Paris. — Mr. Stan. Martin presided at the meet?- 
ing held October 2d. After the presentation of books and specimens, Mr. 
Mehu read several extracts from English and American journals, treating of 
the means to avoid mistakes in dispensing. 

Mr. Marais exhibited specimens of orange-flower water, made by distillation 
with steam, and preserved for 12 years ; distilled over the naked fire, it cannot 
be kept for that length of time. His method of preparation is to pass a jet of 
steam into Soubeiran's alembic, containing a mixture of equal weights of flow- 
ers and hot water. Mr. Martin stated that this distilled water, if well prepared, 
yields to chloroform a very agreeable odorous principle. 

Mr. Roucher showed several varieties of oxide of lead, of a yellow, bronze, 
black and red purple color, the latter being obtained by acting upon the hy- 
drated oxide with a rather concentrated solution of caustic potassa. 

Mr. Planchon exhibited English rhubarb as found in French commerce i 
though resembling to some extent Chinese rhubarb, it is readily distinguished 
from it by being less marbled upon the fracture and by the absence of the dia- 
mond shaped meshes upon the surface ; it is probably obtained from Rheum 
rhapontic'um. A new kind of rhubarb from the Amoor river, which possesses 
the characters of a medium quality of Chinese rhubarb, sells in London at 4 to 
6 francs per kilogram. Mr. Marais stated that for some time, Austrian rhu- 
barb was endeavored to be introduced into commerce. 

Mr. Lebaigne read a paper on the best means to avoid mistakes in pharma- 
cies, which created a long discussion, the subject being at last postponed to the 
next meeting. 

A stated meeting of the College was held December 30th, 1872, Dillwyn Par- 
rish, President, in the chair; 14 members present. The minutes of the last 



42 Minutes of Pharmaceutical Meetings. {^j/nXmsf** 

meeting were read and approved. The minutes of the Board of Trustees were 
read by Wm. C. Bakes, Secretary of the Board, and approved. 

The minutes of the Board inform that the Alumni Association had transfer- 
red to the College the fixtures and apparatus of the School of Practical Chem- 
istry and Pharmacy. 

The Committee on Deceased Members reported progress with the memoir of 
Prof. Parrish. 

W. C. Bakes reported further acknowledgments of the reception of the cer- 
tificates of honorary and corresponding membership. The letter of Carl Fre~ 
derkiug, of Riga, was referred to the Corresponding Secretary, to be answered. 

On motion, the Board of Trustees were directed to effect an insurance on the 
fixtures and apparatus of the School of Practical Chemistry. 

On motion, then adjourned. Charles Bullock, Secretary. 



fptnwtes of % f Iiarmnceutkal SIfctinp. 

A Pharmaceutical Meeting was held December 17th, 1872, Prof. Procter in 
the chair ; William Mclntyre,an the absence of the Registrar, acting as Regis- 
trar pro tern : 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved, after correcting the 
price of ceresin to 46 cents gold per ft>. 

Mr. Shinn introduced Prof. Markoe of Boston, and presented, in behalf of 
Thos. H. McAllister, to the College various volumes of the American Journal 
of Pharmacy. 

Prof. Maisch read a paper on impurities in ladies' slipper root* and exhib- 
ited preserved specimens of roots and flowering plants of Cypripedium pubes- 
cens, C. parviflorum and C. acaule ; also commercial samples of pure cypri- 
pedium, and some admixed with hydrastis, senega and other dicotyledonous 
roots. 

In answer to a question by Mr. Shinn, Prof. Procter stated that there was 
considerable demand for cypripedium by eclectic physicians, who use it in such 
cases in which valerian is indicated. 

Mr. Remington read a paper on ceresinf and exhibited a sample of simple 
cerate prepared from it. Nothing can be said as yet about its keeping qualities, 
the time being too short. It was remarked that cerate prepared from paraffin 
quickly spoils, while yellow wax and benzoinated lard preserve it for a long 
time. 

Mr. Shinn remarked that emulsions of codliver oil containing phosphate of 
lime were being prescribed by physicians, and asked the experience of those 
present in making emulsions containing large quantities of fixed oils. He had 
samples from two makers, both of which separate and became rancid after some 
time; the quantity of lime salt in both is stated in ambiguous terms. The 
fair method would be to state the quantity of phosphate of lime, lactic acid 
and codliver oil in a certain measure. 



♦See page 9 of the present number, 
f Published on page 11 of this number. 



AM 'jaa U T, Sw™ } Minnies of Pharmaceutical Meetings. 43 

Prof. Procter had used a mixture of tragacanth and acacia in proportion of 
1 to 6, and the product is rather thick. 

Prof. Maisch said one maker of this emulsion has lately obtained a patent, 
which, however, is probably of no value. As early as 1855 he prepared emul- 
sions containing 50 per cent of codliver oil, with alkalies and alkaline earths,* 
which may be sweetened and flavored to taste. This is not a true emulsion, but 
a partial saponification. 

Mr Shinn had used lime water, 2 ounces to a pint, in conjunction with gum 
arabic ; also sucrate of lime, by means of which a 75 per cent emulsion can be 
prepared and mixed with syrup of phosphate of lime and lactic acid. 

Mr. Remington remarked he had seen a communication from an attorney 
threatening certain parties with prosecution for infringement of patent if they 
<lid not desist in the manufacture of this preparation ; but apparently the 
threat would not be carried out. 

Prof. Maisch said a method is much needed whereby fixed oils can be emul- 
sionized as readily as volatile oils, ether and chloroform are by the method of 
J. W. Forbes.f 

Mr. Shinn had seen a patent churn in use as a labor saving agent where large 
quantities of emulsions are used. 

Prof. Maisch presented a well made sample of benzoinated oxide of zinc 
ointment, prepared by A. H. Bolton in a paint mill. 

Mr. Boring exhibited cucumber ointment in good condition, made in 1868, 
by the method as modified from the French formula by Prof. Procter,J who 
having tried various methods stated that with this one success depends upon 
time and patience properly expended upon it. 

Prof. Markoe, at the suggestion of Mr. Shinn, addressed the meeting and 
spoke about his recent visit to England, describing several of what may be 
termed representative pharmaceutical establishments of Great Britian which he 
visited in Liverpool, Harrowgate, Leeds, Newcastle, Edinburgh, London, &c. 
The proprietors rarely reside in the same building in which the business is car- 
ried on, but if the number of employees is sufficiently large a housekeeper is 
usually employed, the clerks residing and taking their meals on the premises. 
The current literature, especially scientific, and a well-selected library is not 
infrequently met with, the clerks having access to it in the evening. In some 
stores apprentices are never employed, only qualified assistants, those acting as 
dispensers, having their separate counters, each with complete apparatus and 
appurtenances, as for instance in Mr. Abraham's store, in Liverpool, where 
there are four dispensing counters. The precautions against mistakes with poi- 
sons, adopted by several British pharmacists, were mentioned, and a descrip- 
tion was given of the alkali works at Newcastle-on-Tyne. The speaker then 
spoke about the Brighton Meeting of the British Pharmaceutical Conference, 
at which he was present, and said that the attendance was not as large as that 
at the meetings of the American Pharmaceutical Association, if the member- 
skip and the short distances which the British pharmacists have to travel is 



*See American Journal of Pharmacy, 185(3, p. 1. 
fSee American Journal of Pharmacy, 1872, p. 61. 
% See American Journal of Pharmacy, 185:5, p. 400. 



44 



Editorial. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm, 
1 Jan. 1, 1873. 



taken into consideration. Percolation, which is well understood and so indis- 
pensible here, is little known and practised there. The speaker's impression is 
that the British pharmacists, as a class, at least in the larger cities, are chemists 
aud men of education, but that galenical pharmacy is better understood here.. 
The meeting then adjourned. William McIntyre, 

Registrar pro t em. 

(SMtorial Department. 



The Twenty-first Annual Meeting op the American Pharmaceutical. 
Association will take place September 16th next, in the city of Richmond,. 
Va. We have already received many letters announcing the intention of phar- 
macists residing in different parts of the country, to be present on that occa- 
sion, so that even at this early date the prospects for a full attendance are very- 
flattering ; and we desire to direct the attention of our friends in the Southern 
States to this, so that they may make timely arrangements to be present. The 
Local Secretary is Mr. Thos. H. Hazard, Richmond, Ya. 

Pharmaceutical Legislation. — We have received information that efforts 
will be made again in several States to have suitable laws enacted with the 
view of regulating the practice of pharmacy. The laws which are now in force- 
in five or six States have already had a very beneficial effect in preventing 
incompetent persons from becoming proprietors of stores, or from acting in the 
capacity of assistants. An important result of this movement has been that 
more importance is now attached to the proper education of the young pharma- 
cists, and that the facilities of acquiring pharmaceutical knowledge have been 
considerably increased of late years. A conscientious enforcement of the laws,, 
where such exist, must result in still greater and lasting benefit to our profes- 
sion, as well as to the public in general. There are some who may feel aggrieved 
by violations of the law ; it will not be sufficient for them to merely complain 
about its inefficiency, but they should endeavor to furnish proper and sufficient 
proof to the authorities, so that the offending parties may be prosecuted. Wo 
have received two complaints, such as we have referred to, from within the city 
limits of Philadelphia, and it is very probable that similar conditions may exist 
in other localities where pharmaceutical laws have been passed. It is not only 
to the pecuniary, but also to the professional interest of every pharmacist, that 
the efficiency and the usefulness of such laws should be thoroughly tested, be- 
fore modifications are demanded. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Meeting of the California Pharmaceutical 
Society, held at San Francisco, October, 1872. Also, the Constitution , By- 
Laws and Roll of Members. San Francisco : A. L. Bancroft & Co., Print- 
ers. 1872. 8vo, pp. 66. 

We have already reported on this meeting, on page 524 of our last number. 
It is gratifying to notice the flourishing condition of this Society, which ha& 
135 active members on its roll. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
Jan. 1, 1873. / 



Catalogue of the Class. 



45 



Circular of Information of the Bureau of Education for March, 1872. Wash- 
ington : Government Printing Office. 1872. 8vo. 

It contains three interesting statistical papers, as follows: An Inquiry con- 
cerning the Vital Statistics of College Graduates; Distribution of College 
Students, in 1870-71 ; Facts of Vital Statistics in the United States, with 
tables and diagrams. 



CATALOGUE 

OF THE 

Class of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 

FOR THE FIFTY-FIRST SESSION, 1 8 7 2-7 3. 
Willi a List of their Preceptors and Localities. 



MATRICULANTS. 

Acker man, David, Jr. 
Addis, S. D. 
Acker, Louis, K. 
Allen, James A. 
Alvarez, Miguel, 
Anderson, Clarence, 
Autill, Joseph, Jr. 
Apple, A. A. 
Auginbaugh, Ch. 
Babb E, H. 
Babcock, B. W. 
Baehe, B. F. 
Bakus, Edmund, 
Banks, Wm. B. 
Bantley, Bartholomew, 
Barndollar, Harry, 
Barr, Eugene J. 
Barr, John Franeiscus. 
Barth, Alfred, 
Bachelor, E. C. 
Baur, Jacob, 
Bayard, N. J., Jr. 
Beck, J. Howard, 
Beidler, Samuel M. 
Benseman, A. 
Berry, James W. 
Bicker, William B. 
Biddle, C. J. 
Bishop, A. B. 
Blair, S. C. 
Blake, John H. 
Bond, Munroe, 
Bovvens, A. 
Boyer, Edward L. 
Braddock, W. H. 
Bradner, N. R., M.D. 
Brakeley, Philip F. 
Bridger, Paul, 
Brown, Charles Scott, 
Brown, J. R. 
Brown, Thomas D. 
Brown, William, 
Brown, W. C. 
Bryan, Heury N. 
Bucher, Benjamin C. 
Buckingham, J. H. 
Buckman, T. L. 
Busk waiter, J. M. 
Budd, Frank M. 
Buzby, Augustus C. 



TOWN OR COUNTT. 

Bans or, 
Easton, 
Phillipsburg, 

Cieneefueg>>s, 
Philadelpnia, 

Hellertovtn, 

Riegv. lsville, 

Philadelphia, 

West Chester, 

Philadelphia, 

Cincinnati, 

Philadelphia, 

Milwaukee, 

Danville, 

Wilmington, 

Lewistown, 

Philadelphia, 

Macon, 

Terre Haute, 

Rome, 

Yard v die, 

Juniata Co, 

Minersville, 

Frankfort, 

Philadelphia, 

Dover, 

Philadelphia, 

Manchester, 

Indianapolis, 

Lyons, 

Camden, 

Philadelphia, 

Philipsburg, 

St. John's, 

Jackson, 

Cuthbert, 

Philadelphia, 

Bordentown, 

Cambridge, 

Philadelphia, 



Chester, 

Jameshurg, 

Raneocas, 



STATE. 

Pennsylvania. 



New Jersey. 
Cuba. 

Pennsylvania. 



Ohio, 

Pennsylvania. 

Wisconsin. 

Pennsylvania. 

Delaware. 

Pennsylvania. 

Mississisppi. 
Indiana. 
Georgia. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 

Kentucky. 
Pennsylvania. 

Delaware. 
Pennsylvania. 

New Hampshire. 
Indiana,. 
Pennsylvania. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 
New Jersey. 
Antigua, W. I. 
Mississippi. 
Georgia. 
Pennsylvania. 
New Jersey. 
Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 



New Jersey. 



PRECEPTOR. 

R. Shoemaker. 

J. S. Hunt, M.D. 

George R. Vernon. 

Dungan, Wheeler & Pape. 

Ernest Triolet. 

Ed. D. Chipmaa. 

S. Levin Dilks. 

J. Van Buskirk, M.D. 

M. B. Stees, M.D. 

W. J. Jenks. 

J. P. Thatcher. 

J. W. Simes, Jr. 

Isaac W. Smith. 

Aschenbach & Miller. 

Jn. H. Tesch & Co. 

C. L. Cumming. 

J. W. Dal him & Co. 

PL C. Blair's Sons. 

Henry Schmidt. 

Jones & French. 

J. J. Baur. 

Robert Batey, M.D. 

C. W. Hancock. 
P. H. Horn. 

J. K. Burns. 

Edward Chiles. 

E. Parrish & Son. 

Bullock & Crenshaw. 

R. J. Rogers. 

W. R. War ler k Co. 

A. L. Hclmbold. 

J. Oddy, M.D. 

E. A. Cobb. 

H. C. Blair's Sons. 

L, Oberholtzer, M.D. 

W. B. Bradner, M.D. 

Washington Opdycko, M.D. 

Buck & Baley. 
P. R Holt. 

Bullock & Crenshaw. 

J. S. Erben. 

W. M. Scott. 

A. W. Duvall. 

A. Hansell A Brother. 

Bullock & Crenshaw. 

D. L. Slackhouse. 
C. S. Poley, M.D, 

J no. Wyoth & Brother. 
Aschenbach & Miller. 



46 



Catalogue of the Class. 



f Am. Jour. Phabsh.. 
\ Jan. 1, 1873. 



Capp, Harry M. 


Lebanon, 


Pennsylvania. 


J. A. Armstrong, M.D. 


Casper, M. H. 


Salem, 


New Jersey. 


J. R. Lippincott. 


Chiles, Richard T. 


Frankfort, 


Kentucky. 


Edward Chiles. 


Clarke, Eidie L. 


Dover, 


Delaware. 


II C. Blair's Sons. 


Coates, W. S. 


Philadelphia, 
Blandville, 


Pennsylvania. 


Thos. R. Coombes. 


Coffee, Isaac N. 


Kentucky. 


W. M. Coffee. 


Condick, Willinm J. 


Philadelphia, 


Pennsylvania. 


Francis Jacoby, Jr. 
H. C. Blair's Sons. 


Conlyn, Thomas A. 


Carlisle, 


Conner, Jefferson S. 


N. Albany, 


Indiana. 


W. C. Bakes. 


Conrath, Adam, 


Milwaukee, 


Wisconsin. 


0. Peuser. 


Cooper, W. H«Try, 


North Wales, 


Pennsylvania. 


B. K. Johnson, M.D. 


Corbvn, Theophilus, N. 


" 


C. L. Eberle. 


Crawford, W. F. 


William sport, 


" 


C. Ellis. Son & Co. 


Creen, Judge J. 


Oonshohoeken, 


" 


James W Harry. 


Dale, F. C. 


Logan s port, 


Indiana. 


Wm. M. Wilson & Co. 


Daley. A. G. 


Wilminsrton, 


Delaware. 


L. M. England. 


Daniel -•. J. B. 


Ashland, 


Pennsylvania. 


Marshall & Edwards. 


Danf >rth, N. B. 


Philadelphia, 




Robert Shoemaker. 


I 'avi-. Isaac, 




George H. Davis. 


Davis, Samuel B. 






C. Eliis, Son & Co. 


Davison, J«mes. 






AVm. E. Knight. 


Dawson. Edward S., Jr. 


Svracuse, 


New York. 


<'. W. Snow & Co. 


D-^boben, Jacob, 


New York, 


'• 


J. A. Heintzleman. 


Delker, William, 


Ashland. 




R. Nebinger. 


DuBois, L. Stanley, 


High Falls. 


New York. 


J.G. Faker. 


Dugan, W. F. 


Philadelphia, 


Penns\ lvania. 


J. J. Duaan. 


Eberle Herman F. 


Watertown, 


Wisconsin. 


E. B. Garrigues. 


El st on, J. B. 


Columbia. 


Missouri. 


E. C. Jones. 


Emerson, Worthington, 


Phi adelphia, 


Pennsylvania. 


Bullock A Crenshaw, 


Everhart, T. 


York. 


James Kemble. 


Fairchild, S. W. 


Stratford, 


Conneeticur. 


\. B. Taylor. 


Faulkner, Chas. P. 


San Francisco, 


California. 


Ti omas Price, M.D. 


Fiedler, A. 


Philadelphia, 


Pennsyh ania. 


J. Wendel, Jr. 


Flint. .). H. 


Marysville, 


California. 


Jos. Flint, M.D. 


French, A. S. 


Pas Harbor. 


New York. 


S. Ma«on MeCollin. 


(■randy, J. Thomas, 


Lftmbei tville, 


New Jersey. 


J. T. White. 


Gerhard ('has. T. C. 


Philadelphia, 
•' 


penn sylvan a. 


L. Gerhard. 


Gill, Wm. C. 




Wm. H. Warner & Co.. 


Gingrich, John, 


Reading, 




W. J. McLean, M.D. 


Gleim F. H. E. 


Lebanon, 




Jos. L. Lemberger. 


Gleim. Perry M. 






Glenn, T. W. 


We>t Chester, 




Chas. Crowell. 


Goodno, Charles, 


Philadelphia, 




Sa r uel T. Jones. 


Graef Paul. Jr. 


Piqua, 


Ohio. 


B. Brandriff. 


Gr>»hame, George H. 


Philadelphia, 


Pennsylvania. 


Israel J. Grahame. 


Green, Howard C, 


Powers & Weightmaiu 


Griggs, Alleu G. 


Ottawa, 


Illinois. 


E. Y. Griggs. 


Grisoom, Joreph W. 


Woodbury, 


New Jersey. 


Bullock & Crenshaw. 


Cross Edward Z. 


Harrisburg, 


Pennsylvania. 


D. W. Gross <fe Son. 


Oroves. John 1 >. 


Philadelphia. 




M. F. Groves, M.D. 


Gu«h. Morris S. 


Bethlehem, 




C. Ellis. Son & Co. 


Haaberle, Jacob, 


Philadelphia, 


" 


Aschenhach & Miller. 


Haines. John W. 


Westfield. 


New Jersey. 


Wm. M. Wilson & Co. 


Hallowell, Horace O. J. 




Pennsylvania. 


James T. Shinn. 


Hand, Jacob 11. 


Philadelphia, ' 




Knee-diaw, Norris & Co.. 


Harper, Franli M. 


Madison. 


Indiana. - 


F. Harper. 


Harrison, W. L. 


Petei>burK, 


Virginia. 


N. F. Rives. 


Hart, George H. J. 


New Orleans, 


Louisiana. 


Bullock & Crenshaw. 


HartzeU, Frank lin T. 


Allentown, 


Penns}'lvania. 


W. C. Barnes. 


Haltan, Edgar M. 


Zanesville, 


Ohio. 


A. B. Taylor. 


Haupt, H.. Jr. 


Philadelphia. 


Pennsylvania. 


French, Richards & Co. 


Hazlett, E. E. 


Zanesville, 


Ohio. 


T. A. Lancaster. 




Oata'-auqua, 
Dauville, 


Pennsylvania. 


>schenbaoh & Miller. 


Hedenbury, Wm. J. 


" 


Wm. Procter. Jr. 


Heinitsch, Sieismund, 


Lancaster, 




Bullock & Crenshaw. 


Heleeson, Alfred, 


La Crosse, 


Wiscottsin. 


J. L. Bi-pham. 


Henry, George S. 


Lebanon, 


Pennsylvania. 


D S. Raber. 


Hess. M. J. 


Bethlehem, 




He-s & Snvder. 


HiHegass, Eturone Z. 


Pennsbury, 




V. H. Smith & Co. 


Hiltou, T. C. 


Conneautville, 




W. T. McMurdy. 


Ho hi. August, 


Detroit, 


.Michigan. 


W. R. Warner & Co. 


Housekeeper. A. K. 


Philadelphia, 


Pennsylvania. 


Benj. Housekeeper. 






Connecticut. 


L. Huhbell. 


Hubbard, W. H. 


Deeatur, 


Illinois. 


Hubbard A Swearingen. 


Hulnal, Andrew M. 


Philadelphia, 


Pennsylvania. 


< - aleb H. Needles. 


Run, < ; -k-s. 


Ohamberslmrg. 




Jonn Wyeth & Bro. 


Hunter. David. 


Philadelphia, 




T. Hunter. M.D. 


Hunter, W. B ; rt, 


Camden. 


New Jersey. 


I. M. Pratt. M.D. 


Hurt, James F. 


Columbia, 


Mississippi. 


Hubbell * Bro. 


Hutchinson, Harvey B. 


Trenton, 


New Jersey. 


R. & J. Rickey. 


Jacob, A. Wilson. 


Lewistown, 


Pennsylvania. 


John Wyeth &, Bro. 



Am Jocr. Pharm.") 
Jan. 1, 1873. j 



Catalogue of the Glass. 



47 



Jacobs, George H. 
Jacoby, A. P. 
Janvier, Will N. 
Jefferson, Edward, 
Jenkins, F. C. 
Jobson, J. Walt°r, 
Johnson, James, 
Johnson, S. O. 
Johnson, S. W. 
Jones, J. Morris, 
Jones, W. Ashley. 
Jummel, Frank R. 
Justice, Richard S. 
Keasbev, Harry G. 
Keck, George O. 
KeeW, J. P. 
Keenan Augustus H. 
Keir, William. M.D. 
Kempsmith. Paul, 
Kiel horn, H. 
Kille, Harry G. 
•King, Alexander. 
King, Blair, 
Kingsbury, H. 
Kin near, J. A. 
Kinsloe, O. FT. 
Koch, Emil. 
Koch, Francis J. 
Kramer. I. D. VV. 
Kraus, t/\ 
Kruell, Frederick, 
Krogman, Joseph, 
Kutz. Wilson L. 
Landschutz, P. 
Lanse, C. Richard, 
Lasche, Otro, 
La'z, Frederick W. 
Lavton, John H. 
Lee, S. Colbert, 
Leibold, Louis P. 
Lerch, Wm. I 
Lescher, G. 0. 
Levering, George W. 
Lumb, A. L. 
Lumsden, C. H. 
McClay, G. Preston, 
Mc^rea, J. H. 
McFarland, J. R. 
Me Kay, F. 
McNeil, Robert, 
MePherson. J. O. 
Magill, B. M. 
Marcv, Samuel S. 
Marshall, P. W. 
Marshall, Joseph If. 
Martin, S. W. 
Martindell, Wm. N. 
Massey, J. H. 
Mastoh, James A. 
Mateer. J. D. 
Mathew*, John E. . 
Mathis, Wm. I). 
Mattison, R. V. 
Mays, A G. 
Mesroaifal. John L. 
M^vcr, C. Carroll, 
Miller, I). B. 
Miller, Frank E. 
Mitchell. II. W. 
Moffit, W. G. 
Moorhead, Thos. W. 
Morgan, T. C. 
Mussclman, D. G. E. 
Muthers bough, J. 
Neppa-h, Stephen, 
Nice, Harry J. 
Nicholas, W. C. 
O'Brien, C. II. 
< Mnohundro, ( '. 



'PI" 



mnn. II. 
William, 



Hannibal, 

Bethlehem, 

Troy, 

Smyrna, 

Wilmington, 

Philadelphia, 

Mt. Sterling, 

Philadelphia, 

Fremansbnrg, 

Bethlehem, 

Philadelphia, 

Camden, 

Newark, 

Philadelphia, 

N. Egypt, 

Mauch Chunk, 

Priucetown, 

Philadelphia, 

Cannelton, 

Moorestown, 

Buffalo. 

Philadelphia, 

Little Rock, 
Philadelphia, 

Davenport, 

Minersville, 

Philadelphia, 

Chicago, 

Philadelphia, 

Lyons, 

Philadelphia, 



Buffalo, 

Salem, 

Stroudsburg, 

Indianola, 

Easton. 

Millersburer, 

Philadelphia, 

Camden, 

Lynchburg, 

Piqua, 

Norristown, 

Meadville, 

Columbia, 

Philadelphia, 

Atlanta. 

Philadelphia, 

Cape May, 

Ashland, 

Camden, 

Lewistown, 

Philadelphia, 

Alexandria, 

Mechanicsburg 

Sandusky, 

Hunts ville, 

Solebury, 

Williamsport, 

Camden, 

Philadelphia. 

York Co. 

Philadelphia. 



Terre Haute, 

( treat Barrington, 

Sirasbui?, 

Lewistown, 

F«nd du Lac, 

Jersey Shore, 

Easton, 

P'iladf lphia, 

Richmond, 

Philadelphia, 



Missouri. 
Pennsylvania. 
Ohio. 
Delaware. 

Pennsylvania. 

Kentucky. 
Pennsylvania. 



New Jersey. 

Pennsylvania. 
New Jersey 
Pennsylvania 
Prince Edward' 
Pennsylvania. 
Indiana. 
New Jersey. 
New York. 
Pennsylvania. 



Germany. 
New York. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 
Texas. 

Pennsylvania. 



New Jersey. 
Virginia- 
Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 

Missouri. 
Pennsylvania. 
Georgia. 
Pennsylvania. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 
New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 

Virginia. 

Pennsylvania. 
Ohio. 
Missour 1 '. 
Pennsylvania. 



Indiana. 
Massach usetts. 
Pennsylvania. 



John Moffit. 
E. F. Rinehart. 
Wm. L. Turner. 
Smirh & Painter. 
J. E. Lehman. 
Peter Cruice. 
J. W. Harrah. 
J. Stradley. 

A. B. Taylor. 

G. W. Carpenter. Henzey & Co, 

H. Edward Wendel. 
W. R. Warner & Co. 
John Wyeth & Bro. 
H. C, B'air's Sons. 
O. L. Coles. 
Joseph Laciar. 

Island. 

John H. Knorr. .Jr., M.D 
L. I j Armstrong. 
S. S. Bunting. 
W. A. Musson. 
J. L. Bispham. 
Lenher <fe Spencer. 
George A. Hughes. 
George W. Vaughan. 
Louis Koch. 

G. Schlegel. 

H. Gerhard. 
S. Gerhard. 
Charles J. Radish. 

B. Falkenburg. 
S. F. Sinies. 

J. Landschutz. 
F Rom burg. 
Fred. Fob man. 

C. W. Carsner. 
J. M'Avoy, M.D. 
Wm. Hollinshead, 
E. P. Camp. 

B. L. Sm* dley. 
N. A. Johnson. 
C E. Davis. 

D. P. Pancoast, M.D. 
Faulkner & Craignill. 
S. E. R. Hassinger. 
Wm. Stahler. 
Asohenbaeh & Miller. 

A. H. Yarnall & Co. 
John B. Ferguson. 
John T. Viley & Co. 

B. M. Magill. 

A. M. Mecray. M.D. 
Carpenter, Henzev & Co.. 

E. H. Lee. 
A. Moseley. 
A. M. Wilson. 

.1. S. Newton, M.D. 
J. R. Stevenson, M.D. 
A. P. Blomer. 
Charles Shivers. 

C. V. Mavo. 

John Wyeth & Bro. 
W. K. Loean. 
John R. Harry, M.D. 
Thomas J. Husband, Jr.. 

Asehenbaeh & Miller. 
Hance Bros & White. 
John Wyeth & Bro. 
George D. Blomer. 
John Wveth & Bro. 
S Campbell & Co. 
Hanee. Bros, & White.. 
A. Russman, 
J. L. Curry. 
J. P. Ballon. 
R. Newton. 
J. B Moore. 

Jos. L. Shoemaker. 



48 



Catalogue of the Class. 



f Am. Jouk. Pha.rm. 
\ Jan. 1, 1873. 



Parker, James A. 
Pazels, W. A. 
Petzelt, Christopher. 
Piatt, G. Willard, 
Poley, Frank H. 
Porter, Harry W. 
Potts, David G. 
Power, Frederick B. 
Price, John B. 
Radefeld, Frederick, 
Raser, A. P. 
Reed, Edward A. 
Reiehel, E. B. 
Reimensnyder, M. F. 
Ritter, Eugene D. 
Roeder, J. E. 
Roepper, F. A. 
Rohn, A. B. 
Rowand, A. H. C. 
Rowe, J. M. 
Rowlev, Isaac H. 
Royer, P. R. 
Royston, J. L. 
Rugglos, Dexter L. 
Russell, George M. 
Salvador, John H. 
Sanborn, Gust. A. 
Savage, Frank S. 
Schmidt, Henry, 
Schnabel, Charles, 
Sher, F P. 
Smith, A. E. 
Smith, Cyrus P. 
Smith, Theodoric, 
Smith, Milnor, 
Smith, O. L. 
Smith, Rush B. 
Sparrow, Charles, 
Spence, Samuel B. 
Spriggs, J. S. 
Stansbury, Wilson, 
Stem, W.' N. 
Stewart, A. B. 
Stewart, P.. Reed, 
Stoner. W. J. 
Stifel, Albert F. 
Straw, J. I. 
Swearingen, W. W. 
Tatem, Charles H. 
Terrell, Thoman, 
Til ton, Francis, 
Timmins, Chas. F. 
Tomlin, Millard F. 
Townsend, Hf nry G. 
Trimble, Henry, * 
Truckenmiller, G. L. 
Thorpe, Benjamin, 
Van Cise, Isaac P. 
Voshage, Herman F. 
Walker, Samuel E. 
Wallace, James, 
Weigle, Gilbert H. 
Wenerd, J. E. 
Wert, John M. 
West, Wm. H. 
White, W r . G. 
Whitman, J. O. 
Wiegner, J. Adam, 
Willard, R., Jr. 
Williams, Jno. L. 
Williams. R. J. C. 
Wills, Charles J. 
Wilson, Lewis H. 
Wittkamp, Henry L. Jr. 
Wood, James P. 
Yarnall, Benj. D. 
Yergin, Frank P. 
Young, John K. 
Yost, James L. 
Ziegler, J. Walter, 
Zimmerman, G. A. 



Philadelphia, 



Brattleboro, 
Norristown, 
Philadelphia, 

Hudson, 

Wilmington, 

Philadelphia, 

Reading, 

Mendota, 

Nazareth, 

Sunbury, 

Easton, 

Hosensack, 

Bethlehem, 

Easton, 

Philadelphia, 

Tarboro, 

Philadelphia, 

Akron, 

Lancaster, 

William sport, 

Philadelphia, 



Cincinnati, 

New York, 

Philadelphia, 

Williamsburg, 

Lebanon, 

Baltimore, 

Philadelphia, 

Columbus, 

Norristown, 

Leavenworth, 

Fund du Lac, 

Monmouth, 

Mechanicsburg, 

Easton, 

Philadelphia, 

Harrisburg, 

Wheeling, 

Philadelphia, 

Decatur, 

Philadelphia, 

Easton, 

Easton, 

G lassboro, 

Philadelphia. 

Chester, 

Petersburg, 

Woodbury, 

Mount Pleasant, 

Ashland, 

Philadelphia, 

Meehanicstown, 

Philadelphia, 

Sellersvilie, 

Philadelphia, 

Lexington, 

Canton, 

Bethlehem, 

Haddonfield, 

Philadelphia, 

Greenwich, 

Philadelphia, 

Hannover, 

Harrington, 

Philadelphia, 

Wooster, 

Doylestown, 

Wilkesbarre, 

Sunbury, 

Johnstown, 



Pennsylvania. 



Vermont. 
Pennsylvania. 



New York. 
Delaware. 
Pennsylvania. 

Illinois. 
Pennsylvania. 



Kentucky. 
Pennsylvania. 



Ohio. 

New York. 

Pennsylvania. 

Virginia. 

Pennsylvania. 

Maryland. 

Pennsylvania. 

Georgia. 

Pennsylvania. 

Kansas. 

Wisconsin. 

Illinois. 

Pennsylvania. 



West Virginia. 
Pennsylvania. 
Illinois. 
Pennsylvania, 



Illinois. 

New Jersey. 
Iowa. 

Pennsylvania. 



Maryland. 
Pennsylvania. 



Kent. 

Pennsylvania. 

New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 
New Jersey. 
Penney lva'nia. 

Germany. 
Delaware. 
Pennsylvania. 
Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 



H. A. Vogelbach. 
Aquila Nebeker. 
R. Platzer. 
Clark & Willard. 
F P. Poley. 
Peck & Co. 
R, Keys, M.D. 
E. Parrish & Son. 
E. Bringhurst & Co. 
Gustavus Radefeld. 

J. T. White. 
B N. Bethel, M.D. 
P. A. Grosh. 
Bernheimer & Kerlin. 
Rosenberger, M.D. 

D. S. Jones. 
H. F. Bucher. 
Robert Simpson. 
Charles Shivers. 
Hance. Bros. & White. 
J. Koningmacher. 

W. H. Rinker. 
Wm D. Harrison. 
Wm. R. Warner & Co. 

E. P. Bernardy, M.D. 
Sanborn & Butler. 

J. R. Angney, M.D. 
C. C. Spannagel. 
J. F. Conway, M.D. 
J. W. Dallam & Co. 
L. Henley, M D. 
V. H. Allwein, M D. 

John M. Maris & Co. 
A.M. Bran n on 

C. Ellis, Son & Co. 
Fi. Parrish & Son. 
Kalk & Kent. 
Spriggs & Bro. 
Thomas H. Franklin. 
T. A. Walkea. 

W. F. Simes & Son. 

E. C. Jones. 
R. W. Richie. 

S. Mason M. Collin. 
H. D. Straw. 
Hubbard & Swearingen. 
Alfred Tatem. 
P. D. Woodhouse. 
IT. B Lippincott. 
Jas. G. Wells. 

D. Hershey. 

Powers & Weightmaa. 
S. Mason McCollin. 

F. Zerman, M.D. 
C. Ellis, Son & Co. 
Van Cise & Lyon. 
W r . Krause. 
John T. Walker. 
J. M. Maris & Co. 

G. M Zimmerman, M D. 
Bean & Stevenson. 

H. A. Bower. 
Powers & Weightmaa. 
J. B. Morton & Co. 

W. W. Whitman. 
M. M. Selfridge & Co. 

I. A. Braddock. 

C. A. Weideman. 
J. W. Simpers. 
Bullock & Crenshaw. 
D Wiltberger. 

D. Wittkamp. 
W. B. Thompson. 
A. H. Yarnall b Co. 
C. W. Seary, M.D. 
Jas. P. Milnor. 
Jas. T. Shinn. 

C. Souder, M.D. 
Jos. Abel. 



THE 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



FEBRUARY, 1873. 



SYRUP OF PHOSPHATE OF IRON, QUINIA AND STRYCHNIA 
WITH PHOSPHATE OF AMMONIA. 
By Charles D. Polk, M. D, 



Ferri sulphatis. .... 


. grs. 2625 


Sodse phosphatis, 


lix 


Acidi phosph. glacial., . 


. 5viii 


Acidi nitrici C. P., . 


3vi. 


Quinae sulphatis .... 


. grs. 336 


Acidi sulphurici dil., . 


q. s. 


Aquae ammonia concent., 


. q.s. 


Strychniae, .... 


grs. xii ss 


Syrupi, q. s. ad . 


. Ixlii. 



Dissolve the sulphate of iron in seven ounces of boiling water, and 
the phosphate of soda in twelve ounces of boiling water ; mix them 
in a precipitating jar and carefully wash the precipitated phosphate 
of iron; add the phosphoric acid to sxx of distilled wafer, apply 
gentle heat on a sand-bath until dissolved, then introduce the nitric 
acid, and continue the application of heat until the solution is reduced 
to the measure of seventeen ounces, or until the fumes of nitric acid 
cease to be evolved ; dissolve the quiniae by aid of the dilute sulphuric 
acid in four ounces of water, and precipitate the alkaloid by aqua 
ammoniae slowly added, and carefully wash ; dissolve the phosphate of 
iron, the quinia and also the strychnia in 10 fluid-ounces of the acid 
by the aid of heat on the sand-bath, the alkaloids being withheld until 
the iron is dissolved ; saturate the remaining seven fluid-ounces of the 

4 



50 Syrup of Phosphate of Iron, etc. { AM ^jjf; £? 7 A 3 EM " 

phosphoric acid with the concentrated liq. aminoniae, and lastly mix the 
two solutions in sufficient dense syrup to measure forty-two ounces. 

This formula, which is based on the same principle as the ammonio- 
citrate, ammonio-tartrate and other salts of iron combining a neutral 
salt with an alkali base, produces a ferric syrup which is scarcely in- 
ferior to iron by hydrogen in therapeutical power, and surpasses all 
other syrups in permanency. I have never known it to precipitate the 
iron salt or undergo decomposition. It is too expensive and difficult 
to prepare to supersede Easton's formula, and although very superior 
to it in chlorosis, neuralgia and some types of ansemia, its use is more 
circumscribed, and must yield the palm to that splendid preparation 
as a general tonic. In diseases attended with derangement of the 
nervous system, I have derived very satisfactory results from this 
combination, even after I have failed to derive advantage from the 
syrup of Easton. In broken down cases of gout, rheumatism, scrofula, 
general cachexia, syphilis and uterine diseases attended with chronic 
engorgement and relaxation of uterus and appendages, I have often 
found it to exceed in efficacy my fondest expectations. In 1866, 
while surgeon in charge of the U. S. Quarantine Hospital, Charles- 
ton, S. C, I wished to make this preparation, but could not obtain 
the phosphoric acid, and was by necessity led to devise a formula by 
which iron, quinia and strychnia could be formed into a syrup with- 
out the aid of free phosphoric acid. 

The liquor ferri citratis suggested to me a combination of the same 
strength in syrup form, independent of the pyrophosphate, in which 
the phosphate of iron would be held in solution by the aid of citrate 
of potassa. My first experiments with officinal freshly precipitated 
phosphate of iron did not give satisfactory results. I next precipi- 
tated the phosphate of iron from Monsel's solution by using twelve 
ounces of the crystals of phosphate of soda to sixteen fluid-ounces of 
the iron solution, and obtained not a very satisfactory syrup, but 
some of it, concentrated and dried between plates like the pyrophos- 
phates, furnished very perfect scales of an olive green color and even 
more soluble than the pyrophosphate scales. By increasing the amount 
to seventeen ounces and six drachms of the phosphate of soda, I ob- 
tained a magma which, with about half the amount of potassa citrate 
required in the phosphate of the ammonio-citrate, without difficulty, 
by the assistance ot gentle heat, formed a very perfect and perma- 
nent syrup of the strength of the liq. ferri citratis, or one hundred 
and twenty grains of the iron salt to the ounce. 



AM Feb!t S?3 EM " } Syrup of Phosphate of Iron, etc. 51 

Mr. Rother follows nearly the same process that I have been ac- 
customed to follow, excepting he uses the ammonio citrate, while I 
have heretofore used the citrate of potassa; he uses the tersulphate, 
while I have used the subsulphate of iron. I now obtain a mixed 
syrup of proto- and sesqui-salt of iron, while his is a sesqui-salt. I 
believe mine to be a better medicine — his a better pharmaceutical 
product, and applicable to a more general use in forming fcrrated 
syrups and elixirs, and supplying a real desideratum. 

Mr. Rother manipulates thus : 

R. Sol. ferric sulph., . . . . 1 pint. 

Sodium phosphate, . . . . . 17J oz. 

Sol. of ammonium citrate, . . . q. s. 
Sugar, . . . . . . . 24 oz. 

Water sufficient. 

Dissolve the sodium phosphate in 2| pints of water with the aid of 
heat, and pour into it the solution of the ferric sulphate with constant 
stirring. After a short repose transfer the magma to several capacious 
filters, and wash it with water, stirring it up occasionally until the 
washings are nearly tasteless ; now place the washed magma in a 
suitable evaporating dish, add six fluid-ounces of solution of ammo- 
nium citrate (prepared so that each ounce of the solution shall repre- 
sent half an ounce of citric acid, the acid being slightly in excess), 
and apply heat. If the precipitate does not completely dissolve, add 
a little more solution of ammonio-citrate until the solution becomes 
perfectly clear by the continuance of a moderate heat, then evaporate 
it over a sand-bath until reduced to 20 fluid-ounces, add the sugar,, 
and when this is dissolved, strain the syrup through muslin while hot. 
The product must measure two pints. It will then be identical in 
iron strength with the officinal solution of ferric citrate ; and four 
minims of it will represent about one grain of dry ferric orthophos- 
phate.* 

With the syrup proposed by Mr. Rother, reliable ferrated elixir* 
of calisaya, gentian or pepsin can be extemporaneously formed. 

I regard the following to be superior to any elixir of the same now 
in market. 

Elixir Phosphate of Iron, Quinia mid Strychnia. 
R. Syr. phosh. of iron with ammonium citrate, , . 5xviL 



* Pharmacist, p. 147 (1872). 



52 Syrup of Phosphate of Iron, etc. { AM ^ SK?"' 

Sulphate of quinia ...... grs. Ixiv. 

Strychnia, grs . if. 

Curacoa cordial (white), .... q.s. 3xvss. 

Essential tinct. orange . . . . . giii. 

Dilute phosphoric acid, . . . . 

Dissolve the quinia and strychnia in the Curacoa cordial by aid of 
the phosphoric acid, add the syrup of the phosphate of iron and lastly 
the essential tincture of orange. This forms a more reliable elixir 
than any found in the market ; any druggist, with the syrup of the 
phosphate of iron, could extemporaneously form it as ordered, and 
thus avoid the cinchonia frauds so extensively practiced with this 
preparation by some manufacturing chemists ; or, if economy be de- 
sired, the physician could easily order the cinchonia and the druggist 
dispense it. 

I think Mr. Rother has really made a valuable contribution to 
pharmacy in this syrup, and believe it worthy of officinal recognition. 
It is not the iron tonic that the proto-phosphate, in point of energy, 
falls much below the phosphate with phosphate of ammonia in 
diseases attended with nervous prostration, yet the difficulty in pro- 
curing these of a reliable character is a great offset to their general 
use. As found in the shops they are mostly unworthy of confidence, 
while their inestimable value when properly prepared will always 
maintain a demand for them, although the miserably prepared syrup 
usually dispensed for Easton's differs as far from the learned Profes- 
sor's preparation as the attenuated solution of hyponitrous ether as 
found in the shops differs from the spirit of nitrous ether of the Phar- 
macopoeia. 

The syrup of iron with ammonium citrate presents no induce- 
ment for fraud, and really resembles in appearance nought else but 
the syrup of the pyrophosphate, which is an apple green, while the 
syrup proposed by Mr. Ilother is an olive green. As the pyrophos- 
phate is more expensive and even more difficult to prepare, we would 
have nothing to fear from that direction. It could be prepared by 
the manufacturing chemists and obtained by the pharmacists of a re- 
liable quality, from which all other ferrated syrups and elixirs con- 
taining phosphate of iron could be extemporaneously formed. 

In thus recommending Mr. Rother's preparation over mine, I am 
led by a firm conviction that it is not only better, but fills a purpose 
heretofore unfilled as a reliable base for other preparations. I refer 



Am. Jour. Phaem. ") 
Feb. 1, 1873. / 



A Defence of Elixirs, etc. 



53 



to my syr. phosph. iron and potash citrate, which is prepared on pre- 
cisely the same principle as Mr. Rother's, yet scarcely equals it in 
merit. 

By using phosphate of ammonia in a saturated solution, I have suc- 
ceeded very well in dissolving the magma thrown down from the 
sesqui-salts of iron by phosphate of soda, the liq. tersulphate perhaps 
giving the best result ; but the subsulphate is very eligible. Any of the 
alkali salts will dissolve the sesqui-salts of iron if the acid be somewhat 
in excess, but ammonia possesses greater solvent power than any 
other, the citrate of ammonia being the best preparation for this pur- 
pose. By using the exact chemical equivalent of the phosphate of 
soda necessary to precipitate one pint of liq. tersulphate of iron (which 
is about ten ounces), as fine scales as those obtained of the pyrophos- 
phate can be as easily made, and which are really more soluble. The 
olive green color heretofore alluded to contrasts in a marked de- 
gree with the apple green of the pyrophosphate. 

The chemical character of the phosphate of iron with ammonio- 
citrate (Fe 2 O 3 ,PO 5 -|-10 HO), indicates that it contains a larger amount 
of iron and a smaller amount of phosphoric acid than the pyrophos- 
phate (2 Fe 3 0\ 3 PO 5 f 9 HO). This salt of iron is worthy of fur- 
ther investigation. 



A DEFENCE OP ELIXIRS, ETC. 
By James W. Long. 
In the January number of the u Journal of Pharmacy" there ap- 
pears an article on Elixirs, which is so unjust that I think a few words, 
however weak, in reply will do no harm. 

The writer of the article referred to states that they have " grown 
into an undeserved popularity, both with physicians and the commu- 
nity at large." 

While not having space in this article to quote ad libitum from Dr. 
Polk's essay, still the general tenor of it seems to be that most of 
these elixirs are "utterly worthless," and that the remedy seems to 
lie in a universal formula being adopted — " formulas that every retail 
druggist can follow." 

Now, in the first place, it is rather a serious charge to state that 
many of our very finest manufacturing chemists are placing in the 
market, endorsed by their label, a line of articles the most of which 
are utterly worthless. 



54 



A Defence of Elixirs, etc. 



f Am. Jo€r. Pharjkl 
I Feb. 1, 1873. 



But take the argument in the abstract, What is an elixir ? As X 
take it to be, a medicinal elixir is a preparation in which a crude ma- 
terial, by an admixture with aromatics, and by a sufficient maceration 
with a spirit of stronger absorbent powers than itself, together with 
the addition of syrup, is deprived of certain disagreeable qualities, 
and rendered more palatable and less nauseating. 

The argument, as far as it relates to the retail druggist, seems to 
me a weak one ; for, if he understands his business, he can make his 
own formulas, and if he does not know enough for this, he should try 
some other way of making his bread and butter. 

As regards a universal menstruum for elixirs, I would respectfully 
ask, how is this to be done ? You cannot treat pepsin with the same 
adjuvant you can cinchona, nor can you make a clear elixir of cin- 
chona with the same constituents you can pyrophosphate of iron. So 
how can a universal formula be practicable to use for any elixir ? 

These elixirs are objected to on account of their novelty, and be- 
sides their secrecy. Now, I would ask, what novelty there can be, or 
what objection can be fairly made, when a pharmacist, or druggist, or 
chemist, or anything else you wish to call him, says practically to a 
physician, " Doctor, here is a pleasant preparation of iron — I call it 
the Elixir of Pyrophosphate of Iron ; each tablespoonful contains 
five grains of the iron;" or, "Here is an elixir, where each table- 
spoonful contains three grains of pepsin, two grains of bismuth, 
and one-fourth of a grain of solid extract of nux vomica, in com- 
bination " ? 

If the word of this manufacturer is to be depended on, the physi- 
cian should be satisfied as to the proportions ; if not, then there is no 
telling whether his subnitrate of bismuth is pure, whether his quinia 
is not heavily adulterated with cinchonia in some form, or whether his 
tannin is not some miserable compound, the result of forty acres of 
woodland, razed promiscuously. 

The elixir, as a pharmaceutical preparation, I claim is at once sim- 
ple, and advantageous to all concerned. Its label tells what it is, of 
what drugs compounded, and in what proportions. 

But here is another argument. Do not these elixirs reach cases 
that the drugs themselves will not ? Take, for instance, an elixir of 
quinia and taraxacum, made witb French brandy, simple syrup, cinna- 
mon water, coriander, caraway, aniseed, orange wine, ground orange- 
peel, Powers & Weightman's sulphate of quinia, and Parke Davis k 



Ant. Jo dr. Phabm. ") 
Feb. 1,1873. J 



A Defence of Elixirs, etc. 



55 



'Co.'s fluid extract of taraxacum ; out of all these ingredients not 
only a clear solution may be made, but also a palatable one, of which 
a tablespoonful is the ordinary dose. Now, take this as a tonic or 
antiperiodic, is it not better than a dose of quinia or a dose of tarax- 
acum ? and, again, is it not better for the patient, especially if a weak ? 
delicate woman, or a child (and for these this class of goods are in- 
tended more especially), than to sicken her with the nasty crudities ? 
The patient has the quinia in his or her system, also the taraxacum, 
together with the brandy and aromatics, and this in one tablespoonful. 
I only give this as one sample. The patient is able to go about with 
no more nausea after taking the dose than before, and obtains besides 
the beneficial effect. 

Copaiba can be made into an elixir, and deprived in a great degree 
of its nauseating qualities ; and I shall take great pleasure in sending 
you a sample and formula as soon as I attain an entirely satisfactory 
result. 

But, Mr. Editor, in conclusion I would like to ask you one thing, 
and I have no doubt that I am only one of many who would like to 
have you give your opinion in a full argument on this subject, and 
that is, By what rule or right, either moral or commercial, have either 
the profession or the trade to demand that these formulas be made 
public ? Is it because it will help the cause of healing the sick ? or 
is it because the intelligence of the whole world is against anything 
enveloped in secrecy ? — that if the owners were not ashamed of it 
they would make it public ? 

In answer, I would say that if any doubt rests upon the constitu- 
ents of these preparations there are the analytical chemists on hand. 
It is not a question of secrecy but a question of veracity and commer- 
cial honor between the physician who asserts that the elixirs of cali- 
saya are not elixirs of calisaya and the manufacturers who assert that 
they are. 

The reason why these formulas are not made public, I think, is this : 
One who takes a pride in his profession, and who is eternally devising 
some new way of making this or that, will in course of time stumble 
upon or find out something worth knowing. Even if this individual 
may not have a superlative education, still he may have perception 
enough to find what will render quinia less bitter, aloes, jalap and 
company less nauseating. He puts his idea into practical operation, 
and just as he is making a few dollars (the result of months and per- 



56 



A Defence of Elixirs, etc. 



f Am. Jour. Pharw „ 
\ Feb. 1, 1873. 



haps years of experience, thinking and toil), the profession step in 
and, like Turpin modified, demand, " Your formula or your profes- 
sional credit. We don't care if you do tell us that there is so much 
of this and that in it, we want to know hoiv you do it, and besides we 
want it published in the journals/' 

Sequel. The formula is published in the journals, some rich chemi- 
cal pirate sees it, thinks it is a good thing, gets it for nothing, and 
goes into it wholesale and retail, with gilt labels, plenty of advertise- 
ments, and lots of sale. The poor fellow who first got it up loses all 
except his self-respect, and for nothing else except to satisfy public 
opinion. Is this just ? 

Now I would suggest, with all due deference, a remedy. Let there 
be attached to the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, with a channel 
of publicity through the " Journal," a library of formulas, these for- 
mulas to be acted upon by two or three professors of the College.. 
Let them be divided into officinal (when accepted as worthy of that 
name), and unofficinal, with a subdivision of this class, according to 
merit, into A, B, C, D. As a reward to the inventor, let the College 
confer a diploma conveying a degree commensurate with the value of 
the formula, and attach to it, to pay the expenses, a fee of five dollars,, 
upon the payment of which the inventor would be entitled to his 
diploma. This money would be willingly paid, and would show con- 
clusively that he was the originator, no matter what thief would steal 
it after it became public. 

Then, to crown the whole thing, with your December number issue- 
a supplement (with a sufficient additional charge) of all these for- 
mulae, classified, with the authors' names, etc. 

This would change entirely the aspect of affairs, and the College 
would take the position it ought to take, i. e., the intelligence and 
brains of the profession, standing on the dry, safe ground of experi- 
ence, reaching out a helping, kindly hand to its children who are strug- 
gling in the mire, and seeking recognition from respectability. 

Longwood, Mich* % Jan. 13, 1873. 



Remarks by the Editor. — It is scarcely necessary to state here,, 
that the position taken by our correspondent in this question is not 
our own. We hold that no pharmacist has a right to secret formulas 
for any medicinal preparation, regarding this as an ethical question 
which has long since been settled for the medical profession, the mem- 



AM Feb!i',i P 873 RM '} Poitent Medicines and Private Formulas. 5T 

bers of which are in honor bound not to have any secrecy in regard to 
their mode of treatment or to the remedies employed. Whether or 
not the use by physicians of preparations made by secret formulas is 
tantamount to a violation of medical ethics, in letter or in spirit, is 
not for us to determine. But we know that if physicians and phar- 
macists had always acted upon the principles advocated by our cor- 
respondent, the days of antiquity would be still upon us, when the 
meagre knowledge was communicated from father to son, or from 
teacher to particularly favored pupils, when there was no pharmacy, 
and when the medicine man was merely a sorcerer and magician. If 
the numerous pharmacists and physicians, who have successfully la- 
bored to establish chemistry as an independent science, had kept their 
discoveries secret, our correspondent would now not be in the position 
of handling morphia, quinia, strychnia, or any other of the active 
principles of medicinal drugs, and chemical analysis, to which he re- 
fers, would be totally unknown. 

The suggestion of our correspondent, to reward the inventor of a 
new formula with a degree commensurate with the value of the same, 
is novel merely in these days of supposed education and knowledge, 
and we doubt not would receive the hearty approval of all inventors 
of golden pills, expectorants, cures for consumption, invigorating 
bitters, and of the entire host of quack nostrums. Happily, the days 
of the middle ages are passed, when the maker of a renowned nostrum 
would be rewarded by those in authority with money and perhaps with 
titles for divulging its composition. 

The action of the American Pharmaceutical Association at its last 
meeting, and of several local associations, in regard to elixirs and 
similar semi-nostrums, is evidence that there is an honest desire to 
suppress this nuisance of having in pharmacies a multitude of differ- 
ent preparations bearing the same name ; and this movement will be 
crowned with success, if it meets with the favorable consideration of 
the medical profession. 

For other points on the elixir question, we refer our readers to the 
Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association for 1872. 



PATENT MEDICINES AND PRIVATE FORMULAS. 
By Chas. G. Polk, M. D. 
Under this caption Mr. James W. Long makes some very excellent 
points in regard to one of the greatest curses to society at the present 



58 Patent Medicines and Private Formulas. { AM Feb. n i,'m3 aw * 

day, in the December number of the "Journal of Pharmacy." But, 
while "the American people are fond of being humbugged," as Bar- 
num most happily said, and are readily gulled by any and every va- 
riety of miserably trashy and forged certificates to swallow the abom- 
inable mixtures, syrups and pills concocted by an ignorant and heart- 
less set of villains, who traffic in human life as though it be as mer- 
chantable as a piece of pork or a head of cabbage, the sister profes- 
sions medicine and pharmacy have no right, on the one hand, to man- 
ifest indifference to this great and growing evil, or encourage it, on 
the other. 

The medical profession display too much lethargy, and treat con- 
sumption of those vile nostrums by society as a matter which concerns 
them not. 

It would also seem that interest, which is a powerful lever in human 
affairs, lies on the side of their consumption. The injuries they inflict 
oft give splendid opportunities for big, fat doctors' bills ; although I 
am sure that the number who view the subject from that standpoint is 
very small. 

Still the apathy they manifest is almost criminal, and permits the 
evil which a more vigorous action on their part might modify and 
lessen if it did not suppress. 

With the druggist it is different ; he regards the sale of those health- 
destroying agents as a part of his legitimate business. While he 
would not sell a glass of whiskey where he supposed there was chance 
of intoxication from it, he will unhesitatingly hand a bottle of a poi- 
sonous syrup to a young mother which may soothe her babe into eter- 
nal rest, or a bottle of almost as dangerous " expectorant " to the vic- 
tim of pulmonary consumption, which will prove an effectual ally to 
this sure destroyer of human life. The victim of this fatal disease 
requires sustaining treatment ; the impaired digestion, assimilation 
and sanguification needs aid and support. But do they receive it 
from the squill, senega and tartar emetic which compose the most pop- 
ular quack expectorant of the day, and which is advertised as almost a 
specific for this disease ? Alas ! no ; a combination more fatal cannot 
be found ; they sap the very foundation of these functions, antago- 
nize with the vital forces, and hasten the development of tubercles. 
Recently I heard an experienced physician say, " that the evil from 
this * expectorant ' counterbalanced all the good from cod-liver oil, 
that it annually hastened thousands into an untimely grave, and by 



A Veh V l;m^ M '} Granulated Effervescing Vichy Salt 59 

undermining the general health, no doubt in many cases where there 
was a strong predisposition, with irritation already existing on the 
lungs, it awoke this predisposition into activity and developed the 
<lisease." 

Men may thus traffic in human life, rear temples of human blood, 
and grow rich on the wages of human deception ; but, as sure as 
there is justice in Heaven, so sure will Divine retribution overtake 
those legalized murderers. 

I would, however, be doing a great injustice to a very large portion 
of educated pharmacists to intimate that they entertained any sym- 
pathy for this nefarious business. They recognize the evil, deplore 
it, and find the remedy beyond their reach. Circumstances compel 
them to violate their strict sense of right — circumstances they cannot 
escape without yielding the business to men void of principle, who, 
incompetent for the duties of legitimate trade, would become the 
ready aiders and abettors of quacks. Then, however wrong in the 
abstract the selling of patent medicines may appear, there are but 
few druggists so situated as to be able to exclude them from their 
business. " What cannot be remedied must be endured," but it 
nevertheless is the duty to discourage, as far as possible, the use of 
patent medicines and proprietary formulas. Proper State legislation 
would greatly modify the evil, and this remedy is badly needed. The 
correct formula for each should be furnished, and a competent board 
appointed to determine its merit, with authority to exclude all pos- 
sessed of objectionable constituents, or liable under ordinary circum- 
stances to do harm. Let us have such legislation. No legal enact- 
ment is worse needed — none could do more good. 

Hoping that this subject may receive the attention due it from the 
pharmacist and physician, I will not dwell longer on this disagree- 
able subject. 

GRANULATED EFFERVESCING VICHY SALT. 
By Chas. L. Mitchell. 
For the past few years the attention of pharmacists has been drawn 
to a class of preparations known by the name of Gran. Eff. Powders. 
They are principally of English manufacture, although some few are 
made in this country, and are intended to be used as substitutes for 
the mineral waters so much in vogue, and to possess the advantages of 
small bulk and stability. The Gran. Eff. Vichy Salt, or Vichy Pow- 



60 



Sulphovinate of Soda. 



f Am. Jour, Pharmu 
X Feb. 1,1873. 



der, is the most unreliable of these, generally becoming discolored 1 
after being exposed to the atmosphere for a short time. By the fol- 
lowing formula it can be made so as to be free from this objection and 
keep perfectly white : 



Dry Bicarb. Soda, 


• 3vij, 


" Powd. Sugar, 


5xiijss, 


" Precip. Carb. Lime, . 


. grs. 252, 


" Carb. Magnesia, . 


" 64, 


" Carb. Iron Sacch., 


" 60, 


" Chloride Sodium, 


oij, 


" Sulphate Soda, 




Powd. Citric Acid, 


Ex. 



Mix all the articles well together ; powder, and pass several times 
through a No. 60 sieve. Then moisten the powder with f ^iijss stronger 
alcohol, to render it slightly damp and adherent, and then granulate 
through a No. 8 sieve. Dry the granules at a temperature not ex- 
ceeding 120° Fah., and sift through No. 8 sieve. Bottle and keep dry.. 

A sample of Vichy salt prepared in this manner remained perfectly^ 
white after being exposed for over two months. 



SULPHOVINATE OF SODA. 
By Charles Rice. 

Having prepared this salt for some time, and having tried several 
methods for obtaining it, I can recommend the following, as yielding- 
a good product, at a moderate price : 

Take of alcohol (sp. gr. 0-815), sulphuric acid (sp. gr. 1*830), each 
64 fl. oz. Add the acid to the alcohol, contained in a large flask, in 
portions, at short intervals. At first, the temperature of the mixture 
rapidly rises to 212° F., and violent ebullition takes place at each 
successive addition of acid, but this gradually ceases as the specific 
gravity of the mixture increases, and the last portions of the acid 
may be added quite rapidly. Cover it well, and allow it to stand for 
two or three days. The mixture of alcohol and acid should not be 
raised to the boiling point, since the yield of sulphovinic acid is there- 
by considerably diminished, while that of oil of wine, ether, etc., i& 
proportionally increased. Pour the mixture slowly, while stirring* 
into five times its bulk of water, and saturate the acid liquid with car- 
bonate of lime. Strain the liquid, wash the precipitated sulphate of 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Feb. 1, 1873. / 



Sulphovinate of Soda. 



61 



lime, and add the washings to the filtrate, which now contains sulpho- 
vinate of lime. Add to the latter a solution of carbonate of soda, 
until it just ceases to give a precipitate. Instead of carbonate of 
soda, I have also used oxalate of soda, which, although requiring con- 
siderably more water for solution, and consequently a longer time for 
the final evaporation, has this advantage, that it effectually removes 
the whole of the lime salts, thus making filtration during evaporation 
unnecessary. Filter the liquid through filtering paper free from iron, 
to remove the precipitated carbonate of lime ; wash the latter, and 
evaporate the filtrate until it measures about 70 fl. oz. Filter again 
from a small quantity of separated sulphate and carbonate of lime, 
and evaporate until a pellicle forms. Then set it aside for a few days, 
and remove the crystals. It is very difficult to obtain more than one 
or perhaps two crops of well-defined crystals ; the last mother-liquors 
deposit a number of hemispherical, knob-like crystalline masses, of a 
pasty consistence and exceedingly difficult to drain. I now prefer to 
evaporate the liquid at once to a syrupy consistence, and then, under 
-constant stirring, to evaporate to dryness. 

The product is a white, granular salt, of a faint ethereal odor, and 
a cooling, somewhat aromatic taste ; it is very deliquescent, soluble in 
0-7 parts of water, at 60° F., also soluble in alcohol, with which it is 
-capable of forming a crystalline compound. When pure, BaCl solu- 
tion should throw down no precipitate, or at least produce only slight 
cloudiness. 

The quantity of sulphovinic acid produced depends upon the speci- 
fic gravity of the materials, and on the temperature employed ; a 
decrease of the specific gravity and an increase of the temperature 
diminishing the yield. The liquid obtained by mixing alcohol and 
sulphuric acid of the above indicated densities, precautions having 
been taken to guard against loss, was found, after being cooled down 
to the original temperature, to have shrunk 3*5 per cent, in volume. 
The amount of uncombined sulphuric acid was determined volumetri- 
cally, with the following results : 

Original amount of sulphuric acid taken, . 3458*90 gm. 
Containing of dry S0 3 , . . 2594*18 gm. 

Total amount of free S0 3 (dry), found in 

the mixture, mean of three experiments, 1409-86 gm., or 54-3 p. c. 
Hence total amount of SO t in combination, 1184*32 gm., or 45*7 p. c. 

New York, Jan. 14, 1873. 



62 



Galabrian Manna, 



i Am. Jocu. Pha,*-*,. 
\ Feb. 1,1813,. 



YIELD OF MUSK FROM BAGS. 
Editor of "American Journal of Pharmacy" : 

In the December number, page 565, the table of musk yield is of 
interest, and, having some facts, I will communicate them for publi- 
cation : 

Caddy. Pods. Original pods. Musk. Empty pods. 

No. 1 24 20-75 oz. 7*125 oz. 13*625 oz. avoirdupois. 

No. 2 20 20*75 " 6*500* " 14*25 " 

No. 3 29 24 00 " 7 000 " 17*00 u " 



Total, 73 65*50 " 20*625 " 44 875 " 

Arerage for 1 pod, 392*5 grains; musk, 123*6 grains. 

Respectfully, Thos. J. Covell^ 

Jersey City, K J., Jan. 9, 1873. 



ON CALABRIAN MANNA * 
By Daniel Han-bury, F.R.S., F.L.S., F.C.S. 

Manna, it is stated in the British Pharmacopceia (1867), is a con- 
crete saccharine exudation from the stem of Fraxinm Ornws, L., and! 
F. rotundifolia, D. C, which trees are cultivated for the purpose of 
yielding it chiefly in Calabria and Sicily. Of the method of collect- 
ing manna in Sicily, there are tolerably exact accounts ; and the 
manna plantations of that island have also been fully described. f 

Having never heard of manna plantations in Calabria, nor seen* 
any modern account of manna-gathering in that region, I wrote in 
1868 to my friend Colonel Yule, of Palermo, to inquire if he could 
furnish me with any particulars. Colonel Yule being unable to an- 
swer my questions, communicated them to Mr. Grant, British Consul 
at Brindisi, who, in his turn, sought to obtain the desired information 
from some of the British vice-consuls (Italians) in Calabria. But ex- 
cept the statement that the site of its production was the province of 
Calabria Citra, and especially the territory of Rossano, on the shores 
of the Gulf of Taranto, I was unable to gain any very precise knowl- 
edge on the subject. 

* Read before a meeting of the British Pharmaceutical Conference at Bright 
ton, August 14th, 1872. Reprint, communicated by the Author. 

f See in particular a paper by Dr. Clegborn, on the Botany and Agriculture 
of Malta and Sicily. — Transactions of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, vol_ 
x, 1868—69. 



Am Joint. Pharm. ) 
Feb. 1, 1873. J 



Oalahrian Manna. 



Here I may remind you of an investigation into the history of 
manna which I made in 1869,* and that one conclusion to which it 
led was this, — that manna was collected in Calabria for hundreds of 
years prior to it being a commercial product of Sicily, and that the 
earliest accounts of manna-gathering in the latter country, only date 
from the second half of the 17th century. 

It will be well now to consider some remarks that have been made 
by travellers regarding manna as an object of industry in Calabria, 
Though they are only passing allusions, they suffice to show that this 
drug was at least a well-recognized production of the country in ques- 
tion. 

Baron Eiedesel, a German nobleman who made an interesting jour- 
ney through Sicily and Southern Italy about a century ago, and 
whose travels have been published both in German and English,f 
travelled from Cotrone to Coriati, small towns on the eastern coast 
of Calabria. Of the latter he remarks, that " it is a bishopric of 
Calabria, . . . round which they collect the best manna and in 
the greatest quantity. The owners of the manna-trees are obliged to 
sell their manna to the king for a fixed price : the better sort, or what 
is commonly called in cannole, for 2 carlini [8^.], and the worse, or 
infrasca, for 8 grani[Z\d.~] the pound. These revenues are farmed 
for 32,000 ducats [£5533] per annum. The greatest quantity is col- 
lected about Cariati and Strongoli." 

About 20 miles west of Cariati, is the small town of Corigliano, 
where, says the Baron, they also collect " vast quantities of manna" 

Half a century after this traveller, an Englishman, the Hon. Rich- 
ard Keppel Craven, made a journey through Calabria, visiting among 
other places Cariati, the vicinity of which was at that period still fa- 
mous for manna. The following is from his published journal :J — 
" The mountains near Cariati abound with game, and the forests, 
which richly clothe their summits, furnish quantities of that species 
of ash which produces the manna, a considerable branch of commerce 
in this province, and more particularly esteemed from this district." 

The foregoing notices, scanty as they are, are yet of interest, as 

* Historical Notes on Manna. — Pharm. Journ., xi (1870), 326. 

t Travels through Sicily and that part of Italy formerly called Magna Grcecia, 
translated from the German by J. R. Forster, F. R. S., London, 1773. 

% Tour through the Southern Provinces of the Kingdom of Naples, London,. 
1821. 



64 



Cdlabrian Manna. 



f Am. Joer. Pharm. 
\ Feb. 1,1873., 



coming from eye-witnesses, or at least from inquiries on the spot. 
Let me now add a few observations of my own, the result of a short 
journey during the present year, through a portion of the province 
of Calabria Citra. 

First, when at Florence, I inquired for (Jalahrian Manna, address- 
ing myself to the principal firm of wholesale druggists in that city. 
The answer I got was that Calabrian manna was an article they 
never purchased ; but that if I wished to see the drug it was possible, 
as it so happened that a small keg of it had been sent to them for 
disposal. Of this offer I availed myself. I found to my surprise 
that the drug was a soft viscid mass containing small tears, mixed 
with fragments of leaves, sticks and dirt, — in fact, I regarded it of 
such very bad quality, that I declined a sample which was kindly 
offered me. 1 thought also that if I travelled into Calabria I should 
easily obtain much better, as well as all desired particulars respect- 
ing the trade in manna, of which, according to the latest edition (1868) 
of Murray's Handbook for Southern Italy, Calabria Citra is the " prin- 
cipal seat." I accordingly proceeded southward. 

Around Florence, I may remark, and especially between that city 
and Pisa, the manna ash (Fraxinus Ornus, L.) is frequent, being one 
of the small low trees grown as a support for the vine. Except these 
examples, I hardly saw the tree until I reached the shores of the 
Gulf of Taranto, when I observed some very tall specimens in the 
strip of humid forest a little south of Policoro. 

Journeying onward I arrived at Rossano, a town in Calabria Citra, 
of about 10,000 inhabitants, situated three or four miles from the 
sea. Here I learnt that the manna trees, which are called Ornelli, 
grow on some of the adjacent mountains, — that they are of large 
size, and are not cultivated, — that manna is obtained from them by 
incisions in the trunk made by the peasants in July and August, — 
that the manna got is mostly of the soft or fatty kind, very little of 
it being obtained in long white pieces or cannoli, and in some seasons 
none at all. 

The collecting of manna about Rossano is at present, I was as- 
sured, a very small and insignificant branch of industry. Few per- 
sons among those from whom I sought information knew anything 
of the gathering of manna, or even of the existence of the manna-ash 
in the neighborhood. One gentleman, a principal inhabitant of the 
town, and holding an official position, to whom I had a letter of in- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Feb. 1, 1873. J 



Calabrian Manna. 



65 



troduction, assured me that the incising of the stems of the trees had 
been for the last four or five years forbidden by the Government ; 
and the same statement was made by others. It is plain, however, 
that manna is still gathered about Rossano, though the amount is 
quite insignificant, for I obtained from a pharmacien in the town a 
specimen, being part of some he had purchased from a peasant the 
previous season. 

Hoping for more information, and that I might at least obtain 
better specimens, I went to Corigliano, a small town, the mountains 
around which produce, according to Murray's Handbook, " the finest 
manna in Calabria," — a fact without doubt perfectly true a century 
ago. Here I was told that no manna is now brought in for sale, the 
collection having entirely ceased. I called on five pharmaciens in 
the town: three of them had in stock no manna whatever; the 
fourth had some which he had purchased in Naples ; but the fifth 
(Signor Giuseppe Guidi) had a box containing a pound or two of 
manna of the country, of which he kindly gave me a sample. He 
told me that it was old, none being now collected. This manna is a 
-moist, semifluid, saccharine mass, of a dirty yellowish grey. 

On the 5th of May, 1872, I reached Cosenza, the capital of the 
province, situated at the head of the valley of the Crati, in passing 
through which I observed a few trees of Ornus. The locality was 
anciently renowned for manna. Here I repeated my inquiries in 
several pharmacies, but in vain. At length I found one, the pro- 
prietor of which showed me some soft manna, which he said had been 
got near Cotrone. I discovered also in another pharmacie manna of 
two qualities, seelta and in pasta, both of which the pharmacien stated 
he had bought of peasants who had collected it at Rossano. The col- 
lecting of manna about Cosenza was quite ignored by most of the 
persons whom I asked for information. Those who had any acquaint- 
ance with the drug declared it was no longer an object of industry in 
that part of Calabria. One pharmacien asserted that the collection 
of manna had been prohibited for the last six or seven years. 

The course of my journey having led me to Messina, I had the 
pleasure of making the acquaintance of Mr. Robert Sanderson, a mer- 
chant of that city of long standing, whose business in Italian produce 
includes the shipment of manna. On asking this gentleman about 
Calabrian manna, he informed me he was ignorant of such a commo- 
dity; and on my showing him some of the drug in the soft form iu 

5 



66 



Calabrian Manna. 



\ Am. Jour. Pharw. 
\ Feb. 1,1873. 



which I had procured it at Cosenza, he expressed much surprise, and' 
declared it to be unlike any Sicilian manna he had seen. 

No specimen of Calabrian manna was contributed to the Italian 
Exhibition held at Florence in 1861 ; but there appear to have been 
three samples from Rogliano in the London Exhibition of the follow- 
ing year.* 

From what I have already stated, the conclusion is I think irre- 
sistible. — that Calabrian manna as an article of commerce has prac- 
tically ceased to exist, and that the collection of manna in that part 
of Italy is on the verge of extinction. 

I regret that when at Rossano I was unable to visit the woods of 
Ornus which undoubtedly exist in that vicinity. But the habits of 
the Calabrian peasantry are such that it is impossible for travellers 
to quit the high-roads without personal danger. 

The better to inform myself of manna industry, and especially that 
I might become well acquainted with the tree, I afterwards paid a 
visit to the manna plantations at Capaci near Palermo. I also in- 
spected the trees which are cultivated at the Instituto Agrario Cas~ 
telmwvo near that city,*)" and in the park of La Favorita. But as the 
time of my visit (May 16 — 22) was not that for collecting the drug, 
I have no details of particular novelty to communicate. 

Respecting the manna-ash itself, however, I wish to say a few 
words. It has often been stated, as in the British Pharmacopoeia 
(for which in this case I presume the Prodromes of De Candolle is 
the authority), that there are two species of manna-ash, namely, 
Fraxinus Ornus and F. rotundifolia. Many modern writers on 
pharmacology admit but a single species, F. Ornus, L., of which F< 
rotundifolia is stated to be a cultivated variety peculiar to Calabria 
and Sicily, and propagated by grafting. 

I do not think either statement satisfactory. F. Ornus is very 
variable even in its wild state, and in the same locality. J As to the 
tree which is cultivated in Sicily, and of which I have examined spe- 

* They were contributed by Signor Giovanni Morelli of Rogliano, Calabria. 

f A most interesting agricultural college, founded by private munificence, 
where twenty-two lads are studying scientific and practical husbandry under 
the able directorship of Professor Inzenga. 

X As for instance at Eza near Nice where the tree is plentiful, and where I 
have gathered specimens with the leaflets almost orbicular, and others with 
leaflets narrowly lanceolate. 



A Ven,T 8 H 73 RM '} Spirit of Nitrous Ether, etc. 67 

cimens from all parts of the island,* it likewise presents great varia- 
tions, but no special form that can be singled out as deserving the 
name of rotimdifolia, or even that can be recognized as par excellence 
a cultivated variety. It is true that the tree in some manna planta- 
tions is occasionally grafted ; certain trees yielding a poor supply of 
saccharine matter being thus replaced by others of a more productive 
nature. But I observed no grafting at Capaci where the trees are 
grown like coppice-oak in England, and where such a plan of treat- 
ment would therefore be hardly worth the trouble. 

[The paper was illustrated by several samples of Calabrian manna 
procured at Rossano, Corigliano and Cosenza, and by a large suite of 
botanical specimens of Fraxiinm Omu$> L., and a stem of the latter 
showing the incisions for manna.] 



SPIRIT OF NITROUS ETHER A SUPPOSED TEST FOR SOME 
ALKALOIDS. 
By John M. Maisch. 
About a year ago a friend wrote to me that he had observed some 
reactions of quinia and cinchonia, which might perhaps be valuable 
for the detection of these and other alkaloids. The reaction was 
described as follows : 

44 Quinia or cinchonia, to which some sweet spirit of nitre and a 
few drops of ammonia is added, produces with a little muriated tinc- 
ture of iron a red color similar, to that formed with sulphocyanide of 
potassium and iron. Morphia treated in the same way produces a 
beautiful green color. Most of the other alkaloids are not aifected." 

On repeating the experiments with commercial spirit of nitrous 
ether, which had been exposed to the atmosphere for a considerable 
time, a quinia solution assumed the red color described, but morphia 
solution became purple instead of green. On the addition of a few 
drops of muriatic acid, the red quinia solution became colorless, while 
the morphia solution assumed a blue color, the characteristic reaction 
of morphia and ferric chloride, and turned green on the further addi- 
tion of tincture of iron, as might have been expected from mixing a 
yellow and blue liquid which do not chemically react upon each 
other. 

* Many of them courteously presented to me by Professor Todaro, of the 
Botanical Garden, Palermo. 



68 Ointments of Oxide of Zinc, etc. { A Vel v i,m£*' 

This observation at once suggested the probability that the spirit 
used for these experiments contained acetic acid, which was proven 
byj;he deep red color produced with it after neutralization with am- 
monia, by a ferric salt, the color disappearing on the addition of acids. 
Spirit of nitrous ether, however, which had been recently prepared 
by Redwood's process, was entirely free from acetic acid and did not 
produce the red color with salts of iron. 

It is well known that by the action of nitric acid upon alcohol, 
nitrous, acetic and formic ethers are formed, in variable proportions, 
depending chiefly on the strength of the materials employed, and on 
the temperature at which the distillation took place. The two last- 
named ethers do not affect the color of ferric chloride until by expo- 
sure or by the action of caustic alkalies acetic and formic acids have 
been liberated from their ethylic combination, when, after neutraliza- 
tion, the peculiar red color will appear with ferric chloride, more or 
less modified by the smaller or larger excess of the iron salt, or by 
the presence of a compound striking with it a peculiar color. 

Old spirit of nitrous ether contains also free nitrous or nitric acid, 
as may be seen by the blackish-brown color produced with ferrous 
salts on the addition of hydrochloric or sulphuric acid. 



OINTMENTS OF OXIDE OF ZINC,»AND OF MERCURY. 
By Julius Kalish. 

Ungt. Zinci Oxidi. — In the last number of the " American Jour- 
nal of Pharmacy," a process is given by Mr. Bolton, which, while it 
will give a very smooth ointment, is too expensive, requiring too 
much time and labor in its execution. It consists essentially of grind- 
ing the oxide in the fat. 

I have prepared this ointment in the following way, which accom- 
plishes the same results by far less labor, the great desideratum in all 
formulas : 

Rub the zinc oxide in a wedgwood or unglazed porcelain mortar, 
with considerable pressure, until as finely divided as possible ; now 
add gradually, with constant trituration and pressure, sufficient sweet 
oil of almonds to form a smooth paste ; then add a little lard, mix 
thoroughly ; then add balance. 

This process will answer for all ointments containing insoluble sub- 
stances, and for all ordinary quantities. I have always succeeded 
with it in making smooth, uniform ointments. 



A Teb < °i;?873? M '} Gleanings from the European Journals. 69 

While on the subject of ointments, I will say a few words about 

Ungt. Hydrarg. Oxidi Rubri. — Every pharmacist has heard, 
with dismay, on some very busy day, a call for ten cents' worth of 
this bete noir. A short time ago I saw in one of our journals the fol- 
lowing formula : 

Jfy. Olei Ricini, .... ^vj, 
Cerge albas, .... gij, 
Hydrarg. Oxidi Rubri, . . . sj. 

M. ft. ungt. 1. a. 

This makes an ointment of good consistency, and keeps. I have 
some, made six months ago, which shows no signs of change, being as 
bright as when first made. But it has the objection, when freshly 
prepared, of having, in a considerable degree, the unpleasant odor of 
castor oil, although this is partially lost in time ; but, what is more 
objectionable, it has the irritating properties of the oil when applied 
to delicate parts, as the eyelids. To obviate this I substituted olive 
oil for the castor oil, but not with satisfactory results ; still I am not 
able to state positively that olive oil, entirely free from rancidity, 
will deoxidize the mercury, as I have some doubts about the oil I 
used. I then tried sweet oil of almonds ; with this I have an oint- 
ment, made ten weeks ago, which has as yet shown no signs of change. 
I had previously tried lard, purified by different methods, also adding 
a few drops liq. potassae, as remarked in the U. S. Dispensatory ; but 
in each case there was a reduction of the oxide. 

New York, Jan. 16, 1873. 



Note. — Ointment of oxide of mercury, made with yellow wax as 
directed by the new Pharmacopoeia, will keep unaltered for several 
weeks. — Ed. Am. Journ. Pharm. 



GLEANINGS FROM THE EUROPEAN JOURNALS. 
By the Editor. 

Resin of guaiacum and its constituents have been studied by E. 
Schaer with the view of ascertaining which principle has the property 
of striking the well known blue coloration with oxidizing agents. 
The action of simple solvents upon the crude resin cannot clear up 
this question, since some constituents, though insoluble in a simple 



70 Gleanings from the European Journals \ { A *FeR, im?" 

solvent when chemically pure, are dissolved to a greater or smaller 
extent through the influence of other constituents. His observations 
lead him to the conclusion that this principle is guaiaconic acid, which 
is present in the crude resin to the amount of about 70 per cent., 
while guaiaresinic acid, of which the resin contains 10 per cent., is 
not colored by oxidizing agents. The blue color produced with pure 
guaiaconic acid is of longer duration if the oxidizing agents, after 
parting with oxygen, yield bases or indifferent compounds, like per- 
manganic and ferric acids, the peroxides of lead, manganium, silver, 
&c. ; and it is readily changing, if the oxidizing agents produce acids, 
as for instance chlorine, bromine, iodine, ferric and auric chlorides, 
&c. A molecular change in the constitution of this acid is produced 
by light, particularly by the direct sunlight, even if oxygen is care- 
fully excluded, so that it loses its property of turning blue with oxi- 
dizers. This shows the importance of carefully preserving a solution 
of guaiac resin, to be used as reagent, from the influence of light and 
air. The resin prepared from the wood by alcohol under exclusion of 
light and air is more sensitive, and yields a blue color of greater in- 
tensity and purity than the commercial resin. The green coloration 
assumed by the wood and resin on exposure is due to the presence of 
yellow coloring matter in addition to guaiaconic acid. — Wittsteins 
Viert. Schr.y 1873, 68-74, from Schtveiz. Wochenschr. 

Phosphorescence of orris root — X. Landerer has observed this phe- 
nomenon repeatedly on digging at night the rhizome of Iris florentina ; 
it occurred in the form of luminous spots. — Ibid., 76. 

lodal C 4 HI 3 2 , discovered by Aime more than 30 years ago, which 
is obtained by acting upon iodine with a mixture of absolute alcohol 
and concentrated nitric acid, is recommended by Guyot as an excel- 
lent anaesthetic, in doses of one to two and a half grams. It is a 
colorless oily liquid, resembling chloral in odor ; boils at 25° C, and 
is decomposed by alkalies into iodoform and formic acid. — Ibid., 95, 
from Journ. de Chim. Med. 

Desiccation of egg albumen. — Stan. Martin recommends the follow- 
ing as the most expeditious method : in an airy room, well protected 
from dust, a square frame is placed upon two chairs or suspended by 
cord, and a piece of linen or muslin stretched over it, on which a 
layer of egg albumen is spread. When this is dry, a second, third 



AM Ffb!i;i8 H 73 RM '} Gleanings from the European Journals. 71 

and even fourth layer is spread on, until scales several millimeters in 
thickness are obtained. In drying, the albumen detaches itself from 
the fabric, and to hasten the desiccation, the whole may be exposed 
to the sun under a cover of unglazed black material. — Jour, de Pharm. 
et de Ohim., Dec, 429. 

To hide the bitter taste of some medicines, like quinia, colocynth, 
aloes, quassia, &c, L' Union pharmaceutique, 1872, Dec, proposes 
to keep some liquorice in the mouth after taking such substances, 
when the bitter taste will instantly disappear.* Liquorice merely 
masks, it does not destroy the bitter taste ; its action is analogous to 
that of bitter almonds upon musk, and of anise upon valerian. When 
musk is triturated with some distilled bitter almond water the musk 
odor disappears, but gradually reappears as the oil of bitter almonds 
evaporates. 

* A new falsification of ammoniac is reported by Ch. Meniere, who 
observed globular pieces of translucent quartz varying in color be- 
tween white, yellow, orange and reddish, imbedded in the gum resin, 
so as to give it the appearance of a handsome article, and calculated 
to deceive unless closely inspected.— Ibid., p. 355. 

Solubility of quinia salts in water and glycerin. — S chl agd enhauffen 
lias instituted a series of experiments on this subject, with the view of 
obtaining a solution sufficiently concentrated for subcutaneous injec- 
tion ; one part of some salts requires for solution at the temperature 
stated, the following parts of 

Distilled water. Glycerin. 



Degrees C. 100 50 40 15 12 100 65 40 35 10 



Sulphate, 25 120 — 300 4 10 20 40 

Hydrochlorate, 4 — 22 24 2 to 3 parts. 

Butyrate, 13 — 55 105 — 130 4 7 15 17 

Some of the glycerin solutions when rapidly cooled to 0° C, re- 
main clear for a longer time than by slow cooling to 15° C. ; this 
supersaturation affords a means for using the solutions hypodermi- 
cally. When cooked slowly to 15° C, glycerin solutions containing 



* Liquorice has been long in use for masking the bitter and also the nauseous 
saline taste of certain medicines. — Editor Amer. Jour. Pharm. 



72 Gleanings from the European Journals. { ia 5S££iSS^ 

8 per cent, of sulphate of quinia may be employed for 1 day. 

4 days.. 
16 hours.. 



10 " 

19 " 
1 day.. 



25 " " hyposulphite " " 

33 " " hydrochlorate " " 44 

50 " u formiate 44 " 44 

25 " " acetate 44 44 " 

50 " u sulphovinate 44 44 44 

50 44 " lactate u 44 " 

33 44 44 tannate 44 44 44 

If these solutions are kept at a temperature of 30° C. they re*- 
main limped for 8 to 15 days. — Ibid., 359-364. 

To detect an admixture of alcohol in volatile oils, R. Bcettger re- 
commends to agitate the suspected volatile oil in a graduated tube, 
with an equal bulk of pure glycerin, spec, gravity 1*25, which m 
readily soluble in alcohol, but does not combine with the volatile oiL 
The diminution in volume of the latter indicates the amount of the 
admixture. — Ohem. Centr. Bl., 1872, No. 47, from Jahresb. d. phys± 
Ver. zu Frankfurt. 

Constituents of sweet almonds. — Professor Ludwig communicates 
the results of an investigation made in the laboratory at Jena by E. 
Scheitz, in 1865, who found besides fixed oil, albuminous compounds* 
emulsin and cellulose, also glucose, a chromogen glucoside (yellow > 
becoming cherry red with alkalies), small quantities of amygdalin and 
tannin which reacts green with iron and is doubtless contained in the 
outer integuments. — Archiv d. Pharm., 1872, Nov., 420-423. 

* Estimation of camphor in alcoholic liquids. — Hager distils the liquid 
in a water-bath, the distilled alcohol containing the greater part of 
the camphor, is mixed with an equal volume of water and agitated 
with one-tenth volume of bisulphide of carbon. After separation, a 
portion of the hydroalcoholic liquid is returned to the flask and re- 
distilled from a glycerin bath at 110° C. The distillate contains all 
the camphor, is added to remaining mixture and bisulphide of carbon, 
mixed with more water and twice agitated with carbon bisulphide. 
The latter solvent has taken up all the camphor and volatile oils if 
present. This solution is evaporated spontaneously in a tared glass 
dish with straight sides at an atmospheric temperatgre not exceeding 
15° C, the temperature of the dish being lowered by the evaporation 
to 5 to 10°, preventing the evaporation of the camphor almost com- 



%en; i P 873 RM '} New Anaesthetic from Ghlor. of Carb&n. 73 

pletely, while the volatile oils evaporate freely. Should a larger 
quantity of volatile oils be present, the residue must be again treated 
with carbon bisulphide in the same manner, until a solid residue is 
left, when it is immediately weighed. In the presence of oil of lav- 
ender, and particularly of rosemary, the camphor is obtained in 
prisms. — Pharm. Oentr. Halle, 1872, No. 50. 

Indelible writing ink is obtained by adding to ordinary ink some 
ferrocyanide of potassium. The use of acids for removing the ink, 
causes the formation of Prussian blue. — Pharm. Zeitung, 1872, No. 
104. 



ON A NEW ANAESTHETIC OBTAINED FROM CHLORIDE OP 
CARBON* 
By JVJM. Hardy and Dumontpalier. 

Chloride of carbon unites in definite proportions with alcohol, and 
furnishes a liquid which boils at a fixed temperature, and possesses 
strong anaesthetic properties. To obtain it, 30-8 parts of chloride of 
carbon are mixed with 4-6 parts of alcohol, the mixture distilled, and 
the portion collected which boils at 66° C. 

It is a colorless, transparent, mobile liquid, of an agreeable odor,, 
and a density of 1-44 at 13° C. and at a pressure of 0-755. Its 
boiling point, 66° C, is below that of both its constituents, chloride 
of carbon boiling at 77° and alcohol at 78*5°. It is unalterable in 
the air, volatilizes slowly and burns with difficulty, the flame having 
a green margin. It is decomposed by water, sulphuric and hydro- 
chloric acids, chloride of carbon being deposited. Aided by a mode- 
rate heat, nitric acid attacks it briskly, with the disengagement of 
red fumes and the separation of chloride of carbon, while the super- 
natant liquid yields oxalic acid. 

. Analysis leads to the formula 2CC1 4 ,C 2 I1 6 0. Its density, however, 
which in two experiments was found to be 4*2 and 4*1, does not cor- 
respond with the theoretical density required by this formula.. 
Whether it be regarded as a compound, or as a mixture, it is curious 
that it has a fixed boiling point, and all the physical appearances of a 
body of definite composition. Other analogous cases are known 
which have not yet been interpreted. 

It acts as an anaesthetic, for which purpose its ethereal odor and 



* Translated from Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie, 1872, Dec, 



74 Dispensing Note on Chloral Hydrate. { Am fS;I^ 

its low boiling point render its application easy. Experiments were 
made with a dog of medium size ; the mouth was kept closed, the 
inhalation took place from a sponge through the nostrils so that a 
certain quantity of air was likewise allowed to enter ; 15 grms., in 
three portions, were sufficient. Comparative experiments, made upon 
the same dog, in intervals of several days, with chloride of carbon 
and with chloroform, in uniform doses of 15 grams, lead the authors 
to the conclusion that the last two liquids act with greater intensity 
than the new substance, which, however, should be used with the 
greatest care in experimenting upon human subjects. — Bull. Therap. 



DISPENSING NOTE ON CHLORAL HYDRATE * 
By J. G. Plumer. 

There have been many suggestions put forward respecting the dis- 
pensing and dose of chloral hydrate. It was first, I believe, intro- 
duced on the Continent, and has been given there in doses consisting 
of only five grains, principally combined with simple syrup and dis- 
tilled water. But in England it is given in doses ranging from five 
to fifteen or twenty grains, either in the form of draught, syrup or 
mixture. It is generally prescribed in the form of a syrup ; tolu and 
other flavoring adjuncts being employed to disguise the taste. In my 
opinion the Syrupus Flor. Aurantii, P.B., is the best form of combi- 
nation with which it can be used. It seems most effectually to avoid 
the sickly feeling created by the chloral hydrate ; I venture to sug- 
gest the employment of a concentrated solution which may prove con- 
venient. I find that one fluid drachm of solution made with distilled 
water may contain so large a quantity as one drachm by weight of the 
chloral hydrate. I therefore use this formula : — 
R. 

Chloral. Hydrat. . . . I j. 

Aquae destillat. . . . q. s. ad fl. 3 j* 
About five drachms of aqua destillata are found necessary, and the 
result is satisfactory. Hence in a prescription ordering 3 ij chloral 
hydrate, two drachms of the concentrated solution will be wanted. 
The convenient applications of this liquor will be obvious. Syrup of 
chloral hydrate in any combination may be instantaneously prepared. 

* Read at the Evening Meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great 
Britain, December 4, 1872. 



1873?*' { Decomposition of Eydtaie of Chloral. 75 
Thus:— 

R. 

Liq. Chloral Hydrat. •.. . "I 30. 
Syrup. Flor. Aurant. . . z iv. ' 
Syrup. Simplicis . . . 3 iv. 
The resulting syrup will contain ten grains of chloral hydrate to 
the drachm. Should a colored syrup be desired, as is frequently the 
case, then the following formula may be substituted : — 
R. 

Syrup. Rhceados . . . 3 S3. 
Liq. Chloral. Hydrat. . . m, 80. 
Syrup. Flor. Aurant. . . adsj. 
Or/ 

Liq. Chloral. Hydrat. . nt 80, 

Tinct. Cocci. . . . ij. 

Syrup. Flor. Aurant. . . adgj. 
An anodyne draught of any requisite strength may be expeditiously 
pTepared ; and the solution has this advantage, that although in so 
highly concentrated a state, it will keep without decomposition any 
reasonable amount of time. — Lond. Pharm. Journ. and Trans., Deo. 
7, 1872. 



THE DECOMPOSITION OF HYDRATE OF CHLORAL * 
By M. Byasson. 

Former investigations of the author have led him to the conclusion 
that the physiological action of hydrate of chloral is not the same as 
that of chloroform introduced slowly into the system, but that it is the 
joint result of the chloroform and the formic acid produced under the 
influence of the alkalinity of the blood.f He has also shown that 
sulphuretted hydrogen combines with anhydrous chloral to form a 
sulphydrate analogous to the hydrate, and like it having soporific 
properties. J 

In the decomposition of oxalic acid by glycerin, M. Byasson, by re- 
placing the water by alcohol, has etherified directly the formic acid, 
and thus obtained formic ether by a new process. He was also in- 

* Abstracted from " Comptes Rendus," vol. Ixxv, p. 1628. 

t Pharm. Journ. [3] II, p. 484. Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1872, p. 34. 

X Ibid., p. 1045. Ibid., 1872, p. 357. 



76 On tlie Properties of Opium, etc. {^eb^Mwf** 

duced to experiment whether hydrate of chloral, which contains the 
elements of chloroform and formic acid, 

C 2 HC] 3 0, H 2 = CHC1 3 + CH 2 2 
could be decomposed into those two bodies without the intervention of 
alkalies. The following experiment, repeated several times, always 
yielded concordant results : — If hydrate of chloral be dissolved in five 
times its weight of syrupy glycerin, and the mixture heated in a retort 
furnished with a receiver, at about 110° C, a regular action is estab- 
lished which continues up to about 230° ; at this temperature the gly- 
cerin is strongly colored, and becomes thick, and it is advisable to 
stop the operation so as not to complicate the results. The product 
condensed in the receiver is liquid, and separates into two layers; the 
underneath layer consists of chloroform, the upper one contains formic 
acid, hydrochloric acid, formate of allyl, and hydrate of chloral dis- 
solved in water. The proportion of chloroform produced as the mean 
of three operations, was 31 per cent, of the hydrate of chloral. The 
formation of the formate of allyl is secondary, as also that of the hy- 
drochloric acid. These two bodies are relatively in small quantity^ 
and proceed, the first from the decomposition of glycerin under the 
influence of heat and nascent formic acid ; the second from the de- 
composition of chloroform. In order to obtain the above results it is 
important to use syrupy glycerin ; if water be added, the greater part 
of the hydrate of chloral distils over without being decomposed. — - 
Lond. Pharm. Journ. and Trans., Jan. 4, 1873. 



ON THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND THERAPEUTICAL PROPERTIES 
OF THE DIFFERENT IMMEDIATE PRINCIPLES OF OPIUM. 

By Dr. Rabuteau. 
In a long and interesting series of researches Dr. Rabuteau has 
extended the investigations of Claude Bernard upon the physiological 
and therapeutical properties of the constituents of opium. Dr. Rabu- 
teau has examined these properties, not only as they affect the lower 
animals, but also the human subject, and he has, moreover, consid- 
ered the alkaloids of opium in relation to their anodyne and anexos- 
motic effects. [By the word anexosmotie Dr. Rabuteau indicates the 
property of preventing the flow of liquid through the intestinal walls 
into the intestinal canal. — Reporter.] He has specially examined 
these two effects, because opium is very frequently employed to allay 
pain and to arrest diarrhoea; and he has not only examined the pro- 



^JStiSS^} On the Properties of Opium, etc. 77 

perties of the alkaloids of opium, but also those of the other constitu- 
ents, such as meconic acid, meconin, etc. It is already well known 
that the activity of the immediate principles of opium is not the same 
In each; but Dr. Rabuteau shows, besides, a fact which was not previ- 
ously known, namely, that the order of activity of these same principles 
is not the same in man and in the lower animals. He also demon- 
strates, by the evidence afforded by his own experiments as well as 
by those of his predecessors, the principles of opium which cause 
sleep in the human subject, those which allay pain, those which ar- 
rest diarrhoea, and, lastly, those which act upon the system in a more 
energetic and dangerous manner when given in large doses. The 
principles which have been discovered in opium, and the order in 
which they are described by Dr. Rabuteau, are as follows : — Basic 
principles. — Thebaina, papaverina, narcotina, codeia, narceina, mor- 
phia, opiania, porphyroxin, pseudo-morphia. Other principles. — Me- 
conic acid, meconin, water, caoutchouc, resin, fatty matter, gum, 
mucilage and extractive matters. 

The following are among the more important results of Dr. Rabu- 

teau's researches on these substances : Thebaina produces, in 

the lower animals, violent convulsions, similar to those caused by 
strychnia, but in man it is far less poisonous than the latter alkaloid. 
In order to ascertain the anexosmotic properties of this and other 
principles, Dr. Rabuteau drew out from an aperture made in the ab- 
dominal walls of certain animals a knuckle of intestine, into which, 
after tying it, a solution of sulphate of soda was introduced, and then 
the intestine, tied at both ends, was returned into the abdomen, the 
animal having previously had a solution of the thebaina injected under 
the skin. In the case of this alkaloid the portion of intestine was 
examined after the death of the animal, and was found to contain a 
large quantity of fluid. Thebaina, therefore, does not counteract the 
effect of purgatives, or, in other words, is not anexosmotic, and, con- 
sequently, is not an opiate preparation which produces constipation, 
or arrests diarrhoea. Dr. Rabuteau thus summarises the properties 
of thebaina : — It produces convulsions, and is poisonous in the lower 
animals, but is less active than strychnia ; it is not very poisonous in 
man ; it does not prevent the exosmotic currents of the intestine ; it 
is not soporific, but it increases the anaesthetic effect of chloroform ; 
and it is anodyne. 

As it is impossible, from want of space, to specify the researches 



78 On the Properties of Opium, etc. { A *r£t3&? L 

made by Dr. Rabuteau on each constituent of opium, we can only give 
his results, which are chiefly as follows :—Papaverina is much less, 
active than thebaina, and produces hardly any effect when adminis- 
tered in moderate doses to the lower animals, but in large doses it 
produces convulsions in frogs. In the case of the human subject it- 
possesses but little activity in rather large doses, as, for instance,, 
twenty centigrammes ( T 2 ° of a gramme, about fifteen grains being about 
equivalent to a gramme) ; but in larger doses it is poisonous, and 
causes convulsions; it does not arrest diarrhoea, or, in other words,, 
it is not anexosmotic ; it is not soporific, but it assists the anaesthetic; 
action of chloroform. Narcotina. — With regard to this principle, Dr.. 
Rabuteau confirms the results of previous observers as to its nega- 
tive characters. Codeia is more poisonous to man than thebaina^ 
but, on the other band, according to the experiments of Claude Ber- 
nard and Dr. Rabuteau, thebaina is the more poisonous to the lower 
animals. Codeia is dangerous to man in large doses, it is very slightly 
soporific, very slightly anodyne, and is not anexosmotic, and, there- 
fore, is useless in the practice of medicine. Narceina, according to 
Claude Bernard, is the most soporific of the bases of opium, and is 
less poisonous than thebaina, codeia and papaverina ; but Dr. Rabu- 
teau, from his more recent researches, thinks that although narceina 
is more soporific in dogs than morphia, yet that in the human subject 
morphia is superior in this respect. Narceina augments the action of 
chloroform, and it is anodyne and anexosmotic. Morphia is the most- 
poisonous and the most soporific of ' the principles of opium in man f . 
but it is also the most anexosmotic, as has been proved by experi- 
ments similar to those related in connection with the properties of 
thebaina. It is also anodyne, as is well known, but it presents this- 
inconvenience, that it deranges the system by causing loss of appe- 
tite, nausea and vomiting. The other principles of opium are of se» 
little importance in medical practice that it is unnecessary to refer to* 
them in detail. 

Dr. Rabuteau concludes his paper with some observations on the- 
simultaneous action of chloroform and the alkaloids of opium. It has- 
been found that the lower animals were much less sensible to paii*. 
when they were subjected to the influence of chloroform and also the 
opiate preparations ; thus, in cases where both agents w r ere adminis- 
tered, the insensibility to pain remained, even when the chloroform 
was no longer administered, and yet the animals did not sleep. The 



a *fITi] Si"' } Polymerides of Morphia, etc. 79 

alkaloids of opium, therefore, generally continue the anodyne action 
of chloroform, although they are not at all soporific, but they almost 
all possess the property of diminishing sensibility. Claude Bernard 
and Nussbaum have found that when an opiate subcutaneous injection 
was performed in certain cases of operation on the human subject, 
and chloroform was subsequently given, the patient did not awake as 
usual, but continued to sleep, and during this sleep there was insensi- 
bility to punctures, incisions, and even the actual cautery. Dr. Rabu- 
teau, therefore, thinks that insensibility might be obtained with greater 
certainty and safety by the combined administration of a solution of 
chloroform and an opiate, than by giving either agent alone. — Amer* 
Journ. of Med. Sciences, Jan., 1873 ; Brit, and For. Med.-Ohir. Rev.^ 
Oct., 1872, from Gazette Hebdomadaire, April and May, 1872, 



RESEARCHES ON THE POLYMERIDES OF MORPHIA AND 
THEIR DERIVATIVES. 

By E. Ludwig Mayer and C. R. A. Wright, D. Sc. 

Before the London Chemical Society a memoir of the above title 
was read by Dr. Wright, and illustrated with specimens of many of 
the substances mentioned. The memoir consisted of several papers, 
the first being on the action of zinc chloride on morphia. At low 
temperatures, and with concentrated solutions of the zinc salt, tetra- 
po-dimorphia (apomorphia) appears to be the principal product, but 
at higher temperatures and with the addition of strong hydrochloric 
acid a " tetra polymeride of apo-morphia is formed, which may be 
called octapo-tetramorphia. The principal results enumerated in the 
second paper, "On the Action of Hydrochloric Acid on Morphia," 
are that besides apo-morphia mixtures of three bases are produced 
which may be written if+3HCl, i¥-j-3HCl— H 2 and JL/4HC1— 
2H 2 0, where M stands for morphia, C 3i H 38 N 2 6 . The action of sul- 
phuric acid on morphia appears generally to yield polymerides with- 
out abstraction of water, the principal products being the sulphates 
of. trimorphia, C l02 H lu N 6 O 18 , and tetra-morphia C 136 H 152 N 8 24 . The 
authors also describe the results of the action of hydrochloric acid 
on trimorphia and tetra-morphia and state the physiological action of 
the various bases, concluding with a table of the names, formulas, 
&c, of no less than nineteen derivatives of morphia. 

The Chairman in thanking the authors for laying before them the 



80 The Extracts containing Chlorophyll. {^ff^SSf"' 

results of their elaborate researches, alluded to the wide field which 
they embraced, offering various interesting points for discussion. 

Mr. Prosjean remarked that the subject was certainly a large one, 
and already sufficiently bewildering, so that he must protest against 
the use of some of the names which the authors had employed, more 
especially the introduction of prepositions into them. Some of the 
old names were certainly unwieidly enough, but he preferred them to 
such terms as apomorphia, in which there was nothing to signify that 
it was derived from morphia by the abstraction of water. It might 
equally mean that anything else was taken away. 

Dr. Wright replied that the title was first employed by the late 
Dr. Matthiessen to signify that the substance was a derivative from 
morphia, and that it had now become a conventional term to signify 
the abstraction of water, and was certainly less a misnomer than such 
names as oxygen. 

Mr. Vernon Harcourt certainly thought that there was no reason 
for the introduction of prepositions into chemical names without any 
consideration of the fitness of the term. The prefix " apo " cer- 
tainly gave no indication that the substance was a derivative formed 
by the abstraction of water. — Chem. News, Lond., Bee. 27, 1872. 



THE EXTRACTS CONTAINING CHLOROPHYLL * 
Br J. B. Barnes. 

In the last London Pharmacopoeia it is directed that the extracts 
of aconite, belladonna, hemlock, henbane, and lettuce, are to be pre- 
pared by evaporating the juice of the leaves unstrained to a proper 
consistence. 

The British Pharmacopoeia directs the juice to be heated to 130° F. 
"*< Separate the green coloring matter upon a calico filter ; heat the 
strained liquor to 200° F. to coagulate the albumen, and again filter ; 
evaporate the filtrate by means of a water-bath to the consistence of 
thin syrup ; and then add to it the green coloring matter previously 
separated, and stirring the whole together assiduously, continue the 
evaporation at a temperature not exceeding 140° F., until the extract 
is of a proper consistence." 

• Read at the Evening Meeting of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great 
Britain, December 4, 1872. 



Am. Jocr. Pharm. " 
Feb. 1, 1873. j 



Extracts containing Chlorophyll. 



81 



This is an improvement upon the old method, for the presence of 
the albumen not unfrequently set up fermentation, nitrous acid was 
evolved, and nitrites and nitrates formed in the extracts, probably at 
the expense of the active principles. 

With the view of ascertaining if any further improvement can be 
effected in these preparations, I have made a series of weighings of 
the insoluble coloring matter contained in different samples of 'these 
extracts, obtained from some of the principal pharmaceutical estab- 
lishments in London. The results are as follows : — 



Samples. 

No. 1 
No. 2 
No. 3 



EXTRACT OF ACONITE. 

Quantity 
employed. 

100 grains 

100 grains 

100 grains 



Amount of Chlorophyll 
obtained. 

1*5 grains. 

4* grains. 

4* grains. 



No. 1 was of the consistence of thick treacle, the filtration went on 
rapidly and satisfactorily, but Nos. 2 and 3 took some days to filter, 
and it was found that when warm water was employed in washing out 
the extract, the filtrate on cooling became turbid ; consequently 
weighings were made of the insoluble matter which had been washed 
with cold distilled water ; they were both firm enough to roll into 
pills. 



Samples. 

No. 1 
No. 2 
No. 3 
No. 4 
All these were 



EXTRACT OF BELLADONNA. 

Quantity 
employed. 

100 grains 
100 grains 
100 grains 
100 grains 
firm extracts. 

EXTRACT OF HEMLOCK. 



Amount of Chlorophyll 
obtained. 

14 grains. 

17 grains. 

18 grains. 
15*5 grains. 



Amount of Chlorophyll 
obtained. 



No. 1 . . 100 grains 

No. 2 . . 100 grains 

No. 3 . . 100 grains 

No. 4 . . 100 grains 

No. 5 . . 100 grains 

Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4, were tolerably firm, but No. 5 was unusually 
soft. 



14 grains. 
9 grains. 

16 grains. 

15 grains. 
8 grains. 



82 Extracts containing Chlorophyll { A $fg* 

EXTRACT OF HENBANE. 

Quantity Amount of ChlorophylL 
Samples. employed. obtained. 

No. 1 . . 100 grains . . 16 grains. 

No. 2 . 100 grains . . 11*5 grains. 

No. 3 . . 100 grains . . 18*5 grains. 

No. 4 . . 100 grains . . 14 grains. 
The consistence of the samples was good. 

EXTRACT OF WILD LETTUCE. 

Quantity Amount of Chlorophyll 

Samples. employed. obtained. 

No. 1 . . 100 grains . . 13 grains. 

No. 2 . . 100 grains . . 1 grain. 

No. 3 . . 100 grains . . 1 grain. 

No. 4 . . 100 grains . . 9*5 grains. 

Nos. 1 and 4 were tolerably firm, but Nos. 2 and 3 were of the 
consistence of thick treacle. 

In these experiments, excepting Nos. 2 and 3 of extract of aconite, 
the coloring matter was separated by dissolving the extracts in hot 
distilled water ; transferred to tared filters, they were washed with 
warm distilled water until the latter passed through colorless ; the 
chlorophyll was then dried in an air bath at 100 C, until the weight 
became constant. The insoluble matter in some samples of extracts 
of aconite and lettuce was very small, amounting to only one and one 
and a half per cent., and in extract of lettuce was not green but 
brown ; whether this change is due to age or not I am unable to say. 

From these varying results it is clear that extracts containing the 
coloring matter are not of anything like uniform strength ; so much 
so is it the case that I venture to bring the subject before the Society 
in the hope that discussion will elicit opinion as to the desirability or 
otherwise of eliminating this cause of varying strength in prepara- 
tions, which it is so very desirable should be of constant and unvary- 
ing strength. 

Dr. Harley* has shown how valueless the extract of hemlock of the 
Pharmacopoeia is, and the value he attaches to the preserved juice. 
It is evident from his experiments that the prolonged application of 
heat employed to evaporate the juice to the consistence of an extract, 
dissipates so much of the active principle, conia, that very little of it 

* On the Preparation of Extract of Oonium of the British Pharmacopoeia, 
1864 and 1867," Pharm. Journ., Yol. VIII, 1866-67. Amer. Journ. Pharm., 
1867, 266, &c. 



Am. Jorm. Pharm. > 
Feb. 1, 1873. j" 



Extracts containing Chlorophyll. 



83 



remains in the extract. It is not improbable that some loss of alka- 
loid takes place in the preparation of extract of henbane ; and .it is 
most desirable that after coagulating and separating the albumen, the 
evaporation should be carried on at the lowest temperature possible. 
As far as my experience goes I think that a temperature not exceed- 
ing 120° F. should be used, and that the evaporation of the juice 
should be effected in shallow evaporating pans exposed to a. current of 
dry air, until the proper consistence is obtained. 

It is undoubtedly established that the action of aconitia, atropia, 
and conia are identical with the medicinal properties of the plants 
from which they are extracted ; and it is not improbable that hyos- 
cyamia will be found to possess the properties of henbane in the high- 
est degree. 

The objections which I anticipate will be offered to any alteration 
in the preparation of these substances, is the absence of the accus- 
tomed color, the increased strength, and possibly the greater deli- 
quescence. 

My answer to the first objection is that in the case of these so-called 
green extracts, it is not so very easy to distinguish between one and 
another, as exemplified by the answers of the candidates who come up 
for examination in pharmacy. I venture to state that it will not be 
more difficult to distinguish these proposed purified extracts than it is 
with those already in use, for, although the color will be different, 
their characteristic odors will be retained. 

To the next objection, that of increased strength, any inconve- 
nience which might arise from that source will be more than counter- 
balanced by the very important consideration of uniformity of strength 
of these preparations ; and in order to facilitate the use of these pure 
extracts I might be allowed to suggest their employment in the form 
of liquid extracts ; hemlock, however, should be excluded on account 
of the volatile nature of its alkaloid. 

In order to prepare these fluid extracts, it will be necessary to con- 
tinue the evaporation until reduced to dryness, before they are con- 
verted into the fluid state, and of course the addition of about a fourth 
part of rectified spirit will be required to preserve them. I have not 
made any of these solutions, therefore am not prepared to say of what 
strength they should be made. 

They would be more definite in strength than their corresponding 
tinctures, they would cost less, and the ease with which they could be 



84 Report of Pharmac. Examining Board. {^Ib^JS^' 

prepared would, I am sure, be a boon to the pharmacist as well as to 
the medical man. 

The increased tendency of these extracts to deliquesce can be met 
by making them firmer than those in use at present, and by keeping 
them in pots better secured than those commonly used. For the dis- 
pensing counter, strong glass jars with ground-glass lids, would be 
found to answer well ; and when made into pills,- the apt dispenser 
will not be at a loss to protect them from the action of the air. — Lon. 
Pharm. Journ. and Trans., Dec. 7, 1872. 



First Annual Report of the Pharmaceutical Examining Board of 
Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia, January 1, 1873. 
To His Honor, Wm. S. Stokley, Mayor of Philadelphia. 

The Pharmaceutical Examining Board respectfully report, that the mem- 
bers appointed by your Honor in April last, in accordance with the "Act to 
regulate the practice of pharmacy, etc.," approved April 4th, 1872, on being 
duly qualified by the Clerk of the Court of Quarter Sessions, met on the 29th 
of April, and organized by the election of James N. Marks as President, Chas. 
L. Eberle, Treasurer, and James T. Shinn, Secretary. 

Rules and by-laws were adopted, and, as soon as the necessary books and 
papers could be prepared, an 'advertisement was inserted in nine of the news- 
papers of the city. 

An office was rented and opened at No. 723 Arch street on May 20th, when 
the Board met daily until after the expiration of the time fixed by law for the 
registration of apothecaries and retail druggists who were proprietors of stores 
on April 4th, 1872. 

During the year fifty meetings have been held for the transaction of business, 
and 504 applicants for registration as proprietors received, of which number 
492 were approved and certificates ordered to be issued. There have been 287 
applications from clerks, of whom 250 appeared for examination as to compe- 
tency and qualification. Certificates as " Qualified Assistant" were granted to 
185 of the applicants, and 65 were rejected as incompetent to be left in charge 
of a store. Since the passage of the act 10 persons not graduates in pharmacy 
who wished to open retail drug-stores have been examined by the Board, five 
of whom received the necessary certificate of competency, and five were 
rejected as not possessing the requisite knowledge and qualifications. 

This record shows that of the number applying for the responsible position 
of proprietor of a store, where the most deadly poisons were to be dispensed, 
fifty per cent, were judged by the Board to be unfit for it, and that only seven- 
ty-four per cent, of those who were to be left in charge during the absence of 
the proprietor were deemed competent for the post. At this date twenty-five 
proprietors and thirty qualified assistants have not called for or obtained their 
certificates, although duly notified to do so. 



AM Fe°bX i873 RM '} Minutes of Pharmaceutical Meetings. 85 

The receipts from fees have barely been sufficient to meet the expenses, and 
the Board regrets the inadequacy of the law to provide the means for prose- 
cuting those who violate it. No cases of fraudulent adulteration of medicines 
have been reported, but the sale of medicines has been continued in some loca- 
lities by grocers, and copies of the law have been sent to all the retail grocers 
whose names appear in the business directory, to call their attention to the 
provisions restricting the sale of poisons and medicinal preparations to regis- 
tered pharmacists. 

The act was framed for the protection of the public from the dangers incident 
to the dispensing of medicines by inexperienced and incompetent persons, and, 
although bearing heavily on some apothecaries, if its provisions are faithfully 
observed, it will, undoubtedly, in time, confine responsible business to properly 
educated pharmacists, and materially lessen the risk of accident. 

In September last the Board was called upon to mourn the loss by death of 
its esteemed member, Edward Parrish, whose talents and acquirements in his 
profession made him a most efficient officer, and whose generous impulses and 
genial manners endeared him as a personal friend to his fellow-members. 

Although the duties devolving upon the Board have been exceedingly one- 
rous, they have been cheerfully and impartially performed, under the conviction 
that they were for the benefit of the citizens of Philadelphia; and we would 
invoke the strong support of an approving public opinion, and the cordial co- 
operation of yourself and the officers of the law. 

James N. Marks, Charles L. Eberle, 

Robert England, H. B. Lippincott, 

James T. Shinn. 



Ititwte 0f % f jjanramtal Dating*, 

A pharmaceutical meeting was held January 21st, 1873, William Mclntyre 
in the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved, without alteration. 

The Chairman introduced to the meeting Dr. Charles H. Thomas. 

Mr. Remington presented samples of some of the fluid extracts made accord- 
ing to the new Pharmacopoeia ; he had been over nearly all of them, and desired 
to give his experience with them for the benefit of others. He found in several 
cases that the quantity of menstruum received for moistening the powder was 
insufficient for this purpose. He commented on several of the individual ex- 
tracts. Rhubarb, of which a sample was presented, was beautiful, and left 
nothing to be desired, having the characteristic features of the root. Buchu 
was also of very superior quality, and altogether unexceptional. Calumba, so 
very difficult to obtain clear, was spoken of, being almost always cloudy when 
diluted. Prof. Maisch suggested that the precipitate contains a considerable 
amount of berberina, and that the glycerin recommended in this fluid extract 
tends to prevent the precipitation. 

In the case of colchicum seed, Mr. Remington did not think the menstruum 
strong enough to dissolve the essential oil which floats upon the preparation, 
and prefers the use of strong alcohol to take up the oil. 



86 



Minutes of Pharmaceutical Meetings. { 



Am. Jour. Phabo. 
Feb. 1, 1873. 



As a class, the preparations containing alcohol without glycerin were con- 
sidered beautiful preparations and representing fully the medical properties of 
the drugs used. , 

The preparation of ergot was exhibited, and presented the characteristics 
fully, having the odor of the fresh ergot. His experiments with ipecac were not 
successful ; there remained a considerable amount of undissolved resin which 
glycerin will not dissolve ; the alcohol seems too weak to dissolve the resin, 
and the finished preparation contains one-half glycerin. Prof. Maisch had 
four or five samples perfectly clear, made substantially by the officinal process* 
These were made by himself, the heat carefully regulated, not above 140° ; the 
powder should not be finer than 60°. In this preparation, the temperature is 
of great importance. 

Mr. Remington said that the ipecac used by him was the strongest he had 
ever seen. The fluid extract of wild cherry was next discussed, as being made 
so entirely different from the process directed in the last Pharmacopoeia, being 
percolated with water and stronger alcohol. 

Professor Maisch made some general remarks about the fluid extracts in the 
Pharmacopoeia, stating that the Committee endeavored to make these formula? 
as simple as possible, that they might be understood by the student and those 
of little experience in the business. The processes were general ones, and 
were found to meet the requirements of the profession, based on the experience 
of those best acquainted with the subject. After moistening the drug with the 
amount of menstruum directed and adding the remainder, the soluble portion of 
the drug would be dissolved in a very concentrated form after the required time 
for maceration, and could then be driven out by the addition of an additional 
quantity of liquid. The fluid extract of wild cherry was in no wise intended to 
take the place of the syrup. Mr. Remington recommended particularly keeping 
the percolator closely covered, otherwise during the four days maceration, 
fissures would be formed in the drug, and the extract will be an imperfect one. 

Mr. Remington exhibited a retort stand, modelled by Dr. Squibb, which is 
a very convenient appliance for the druggist, having conveniences for holding 
a lamp, funnels and various sized dishes, &c. 

Mr. Boring had samples of cinnamon and cassia water, made from the oils by 
distillation, and by the ordinary process of dissolving the oil by the aid of car- 
bonate of magnesia. The water prepared from Ceylon cinnamon by distillation 
seemed to be the most fragrant and most characteristic. 

Prof. Maisch exhibited a sample of what was offered as cultivated dandelion 
root, which, upon examination, proved to be chicory. 

Mr. A. P. Brown, of Camden, N. J., gave a formula, as follows, for preparing- 
Goulard's cerate ; 

Benzoinated lard, ...... ^viiiss. 



Melt the wax and lard in a water-bath, add the solution subacetate of lead 
gradually, digest for fifteen minutes, stirring it constantly, remove the mixture 
from the bath, stir it till cool ; lastly add the camphor. This preparation keeps 
for months, retaining its properties. 



Yellow wax, 
Solution subacetate lead, 
Camphor, 



Jiiiss. 
f^iiss. 
3ss. 



A ^b U ?, i P 8 H 73. RM } Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc, 87 

Prof. Maisch read a paper upon spiritus aether, nit. as a supposed test for 
some of the alkaloids, which was ordered for publication, 

Prof. Maisch exhibited several varieties of fig plants grown in the neighbor- 
hood of Norfolk, Ya., which embraced the white, brown, black and celestial fig. 
It is not known whether figs may be profitably raised in our Southern States 
on a large scale. 

Several varieties of rhubarb were presented, and it was stated that in all 
varieties raised in Europe the red medullary rays ran from centre to circumfer- 
ence, while in the true rhubarb the rays are dispersed irregularly over the 
fractured surface. A specimen of true Russian root was exhibited, which 
came directly from St. Petersburg about three years ago. 

The Professor also exhibited models for the illustration of botany. These 
were manufactured by R. Brendel, Breslau, Germany, and were beautiful in 
appearance, resembling as near as possible in color the natural objects. The 
•models are made large enough to be seen by a class of students, and by coming 
apart exhibit the internal arrangements of portions of the plants, and the 
process of germination in the mono- and dicotyledonous plants. A section of rye 
was shown, and the manner of growth explained. A beautiful flax plant was 
shown, showing the structure of the flower, with the stamens and pistils dis- 
tinctly visible ; also models of various fruits, showing the seeds attached, and 
displaying the embryo. These specimens were made of materials of various 
kinds, most resembling the parts of the plant. 

On motion then adjourned. 

Clemmons Parrish, Registrar. 



New York College of Pharmacy. — A conversational lecture was delivered 
January 9th, by Prof. W. De F. Day, on " the vegetable kingdom ; its curiosi- 
ties and uses." 

Maryland College of Pharmacy. — At the monthly meeting, held Decem- 
ber 12th, Mr. J. F. Hancock, in behalf of the Library Committee, reported on 
the additions to the library made by donations from several friends of the Col- 
lege, and by the purchase at a reasonable price of a complete set of the Phar- 
maceutical Journal and Transactions from 1841 to 1870. The College expressed 
thanks to the donors and to the gentlemen instrumental in procuring the books. 
The Committee hopes that with the plans already devised, the library will soon 
become useful and attractive. Attention was drawn to a large number of the 
Maryland Journal of Pharmacy, which are offered by the Committee at $1 per 
year. 

At the stated meeting, held January 19th, Mr. J. F. Hancock. Chairman of 
the Committee on Annual Meeting, reported progress, suggested March 13th 
as a good time for the meeting, and stated that Prof. I. J. Graham had con- 
sented to deliver the Annual Address. On motion, the Committee was vested 
with full power to make such arrangements as they might deem most expedient. 

Mr. J. N. Potts, Chairman of Committee on Drug Exchange (appointed at 



88 Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. SSi*"* 

a previous meeting), submitted their report, which was accepted, and the 
Curator was instructed to have placed in the Hall a Bulletin Board, to facili- 
tate in carrying out the recommendations of the Committee. The Treasurer 
submitted his semi-annual report, which was accepted and referred to an audit- 
ing committee. On motion, the Chair appointed Mr. J. F. Hancock to assist 
the Treasurer in revising the roll of members. 

The semi-annual election of officers resulted in the election of Messrs. Joseph 
Roberts, 1st Vice-President; R. Sappington, 2d Vice-President, and F. Has- 
sencamp and J. P. Frames members of the Board of Examiners. 

At a special meeting of the Maryland College of Pharmacy, December 31st, 
1872, the following communications were received from the Medical and Sur- 
gical Society of Baltimore : 

Baltimore, Nov. 22, 1872. 
To the President and Members of the Maryland College of Pharmacy : 

Gentlemen: — Being Chairman of a Committee appointed by the Medical 
and Surgical Society of Baltimore, it is my duty to present to your honorable 
body the enclosed preamble and resolutions as adopted by the Society. 

I would most respectfully submit them for your consideration, and would 
ask that a Committee of ten be appointed from your body to confer with us 
and similar committees from the other societies of the city. 

Should the proposition meet with your approval, I hope our deliberations 
will be such as will settle the grievances complained of, and further promote 
the harmonious relations which should exist between the two professions. 

Hoping to hear from you as soon as practicable, 

I remain very respectfully, yours, 

[Signed] John A. Conner, M.D. 

210 E. Baltimore St. 

The Committee appointed at the last meeting of the Medical and Surgical 
Society of Baltimore, to consider the relations existing between the physician 
and druggist, beg leave to report the following : 

Whereas, We, the physicians of the City of Baltimore, have been grossly 
injured by the practice of druggists prescribing across the counter, and the 
indiscriminate renewal of prescriptions without the physician's order ; and, 
whereas, we do not consider the course of study usually pursued by druggists 
as qualifying them for the practice of medicine ; and, whereas, we consider 
such a course as extremely hazardous to the public and very unjust to the 
physician ; and, whereas, we deem it proper that harmony should exist between 
the physician and druggist in order to further the interests of both parties, and 
at the same time to conduce to the welfare and safety of the patient; therefore 
be it 

Resolved, By the Medical and Surgical Society of Baltimore, that a Com- 
mittee of ten be appointed by this Society to lay our grievances before the 
Maryland College of Pharmacy, and request the appointment of a similar com- 
mittee by that body, to devise means to do away with the acts complained of. 

[Signed] T. B. Evans, M.D., Chairman. 

Conference of Physicians and Pharmaceutists in Baltimore. — The dele- 
gates appointed by the different medical societies of Baltimore, and by the 
Maryland College of Pharmacy, met at the hall of the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, Tuesday, January 14th, and organized by electing Dr. J. A. 
Connor, Chairman, Dr. Thomas S. Latimer, Secretary of the Medical Commit- 
tees, and Mr. J. F. Hancock, Secretary of the Pharmaceutical Committee, 
The Pathological Society had added another specification, making three 
charges, as follows : 



Am. Joub. Pharjb. ) 
Feb. 1, 1873. j 



Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 



1. Apothecaries prescribing across the counter. 

2. Repeating prescriptions without the order of the prescribing physician. 

3. Advertising patent medicines by show cards, bills, &c. 

Prof. J. Faris Moore was the principal speaker for the pharmacists, and 
met the different charges ably and forcibly ; in his argument he stated that the 
physicians were responsible for many of the existing irregularities, that he had 
a list of not less than seventeen nostrums, including trade deceptions, which 
were prescribed by leading physicians of Baltimore, from Winslow's Soothing 
Syrnp to Hubbell's Elixir of Valerianate of Ammonia ; and that the prescrip- 
tion business could not, therefore, be conducted without keeping quack nos- 
trums. His remarks on the subject of popular elixirs, like a two-edged sword, 
cut on both sides. 

After a long and friendly discussion, the following resolutions were adopted : 

1st. Resolved, That, although it is perfectly admissible for druggists to sell 
any article for which customers may ask, whether orally or by prescription, yet 
it is highly objectionable for druggists to prescribe for customers under any 
circumstances except to meet an emergency. 

2d. Resolved, That, with the permission of the Societies we represent, this 
Committee of Conference shall solicit the passage of a law by our State Legis- 
lature looking to the regulation of the sale of poisons in this State. 

3d. Resolved, That the display by druggists of signs calling attention to the 
sale of patent medicines be considered disreputable. 

The Conference, which is to meet again on the first Tuesday of February, is 
expected to be prodnctive of much good, and to lead to a better understanding 
between the honorable members of both professions. 

Cincinnati College of Pharmacy. — At the annnal meeting held January 
14th, the following officers were elected: President, J. F. Judge; Recording 
Secretary, F. L. Eaton ; Corresponding Secretary, E. S. Wayne ; Treasurer, 
W. H. Negley ; Trustees for short term (holding over), A. J. Tully, Paul Rein- 
lein, Otto Taxis, John G. Fratz ; Trustees for long term, J. M. Ayers, J. D. 
Wells, H. F. Reum, George Eger. 

The report of the Recording Secretary, Mr. J. D. Ayers, gives a historical 
sketch of the new organization, which was effected on the 20th of October, 
1871, as follows : 

" During this winter strenuous efforts were made by the College to procure 
the passage of some general legislative enactment regulating the practice of 
pharmacy, but they were unsuccessful. The matter of obtaining a special act 
of incorporation for our College was also placed in the hands of a Committee 
who, on the 2d of April, reported that the present State law of incorporation 
was such that it was necessary, in order to obtain the legal power to grant 
diplomas, that our corporation should represent an actual capital of not less 
than $5,000, and, at a meeting held on the 16th of the same month, it was 
unanimously resolved to reorganize the College as a joint stock company, 
under the name of the ' Cincinnati College of Pharmacy, for the purpose of,' 
&c. The resolution provided for the issue of certificates of stock, and all other 
details incident to the carrying out of the spirit of the resolution, and author- 
ized the Board of Trustees to take all necessary measures to that end. The 
Committee appointed by the Board of Trustees, however, made the discovery 
that the charter of the old Cincinnati College of Pharmacy, dated March 23, 
1850, was still in force, and not affected, as had been supposed, by more recent 



90 



Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 



( Am. Jour. Phabm. 
1 Feb. 1, 1873. 



laws, and that it granted to that old organization just the powers we were 
seeking, and they proposed that a sufficient number of members of the old Col- 
lege should unite in aVequest to the President thereof for a called meeting of 
the same, and that at said meeting propositions should be submitted from this 
new organization looking to their absorption by the old, and a transfer of the 
properties, moneys, &c, of this organization to the old one. A resolution em- 
bodying this proposition and continuing the Committee for the purpose of 
reporting details of arrangements, was adopted at a meeting of the College on 
May 7th. In pursuance of this arrangement, at the request of several members 
of the old College, the President, W. J. M. Gordon, called a meeting thereof, 
which convened at College Hall, on May 9th, when the proposition of the new 
College having been submitted, it was, by a unanimous vote, accepted, and the 
members then present proceeded to ballot for and elected as members those of 
the recent organization (eighty in number), as were not already members of 
the old College. The organization of 1871 subsequently held a meeting and 
passed a resolution approving of the consolidation and transfer of property, and 
adjourned without day." 
The College has now 98 members in good standing. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Paris. — At the meeting held November 6th, 
Mr. Stan. Martin in the chair, a committee previously appointed reported ad- 
versely to M. Mayet and in favor of M. Mehu in regard to the priority of the 
discovery of the solubility of benzoate of iron in oils, the latter having pub- 
lished the facts in 1868. A new ebullioscope made by M. Malligand, was ex- 
hibited and referred to a special committee for examination and report. M.. 
Roucher spoke about the collection of the materials for a universal pharmaco- 
poeia ; several competent persons having promised their assistance, he desired 
to be charged with the execution of the work. The subject was referred to a 
Committee. M. Poggiale read a note by M. Dubois on two new processes for 
the preparation of sulphovinate of sodium. After cooling the sulphovinic acid, 
prepared in the usual manner, it is mixed with 96 per cent, alcohol and satu- 
rated with powdered purified carbonate of sodium. No particular precautions 
are necessary, since an excess of the carbonate will be left on the filter with 
the sulphate of sodium, aud no elevation of temperature taking place, the 
chances of loss are avoided. The filtrate and alcoholic washings are distilled 
and evaporated in a water-bath to crystallization. Should the crystals be col- 
ored, one recrystallization from water and evaporation of the solution to a 
density of 36° or 38° will yield them perfectly white. 

An editorial note in the Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie calls attention 
to the possibility of an admixture of sulphovinate of sodium, prepared by means 
of barium carbonate, with sulphovinate of barium ; hence the necessity of test- 
ing the salt with dilute sulphuric acid for barium, and with chloride of barium 
for carbonate (and sulphate) of sodium. When heated to about 120° C, sul- 
phovinate of sodium gives off inflammable alcoholic vapors, and leaves acid 
sulphate of sodium. 

The meeting of December 4th was mainly occupied with a discussion on the 
proposed European Pharmacopoeia* and the Universal Pharmacopoeia, as 
suggested by the Pharmaceutical Congress of 1867.1 M. Planchon was elected 

* See American Journal of Pharmacy, 1872, p. ">H7. 
t Ibid., 1867, p. 562. 



,\m. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Feb. 1, 1873. J 



Editorial. 



91 



in place of M. Robioet, deceased, a member of the Universal Pharmacopoeia 
Committee, appointed some years ago, and it was decided to increase the num. 
3>er from five to nine, at the next session. 

M. Regnault was elected Vice-President, M. Yigier, Secretary, and M. 
Desnoix, Treasurer, for 1873. 

M. Doray, of Saint L6, suggested laurel leaves (Laurus nobilis), as a sub- 
stitute for cinchona ; no observations with it are mentioned. 

M. Gnichard exhibited a dropping glass, the liquid running from a lateral 
•orifice of three millimetres diameter, and producing drops of water weighing 
exactly five centigrams. 

M. Boudet reported on a question pending before the Academy of Medicine, 
and which was raised by a letter of the prefect of police, inquiring whether, 
under the present laws, a midwife is authorized to prescribed ergot in cases of 
confinement, and whether it should be furnished by the pharmacist. Dr. Tarnier 
•had reported that ergot is not named in the list of poisons. M. Poggiale is 
of the opinion that a midwife ought not to have the right to prescribe such a 
•dangerous medicament. 

The Pharmaceutical Societies of Belgium were formally united in an As- 
sociation pharmaceutique generate de Belgique, in which delegates only were 
allowed to speak and vote. A number of members demanded the same privi- 
leges for all members, and, this being refused, formed themselves into a Feder- 
ation pharmaceutique beige, which held its first meeting October 26th, in the 
free university of Brussels, and was formally organized by the election of offi- 
cers. It is to be hoped that a reconciliation may be effected upon a basis 
recognizing the right of every member to a full expression of his views. 



(fiftitorial {Department 



What is in a Name? On page 524 of our last volume we expressed the 
hope that the Columbia Pharmaceutical Association might not adopt the title 
of National College of Pharmacy; Professor Oscar Oldberg, in his inaugural 
address, considers it his duty to profit by the sneers of the uncharitable, and 
to so manage that in the u future all our institutions may partake of the nation- 
alism of the city itself." To enable our readers to judge of the claims of the 
aew institution to its name, we quote from the Professor's address, premising 
that the italics in the following quotation are his : 

" Washington is to our country the natural rendezvous of communicative and 
curious minds of all orders. People from all parts of the Union meet here 
continually, and men of learning, imagination, and wealth, will congregate here 
as fast as we are prepared to receive them. This cosmopolitan American 
capital of ours has always attracted visitors from the most remote corners of 
our country, but the trouble heretofore has been that they did not deem it 
profitable or pleasant to remain with us. This difficulty is now, to a great ex- 
tent, remedied, and we are at last able to present such inducements as will 
both make the concourse greater and their stay longer. Here is the place then 
to compare notes, and our city will eventually become the intellectual aud edu- 



92 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { AM Fib B i,'m3 EM " 

cational, as well as the political, center of our land. In fact, gentlemen, I can 
see no reason why we should not act upon that proposition now. 

"The step-motherly treatment that our city has received at the hands of our 
fellow-citizens throughout the States, is as proverbial as it is inconsistent. 
They have chided us because we did not, in our sweat, improve the common 
property, surround the public buildings with splendid avenues, and prepare for 
them a city in which they may take pride and delight, until we have returned 
good for evil, and brought them to an inglorious surrender withal. 

" They berated us because the capital of the nation was not what they would 
have it, because it was not worthy of the nation, because it had no attractions,, 
but especially because it had no national institutions of any kind save the gov- 
ernmental departments. They expected to find at Washington not only such: 
advantages as they had been accustomed to in their respective States, but 
above all everything that they did not have themselves. And why? Because, 
as they have repeatedly told us, the capital of the nation ought to have such: 
institutions. 

" When Pericles, the Greek, was accused by his countrymen of squandering 
the public money on those noble national edifices, of which Athens afterwards 
boasted, he offered to execute them at his own expense, provided the people 
would suffer him to inscribe his name on them instead of theirs. We do not 
wonder that the Athenians keenly felt the rebuke. But what are we to say, 
who have singlehanded undertaken to provide for our exacting countrymen 
without experiencing a sign of encouragement, or claiming a tittle of the honor 
for ourselves ! Let us tell them that we have ceased to be sensible to their 
unjust reproaches, but that we still have faith in the future, and in the generous- 
national pride that lies at the bottom of the American heart, well knowing that 
the loudest are the least generous' 1 

When the Professor, further on, says that the institutions in Washington 
" must not — nay, cannot be sectional to succeed,'' we feel compelled to express 
our sincere regret that he does not draw a distinction between "sectional " and 
" local," and to state that our views are still those expressed in our November 
number, and cannot be changed upon the empty accusations of sneering and 
uncharitableness. 

EEVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



The Phannacopccia of the United States of America. Fifth decennial revision. 
Ky authority of the National Convention for revising the Pharmacopoeia 
held at Washington, D. C, A. D. 1870. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & 
Co. 1873. 12mo, pp. 405. Price, $1.75. 

This anxiously looked-for work has at last made its appearance, and, consid- 
ering the labor that has been bestowed upon it, and the great care necessary 
in printing to avoid errors of sense not only, but also to render the language 
uniform throughout, the delay has not been too long. 

In accordance with a resolution of the National Convention, the scope of 
the work has been rather extended, so as to adapt it to the wants of our 
extended country. Accordingly 27 articles have been added to the lists of 
materia medica, and 82 new preparations were admitted, while only 12 drugs 
and preparations have been dismissed, and the formulas of most of the pharma- 
ceutical preparations and some of the chemicals have been more or less- 
altered. 

Individually we are not in favor of the arrangement which is still adhered to* 
in our Pharmacopoeia — the only modern one, we believe — of dividing the medi- 



AM Feb D i, m3 RM '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 93 

cinal articles into materia medica and preparations ; nor are we convinced of 
the propriety of giving elaborate directions for the preparation of chemicals 
which are rarely or never made by the pharmacist. In respect to the former, 
inconsistencies cannot be avoided, and it is certainly not conducive to the con- 
venience in using the work of having ihe medicinal articles arranged in three 
different groups. Apparently there is no reason why most of the acids, and of 
the salts of ammonium, calcium, iron, magnesium, manganese, lead, potassium. 
&c, should not have received the same consideration in regard to elaborate 
processes as other similar preparations, or as the pure alkaloids and their salts, 
which, like the former, are, perhaps, never made in any pharmacy. 

In chemistry there are usually different methods of attaining the same end, 
and it strikes us that any process for obtaining a chemical compound of a defi- 
nite composition should be admissible, provided this compound, in regard to 
purity, comes up to the requirements of the Pharmacopoeia. It is not impos- 
sible that the necessity of obtaining many chemicals from the manufacturing 
chemists for which the Pharmacopoeia gives processes has had a great influ- 
ence upon the pharmaceuticals also, in banishing their preparation from many 
pharmacies, and in establishing for such products of manufacturers a confidence 
the correctness of which can in most cases not be proven, and which in many 
instances is entirely undeserved. 

The directions for preparing the fluid extracts have been considerably 
changed and improved, so as to avoid complicated processes, simplify the ma- 
nipulations, save the menstruum and omit evaporation as much as possible. 
When the directions are strictly followed, the material will in all cases be 
practically exhausted, and the preparation will fully represent the crude drug. 
The strength of the troyounce to the fluidounce has been made uniform for all 
fluid extracts. In this connection it should be mentioned that the fluid extract 
of wild cherry is entirely different from that of the former Pharmacopoeia, 
containing now only a portion of the hydrocyanic acid and volatile oil formed, 
but the entire amount of the astringent and bitter principles. 

The change in the nomenclature of the chemical preparations is particularly 
commendable, inasmuch as it establishes a uniformity and consistency which 
has been more or less wanting in all pharmacopoeias. This change is in 
accordance with the suggestions advanced by Professor Attfield, and com- 
mented upon in a former number;* thus, we have now ammomV carbonas, mag- 
nesu sulphas, potassw bitartras, sod-iz boras, &c, while such names as alumen, 
calx, creta, ammonia, magnesia, poiassa, soda have been retained, the last four 
for the oxides or hydrates. 

In addition to the tables which have been usually found in our national 
Pharmacopoeia, some new ones have been added in the present edition, which 
will be of great service to many pharmacists ; we refer to the tables on the 
decimal weights and measures, and their relation to those of the Pharma- 
copoeia. 

It is to be hoped that physicians and pharmacists will now, without unneces- 
sary delay, make the new Pharmacopoeia their guide in prescribing, and par- 



*See American Journal of Pharmacy, 1871, p. 334. 



94 Bevieivs and Bibliographical Notices. { AM / e M,i87s R!H ~ 

ticularly in making the preparations ; in the latter case observations should be 
carefully made, and where the results may differ from those of the Committee,, 
the experience, after careful verification, should be communicated for publica- 
tion, so that the sixth revision of the Pharmacopoeia may become even more 
perfect. In its general appearance the work leaves nothing to desire. 



Pharmacopoea Germanica. Berolini apud Rudolphum de Decker. MDCCC- 
LXXIL 8vo, pp. 442. 

The Gerrnau Pharmacopoeia, in accordance with a decree of the Chancellor 
of the Empire, has taken the place of the various pharmacopoeias formerly ir» 
use in Germany, since November 1st, 1872. In 1871 a committee, consisting- 
of twelve prominent pharmacists, physicians, and professors in universities,, 
selected from all sections of Germany, was charged with compiling and editing- 
the pharmacopoeia which is now before us. With the exception of the Chan- 
cellor's decree, above referred to, and the popular names of drugs and medi - 
cines, it is printed throughout in the Latin lauguage. 

The crude articles and preparations are arranged in alphabetical order. 
Alter the officinal name, the popular name and the Latin synonyms are given,, 
and in the case of vegetable and animal drugs, their origin, which is followed 1 
by rather lengthy descriptions of the drugs and notices of the probable impu- 
rities. 

In all the formulas quantities are expressed solely in parts (by weight). 
Percolation is not practiced ; tinctures, extracts, &c, are made by rnaeeratiora 
or digestion, with subsequent expression, even if the menstruum used be ether, 
Chemicals, like the crude drugs, are described according to their physical pro- 
perties, solubilities, &c, and tests for ascertaining their medicinal purity are- 
given. Only in such cases where different processes yield different results the^ 
Pharmacopoeia has adopted a formula. 

A list of reagents is added, followed by several important tables. Table A 
contains the maximum doses of potent medicines, beyond which the physiciao 
is not allowed to prescribe, nor the pharmacist to dispense, unless the pre- 
scriber adds the sign !, indicating that the unusual dose ordered is not a mis- 
take on his part. Table B enumerates the poisons which are to be kept sepa- 
rate from the other mediciues, and under lock and key Table C gives the 
more or less dangerous medicaments which have to be kept in a separate 
place, but need not be locked up. A list of specific gravities at 15° C. follows, 
which have to be ascertained on the inspection of the pharmacies, and then », 
table giving the percentage by weight and measure of anhydrous alcohol coa- 
tained in spirit of a given specific gravity. 

The nomenclature is similar to that of the last Prussian Pharmacopoeia. 

To adapt the work to the wants of the different sections of Germany, a larger 
number of preparations have been admitted than were found in most pharma- 
copoeias of the different German States. It contains a number of articles 
which are little or not known in this country. In a future number we intend to* 
quote some of them, want of space not permitting it in the present issue. 



AM Feb. u i;i P 873 RM '} Reviews arid Bibliographical Notices, 95 

Wdhlers Outlines of Organic Chemistry. By Rudolph Fittig, Ph.D., Nat.Sc.D.,. 
Professor of Chemistry in the University of Tubingen. Translated from the 
eighth German edition, with additions by Ira Remsen, M.D., Ph.D, Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry and Physics in Williams College, Mass. Philadelphia : 
Henry C. Lea. 1873. 12mo, pp. 530. 

Wohler's Outlines have been for so long a time a text-book in Germany, and 
its value as such has been there so universally acknowledged, that Professor 
Remsen has conferred quite a benefit upon the student of chemistry by trans- 
lating this valuable work, and by additions bringing it up to the state of science 
at the date of its publication. He well and truly remarks in the preface : 
" The beginner will find a simple principle of classification, carefully carried 
out, eminently fitted to his first object of obtaining a general view of the sub- 
ject ; the advanced will find it exceedingly rich in statements of facts with which 
he has constantly to deal." We cannot speak more fittingly of a work which 
for more than a quarter of a century has fulfilled its mission so well, and in the 
various editions through which it has passed has kept pace with the progress in 
chemistry, as might indeed have been expected from its authors. We heartily 
recommend it as a very useful book. 

The Chemist's and Druggist's Diary and Pharmaceutical Text-Book. 1873. 
4to, 92 pages, and 32 pages of advertisements. 

This convenient work is published by "The Chemist and Druggist," London, 
and contains the diary upon 80 pages ; then follow a number of medical, per- 
fumery and miscellaneous formulas, a list of poisons and their antidotes, infor- 
mation about normal human weights and measurements, statistical &c. items, 
mainly relating to Great Britain, and a dictionary of incompatibles. The quarto 
size of the volume makes it particularly adapted to be used iu the store. We 
select a few from the numerous formulas : 

Phenol Sodique. — A popular preparation of carbolic acid for medical and 
dental purposes. Take of carbolic acid, in crystals, 188 grains, caustic soda 31 
grains, pure water 4 fluidounces ; mix. The carbolic acid should be free from 
offensive odor, such as is prepared for medicinal purposes. When first mixed 
it is nearly colorless, but in time it assumes a wine color, does not deposit any 
tarry residue, too often found in the commercial article. This formula is the 
result of numerous experiments, and gives an article that will compare favor- 
ably with the best French phenol sodique. 

Bay Rum — (Formula much employed in the West Indies). Fol. myrciae 
acris 2 lbs., cardaraomi h lb., cassiae cinnamomi 2 oz., caryophylli 1£ oz., rum 
9 qts. Distil 1£ gallons. 

(Probably the best imitation). Oil of bay 10 fluid-drachms, oil of pimento 
1 fluid-drachm, aether acetic 2 fluidounces, alcohol 3 gallons, water 2j- gallons. 
Mix, and filter after a fortnight. 

Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association at the twentieth 
annual meeting, held in Cleveland, Ohio, September, 1872. Also the Con- 
stitution and roll of members. Philadelphia : Sherman & Co., Printers, 
1873. 8vo. pp. 354. Bound in cloth, price $3.00. 

This volume has just been published, and will at once be distributed to the 



96 



Obituary. 



( Am Joub. Pharm 
1 Feb. 1, 1873. 



members. The annual report on the Progress of Pharmacy did not reach the 
Secretary, and is missing in this annual publication for the first time since 1857. 
The papers read at the last meeting were 27 in number, quite a falling off from 
the number read at the St. Louis meeting ; many of them, however, are of 
considerable interest. Not less than 23 queries have been continued to mem- 
bers, at their request, to be reported on at the meeting in Bichmond, in Sep- 
tember next, and 47 new queries have been propounded, of which number 39 
were accepted for report by members, and 8 left for general acceptance, so 
that at the next meeting many interesting subjects will be brought forward if 
the members will in due season institute the necessary inquiries and experi- 
ments. In our next number we intend to publish, entire or in abstract, some 
of the papers, several of which are illustrated by woodcuts. The report on the 
drug market contains much information, mostly statistical, and the report on 
legislation, a collection of the pharmaceutical laws enacted last year. In an 
appendix, information is given on the signal service of the United States, 
embellished by three handsome weather maps and the meteorological record 
with synopsis, probabilities and facts for one day, as issued by the Chief Signal 
Officer, in Washington, D. C. 



OBITUARY. 

Christian Carl Arthur Casselmann, Ph. D., M. Phar., and Editor of the 
Pharmaceutical Journal for Russia, died ia St. Petersburg, November 16th, 
1872, aged 44 years. The deceased has been a hard and successful worker 
towards raising the status of pharmacy in his adopted country, Russia, and his 
learning and amiable character have gained him the esteem and love of a large 
circle of friends in all countries where scientific pharmacy is valued. In him, 
the American Pharmaceutical Association loses one of its honorary members, 
and the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy one of its corresponding members. 
The deceased, we believe, had also been elected an honorary member of several 
other American societies. 



Adolphe Georges Guillemette, a distinguished pharmacist of Paris, died 
there, after an illness of three weeks, at the age of 64 years, and was buried 
October 28th, when, in the name of the Paris Pharmaceutical Society, Mr. 
Gobley pronounced an elocution, from which we take the following notes : 

" The deceased was born in 1808, at Magny, near Caen, studied pharmacy at 
Bretteville, with his uncle, and subsequently came to Paris, obtaining an en- 
gagement with M. Boutron-Charlard, whom he succeeded in business in 1835, 
which he carried on with assiduity and success for 35 years. In connection 
with M. Boutron he established the identity with mannite of grenadin, a crys- 
talline principle obtained from pomegranate bark ; the crystalline odorous 
principle of melilot was proven by him to be identical with coumarin of Tonka 
beans." 

Dr. L. Carius, Professor of Chemistry in the University of Marburg, died 
in December last. He enjoyed a well deserved reputation as an analist, but 
devoted his researches not exclusively to analysis, extending them also to many 
mostly organic, compounds, as the derivatives of benzole, propyl, glycerin, &c. 



T H E 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



MARCH, 187 3. 



NOTE ON THE PREPARATION OP OLEIC ACID AND THE 
OLEATES OF MERCURY AND MORPHIA. 

To those of your readers who may have encountered the same dif- 
ficulties as your correspondent, Mr. C. Rice, in procuring pure oleic 
acid and in preparing oleates of mercury and morphia, the following 
remarks may perhaps prove interesting. The process we here de- 
scribe is one which we have adopted after meeting with the same dif- 
ficulties as mentioned by that gentleman, in procuring oleic acid suf- 
ficiently pure for the preparation of the oleates in an acceptable con- 
dition, without liability to decomposition. 

All the samples we have hitherto obtained, either from American 
or European sources, have proved to be more or less contaminated 
with oxyoleic and stearic acids ; and it is perhaps owing to their pre- 
sence, in a certain degree, that reduction of mercury has always fol- 
lowed their use ; whilst oleates, prepared with the oleic acid obtained 
as we describe, have not in any instance precipitated, and are, more- 
over, unobjectionable as to color and appearance. 

Any given quantity of almond oil* is taken and saponified by means 
of potassa, care being taken to insure the entire saponification of the 
oil, which may be easily tested by means of strong alcohol. The soap 
is then decomposed by means of tartaric acid, carefully washed to free 
it from bitartrate of potassa, etc. ; then placed on a water-bath, and 
heated for several hours with half its weight of finely-powdered oxide 
of lead ; the resulting combination, after cooling, is mixed with about 

*We give the preference to this oil on account of its lesser liability to sophis- 
tication. 

7 



98 



New Reaction for Carbolic Acid. 



/Am. Jour. Pharm* 
\ Mar. 1, 1873. 



three times its volume of ether, and allowed to settle ; the clear 
ethereal solution is decanted and the residue treated by a fresh por- 
tion of ether, and decanted as before. The mixed ethereal solutions 
are then briskly agitated with an excess of dilute hydrochloric acid, 
to eliminate the oleic acid, which rises dissolved in the ether to the 
surface of the water. The solution is next washed with water and dis- 
tilled to recover the ether, which may be used for a subsequent oper- 
ation. 

The portion remaining in the still consists of oleic acid C 36 H 33 3 ,HO 
contaminated with a certain quantity of oxyoleic acid C 36 H 32 4 HO + 
HO. In order to free it from the latter, the mixture is saturated with 
solution of ammonia, and the resulting compound, decomposed by 
means of chloride of barium, which throws down a precipitate of oleate 
and oxyoleate of baryta. The precipitate is then dried and treated 
with boiling alcohol, which deposits, on cooling, crystals of oleate of 
baryta, without any trace of oxyoleate. The oleate is then decom- 
posed by a solution of tartaric acid in boiled distilled water, which sets 
free the pure oleic acid. Care must be taken in washing this acid for 
the last time, and also in decomposing the oleate of baryta, to avoid 
contact with the atmosphere. 

When thus prepared, oleic acid is nearly colorless and slightly 
thinner than almond oil ; it dissolves readily both the binoxide of 
mercury and morphia, forming with them solutions varying from almost 
white (5 per cent.) to the color of linseed oil (10 and 20 per cent.) with- 
out giving rise to precipitates. 

In preparing the oleates, the mixture should never be heated to 
more than 150° F., and the solution should be made in a closed ves- 
sel, in which the atmospheric air has been deprived of its oxygen or 
replaced by pure hydrogen ; proper precautions being taken to allow 
for the expansion of the gas before entirely closing the apparatus. 

New Orleans, La. F. & H. 



NEW REACTION FOR CARliOLIC ACID. 
By Charles Rice. 
The following reaction for carbolic acid, which occurred to me some 
time ago, accidentally, is very decided and quite delicate. 

Into a five-inch test-tube place about 10 grains of powdered chlorate 
of potassa, pour upon it strong hydrochloric acid to the depth of about 
one inch, and allow the action and evolution of gas to proceed for 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
Mar. 1, 1873. J 



German Cherry Juice. 



about one minute. Then dilute with 1 J volumes of water, and remove 
the gas contained in the upper part of the test-tube by blowing it out 
with a bent glass tube. It is advisable not to omit this precaution, 
since otherwise the subsequent addition of ammonia is frequently ac- 
companied by a vivid flash of light. Pour upon the liquid in the tube 
solution of ammonia, without shaking, so that the latter will float upon 
the liquid to the depth of about a half inch, and remove the white 
clouds of chloride of ammonium by blowing gently through a glass 
tube as before. Now add a few drops of the liquid suspected to con- 
tain carbolic acid, by pouring it down the sides of the tube. If any 
be present, the upper previously colorless ammoniacal layer will as- 
sume a color varying from the darkest brown through all the shades 
of red brown, blood red, rose red, according to the quantity of car- 
bolic acid present. The color appears first, either at the top, when 
much acid is present, or below at the point of contact of the two layers 
of liquid, when the quantity of acid is small, in the form of a colored 
ring. One part of carbolic acid in 12,000 may yet be distinguished. 
The same reaction is produced with creasote ; but I have not been 
able to produce it with any other substance. In the meantime this 
test will no doubt prove useful as a negative one : the failure of the 
reaction proving the absence of a notable quantity of carbolic acid. 
New York, Jan. 24, 1873. 



GERMAN CHERRY JUICE. 
By A. W. Miller, M. D. 

This article is at present imported from Germany in large quanti- 
ties, being manufactured principally in the vicinity of Magdeburg. It 
is obtained by expressing the common black cherries, which are there 
cultivated for this express purpose. In this country it is chiefly con- 
sumed by the compounders of liquors in a number of their prepara- 
tions. Finding that it also can be advantageously employed for phar- 
maceutical purposes, it appeared to possess sufficient interest to war- 
rant calling the attention of the profession towards it. 

The importance of cherry juice to the liquor trade may be estimated 
from the fact that a single firm in this city imports annually from 
350 to 500 casks, while the entries at the New York Custom House 
are at least 1500 casks per annum. Each of these casks, which are 
similar to those in which German wine is imported, contains from 150 
to 200 gallons. 



100 



German Cherry Juice, 



f Am. Jour. Phabm. 
1 Mar. 1, 1873. 



Cherry juice is a richly colored, dark red liquid ; it is somewhat 
glutinous, but perfectly bright and clear. Its taste is rather pleas- 
ant, fruity, slightly acidulous and somewhat alcoholic. Without the 
addition of sugar it is rather too sour to be agreeable as a beverage. 
The specific gravity of a specimen examined was 1*041, but this, of 
course, may vary materially. 

The importers state that its alcoholic strength ranges from 10 to 15 
per cent. In order to arrive at a more definite figure in regard to the 
cask under examination, one gallon of it was subjected to fractional 
distillation, with the following results : 

1st pint distilled contained 33J per cent, of alcohol. 

2d " " 12J « « 

Summing these up and reducing them to the full quantity, an av- 
erage of 11J per cent, is obtained. Allowing for a little loss, though, 
as the distillation was conducted carefully, this could not have been 
very great, it is probable that the proportion of alcohol was really 
about 12J per cent., or one-eighth of the entire bulk. It may be here 
remarked that the article pays an ad valorem duty of 25 per cent., 
and as this is usually about 17 cents per gallon, the importers save 
the difference between this and the specific duty on the spirit which 
it contains, which would be 12J per cent, of $2.00, or 25 cents per 
gallon. The above amount of alcohol seems to be sufficient to pre- 
serve the juice under ordinary circumstances, although it will occa- 
sionally ferment during the hot weather of summer, particularly when 
left in half filled barrels. 

As the importer's price for German cherry juice is usually rather 
less than $1.00 (gold) per gallon, this low figure is one of its main 
recommendations. This rate in reality is only about one-fourth of 
that which is usually paid for fruit juices put up in hermetically-sealed 
quart bottles. The small proportion of alcohol contained in the cherry 
juice cannot be held to detract from its merits, as it can readily be 
expelled by heat, and wherever the arrangements are such that it can 
be recovered by distillation, it will positively add to the money value, 
being worth nearly double that which has been paid for the article. 
The fact of the juice being perfectly clear and transparent, so that it 
will mix in all proportions with syrupy and alcoholic liquids without 
producing the slightest turbidity, is another important point in its favor. 
Besides this, the juice is always ready for immediate use, requiring 
neither filtering, straining nor any other troublesome and tedious pre- 



is™' } German Cherry Juice. 101 

paration, and it is not near so liable to spoil as solutions of cochineal. 
Indeed, it will be very difficult to find any other article, by means of 
which an equally beautiful tint can be given to elixirs, Curagoa cor- 
dial or other elegant pharmaceutical preparations, and particularly in 
so convenient a manner. 

Cherry juice seems also to be specially suited for the compound 
syrup of phosphates, with the coloring of which most manufacturers 
have heretofore had trouble. Used in the proportion of one ounce of 
juice in a pint of the syrup, it produces a brilliant claret red color, 
which is not affected by either muriatic or phosphoric acids, and which 
is neither precipitated nor bleached by exposure to the light. The 
fruity flavor imparted to the syrup, of course, is rather an advantage 
than otherwise. 

Soda water syrups, prepared from strawberry and raspberry juice, 
particularly when it is a year old, have often less color than is desir- 
able. While most druggists are reluctant to add anilin or any other 
artificial coloring matter, there can be no possible objection raised to 
the crimson tinted cherry juice, about four ounces of which will be found 
to be sufficient to bring one gallon of strawberry syrup up to the 
proper shade. Professor Parrish, in his "Practical Pharmacy," even 
highly recommends the admixture of black cherries with raspberries 
in the preparation of the syrup, and the same suggestion occurs in 
several French works. For enriching the color of raspberry syrup, 
eight ounces of cherry juice can be used advantageously to a gallon. 

The following pharmaceutical formulae illustrate some additional 
applications of cherry juice in the drug business. All of them have 
been thoroughly tested, and most of them have been in use for some 
time, having met with general approbation among the consumers : 
Cherry Soda Water Syrup. 

German Cherry Juice, ..... 1 quart. 

Water, ........ 1 quart. 

Best Crushed Sugar, 7J lbs. 

Citric Acid, h oz. 

Boil in a porcelain capsule and strain. This yields a finely flavored 
and richly tinted syrup, which is much admired by the frequenters of 
the fountain. 

Cherry Wine. 

German Cherry Juice, .... 3 quarts. 
Grape Sugar Syrup, ..... 1 pint. 
Simple Syrup, 1 pint. 



102 



German Cherry Juice. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
X Mar. 1, 1873. 



This furnishes a cheap, palatable and gently stimulating beverage. 
Its taste resembles the best of the popular domestic fruit wines. 
Cherry Jelly. 

Cox's or Cooper's Gelatine 1J drachm. 

Wash with cold water, and add 

White Sugar, ...... 1 ounce. 

German Cherry Juice, .... J u 

Boiling Water, . . . . . .5 ounces. 

Stir until all the gelatine and sugar have been dissolved, and then 
set aside in a cool place to gelatinize. As a pleasant variation in the 
diet of invalids, this can be highly recommended. It is also occa- 
sionally quite acceptable as a dessert for the table. 

Translated into the language of the kitchen, the above may be di- 
rected to be made by putting two heaped spoonfuls of Cox's gelatine 
into a coffee cup, washing it with cold water, adding a heaped table- 
spoonful of sugar and one tablespoonful of cherry juice, then nearly 
filling the cup with boiling water, and stirring until all is dissolved. 
Imitation of the Syrup of Red Oranges of Malta. 
(Sirop d'Oranges rouges de Malte.) 
Simple Syrup, . . . . . 1 gallon. 

German Cherry Juice, . . . . 6 oz. 

Essence of Curac,oa orange (containing 2 oz. of oil 
in a pint), . . . . . . J oz. 

Citric Acid, . . . . . . . 1 oz. 

The quality of this syrup depends almost entirely on the purity and 
freshness of the essence of Curagoa, which is difficult to obtain of good 
flavor. The syrup itself should be made in small amounts, as it is 
liable to be changed to an unpleasant rancid flavor on long exposure. 



Imitation Strawberry Syrup. 

Simple Syrup ...... 1 gallon. 

German Cherry Juice, . . . . . 4 oz. 

Tincture of Orris Root, . . . . 1 oz. 

Citric Acid, 6 drachms. 

Strawberry Flavor, ..... 3 u 

Imitation Raspberry Syrup. 

Simple Syrup 1 gallon. 

German Cherry Juice, . . . . .8 oz. 

Tincture of Orris Root, . . . . 2 oz. 

Citric Acid, ....... 6 drachms. 

Raspberry Flavor, ..... 3 u 



Am. Jour. Pharm. > 
Mar. 1, 1873. J 



German Cherry Juice. 



103 



The compounders of liquors use cherry juice chiefly, if not exclu- 
sively, for manufacturing cherry brandy (known also as cherry bounce 
or guignolet), blackberry brandy and an imitation of Port wine. For 
the benefit of those who may be desirous of knowing the composition 
of these fancy liquors, which have a large sale in the South, the fol- 
lowing receipts are appended, which have been obtained from trust- 
worthy sources : 

Cherry Brandy. 
German Cherry Juice, .... 15 gallons. 

Pure Rectified Spirits, . . . . 20 " 

Simple Syrup, ...... 5 " 

Oil of Bitter Almonds, ..... 1 drachm. 

Rectified spirit is understood to be whiskey, which has been thor- 
oughly deodorized by percolating through charcoal, and which is of 
first proof = 50 per cent, alcohol. 

Blackberry Brandy. 
German Cherry Juice, .... 3 gallons. 

Pure Rectified Spirits, 25 " 

Simple Syrup, ...... 5 " 

Clear Water, 5 " 

Oil of Cinnamon, ..... 1 drachm. 

Oil of Cloves, 1 « 

The oils are to be first dissolved in about a pint of alcohol, or high 
wine and then to be mixed with the spirits before the addition of the 
other ingredients. 

Imitation of Port Wine. 
German Cherry Juice, . . . 15 gallons. 

Pure Rectified Spirits, 10 " 

Clear Water, 10 " 

Simple Syrup, 4 " 

Tincture of Rhatany, .... 1 pint. 

Port Wine Ether, 2 ounces. 

It is claimed that fictitious port wine is not at present manufactured 
in this country, as the same thing can be done abroad at a much lower 
figure. It is stated that ordinary port wine, which is not by any means 
the pure juice of the grape, can be imported for somewhat less than 
70 cents per gallon. Under these circumstances, it is, of course, in 
the interest of liquor merchants to sell wines " strictly pure as im- 
ported " or " in bond," rather than to trouble themselves unnecessa- 
rily in compounding them here. 



104 Cod Liver Oil & Lacto-Phosphate of Lime. {VaHims^ 

COD LIVER OIL AND LACTO PHOSPHATE OF LIME. 
By Edward Chiles. 
This remedy is being quite extensively prescribed by physicians, 
and as considerable inquiry has been made as to an eligible mode of 
prescribing it, I will give my experience in the manufacture of the 
article, and also a simple process for making syrup of lacto-phosphate 
of lime. 

For a long time I have had demand for a tasteless cod liver oil, 
and have been in the habit of preparing it in the form of an emulsion 
with gum arabic and water, and covering the odor with a few drops of 
essential oil of bitter almonds. 

Over a year ago I found physicians were prescribing cod liver oil 
and lacto-phosphate of lime, and I devised a formula for it, based 
on my experience with the simple emulsion and the syrup of lacto- 
phosphate of lime, for which a considerable demand had sprung up. 
The formula I then devised has been followed by me up to the present 
time, and has invariably given satisfaction, and produces an article 
which does not separate or become rancid. 

I think, however, it should be prepared extemporaneously as pre- 
scribed by physicians, and I have not kept it on hand, but prepare it 
as wanted, thus always giving a perfectly sweet article. 



Take of Gum arabic, gij ^ij. 

Water, .... f^ij. 

Syr. lacto-phosphate of lime, . f^vi. 

Cod liver oil, .... f.^viij. 
Essential oil bitter almonds, . six drops. 



Rub the gum, water and syrup together, until a smooth mucilage 
is made, then add the oil gradually with constant stirring, and, lastly,, 
the oil of bitter almonds. 

Thus made, each tablespoonful of cod liver oil and lacto-phosphate 
of lime contains four (4) grains lacto-phosphate of lime and 50 per 
cent, of cod liver oil. The gum in the above should be selected, 
ground and passed through a seive of 60 meshes to the inch. Cod 
liver oil and lacto-phosphate of lime, prepared in this manner, forms 
a preparation free from unpleasant taste and odor, and enables the 
practitioner to administer these valuable remedies without repugnance 
on the part of the patient. 



Am Jour. Phabm. ) 
Mar. 1, 1873. J 



Form alas for two Elixir i 



105 



Syrup Lacto- Phosphate of Lime. 
Take of Chloride of calcium, . . 

Phosphate of soda, . . . ^iv. 

Concentrated lactic acid, . . Ji. 

Dissolve the chloride of calcium and phosphate of soda separately, 
and mix the solutions ; wash the precipitate and dissolve in the acid. 
Filter and mix with sufficient syrup to make two and one-half pints. 
Philadelphia, Feb. 12th, 1873. 



FORMULAS FOR TWO ELIXIRS. 

By James W. Long. 
Elixir of Quinia and Taraxacum. 

R 

Vinum Quiniae,* . . . j 

Ceylon Cinnamon, ground. 

Coriander, . . . aa 3 jss. 

Aniseed, 

Caraway, . . . aa 3 ss. 

French Brandy, ... fl^ ij. 

Simple Syrup, . . . fl^ v. 

Fluid Ext. Taraxacum, . . fl^ ij. 

Cinnamon Water, fl^ iij. 

Percolate through the aromatics the vinum quinise, following it with 
the brandy ; next add the syrup and taraxacum without filtration, 
and lastly the cinnamon water through the filtering paper. Let the 
mixture stand three days, with frequent agitation, when filter again 
through paper. 

When made strictly according to this formula, a cloud or precipi- 
tate will form with age. After repeated trials, I have been unable to 
remedy this without impairing the strength, but as this does not inter- 
fere with the taste, I regard it as of no consequence. 

This Elixir has met with considerable favor from physicians, who 
have used it as a tonic and stimulant, and also made it a menstruum 
for either the administration of more quinia or other remedies. 

Another very handsome and exceedingly palatable preparation is 
the 

* The dose of quinia in this elixir can be regulated by the proportions of the 
ifine, and the elixir can be made to contain any amount, from one to five grains 
in a tablespoonful, and still be palatable. 



106 Formulas from Pharmacopcea Gerrnanica. \ k "\ 
Elixir of Iron (Ferri Pyrophosphas, U. S. P.) 

R 

Ferri Pyrophosphates, grs. 160. 
Dissolve in 6 fluid-ounces of water, by pouring 
from one glass vessel to another. 



Add Spts. Vini Gallici, . . iv. 

And Vini Aurantii, . . fl^ ij. 

Prepare a filter and place in it 

Caraway, . . . . 3 ss. 

Coriander, ... % jss. 

Aniseed, . . . 3 ss. 

Grd. Orange Peel, . . . 3 ij. 

Ceylon Cinnamon, ground, . . 3 jss. 



Filter the solution through the aromatics into a bottle having four 
fluid ounces of simple syrup in it, and add enough of the following 
mixture to make it measure one pint. 

Vini Aurantii, . . .2 parts. 

Spts. Vini Gallici, . . 2 parts. 

Aquae Destill., . . .1 part. 

Mix by agitation. 
Each tablespoonful of the Elixir contains five grains of the iron 
salt. It will not become sour, and can be made in bulk to keep an 
indefinite time. 



SELECTED FORMULAS FROM PHARMACOPCEA GERMANICA. 
By the Editor. 

Many of the numerous German practitioners residing in this coun- 
try continue to prescribe preparations which are officinal in Germany, 
and are either little known to American pharmacists or differ in 
strength and occasionally in composition from similar ones officinal in 
our national Pharmacopoeia. In the following selection, in which the 
nomenclature of the Pharmacopoeia is retained, we shall endeavor to 
present to our readers the more important preparations, and to point 
out any difference in strength or composition. All the quantities 
given are in parts by weight. 

Acetum aromaticum. Oils of rosemary, juniper and lemon, of each 
1 part; oil of thyme, 2 p.; oil of cloves, 5 p.; tincture of cinnamon 
(Chinese cinnamon, 1 p., to 68 per ct. alcohol, 5 p.), 100 p.; aroma- 



A Mi?. u i*m3 RM '} Formulas from Pharmacojocea Germanica. 107 

tic tincture (see formula below), 50 p.; dilute acetic acid, spec. gray. 
1-040, 200 p.; distilled water, 1000 p. Mix, and after three days 
filter. 

Note. The dilute acetic acid of the German Pharmacopoeia is of 
about the same strength as the acetic acid No. 8 of our commerce. 

Acidum aceticum aromatieum. Oil of cloves, 9 parts ; oils of lav- 
ender and of lemon, each 6 p.; oils of bergamot and of thyme, each 

3 p.; oil of Chinese cinnamon, 1 p.; glacial acetic acid, 25 parts. 
Dissolve by agitation. 

Acetum Colchici. Colchicum seed, bruised, 1 part ; alcohol, 90 
per ct, 1 p.; pure vinegar (6 per ct. acetic acid), 9 parts. Digest for 
eight days, express and filter. 

Acetum Digitalis and Acetum Scillce are prepared in the same pro- 
portions, the latter requiring only maceration for three days and 
light expression. 

Ammonium carbonicum pyro-oleosum. Carbonate of ammonium, 
32 parts: Dippel's animal oil, 1. p. Mix thoroughly. 

This preparation, sometimes prescribed as a powerful stimulant, is 
employed in making 

Liquor Ammonii succinici. Succinic acid, 1 part ; dissolve in 8 
parts of distilled water, and neutralize with pyro-oleous carbonate of 
ammonium, 1 p., or q. s. After twenty-four hours filter. 

Ammonium chloratum ferratum. To a solution of 16 p. chloride 
of ammonium in 32 p. water add 3 parts solution of ferric chloride 
(containing 15 per ct. of iron or 43*5 per ct. anhydrous ferric chlo- 
ride). Evaporate to dryness in a porcelain vessel, with continued 
agitation, and rub the residue to powder. 

Aqua aromatiea, s. Aqua cephalica, s. Bahamum embryonum. Sage, 

4 parts ; rosemary, peppermint, lavender, of each 2 parts ; fennel 
and Chinese cinnamon, each 1 part. The bruised materials are mixed 
with 26 parts alcohol and 130 p. water, macerated for 24 hours, and 
72 parts obtained by distillation. 

Aqua Cinnamomi spirituosa s. vinosa. Chinese cinnamon, 68 per 
<?t. alcohol, of each 1 part ; water, 10 parts. Distil 5 parts. 

Aquafoetida antihysterica, s. Pragensis. Galbanum, 8 p.; assafoe- 
tida, 12 p.; myrrh, 6 p.; valerian, 16 p.; zedoary, 16 p.; angelica, 
4 p.; peppermint, 12 p.; wild thyme, 8 p.; chamomile, 8 p.; castor, 



108 Formulas from Pharmacopcea Germanica. {^S^SsT*" 

1 p. The bruised drugs are macerated for twenty-four hours witfe 
150 p. of 68 per ct. alcohol, then 300 p. of water added, and 300 
parts obtained by distillation. 

Aqua Opii. Coarsely powdered opium, 1 part ; water, 10 parts* 
Distil 5 parts. 

Aqua vulneraria spirituosa s. vinosa. Peppermint, rosemary, rue ? 
sage, wormwood, lavender, of each 1 part; 68 per ct. alcohol, 18 p.; 
water, 50 p. Macerate for two days, and distil 36 parts. 

Ceratum JEruginis, s. viride, s, Emplastrum viride. Yellow wax ? 
12 p.; Burgundy pitch, 6 p.; turpentine, 4 p.; finely powdered verdi- 
gris, 1 part. 

Ceratum myristicw s. Balsamum nucistce. Yellow wax, 1 p.; olive 
oil, 2 p.; expressed oil of nutmegs, 6 parts. Mix. 

Cetaceum saccharatum s. praiparatum. Spermaceti, 1 part, pow- 
dered sugar, 3 parts. Rub to a very fine powder. 

Charta nitrata. — Bibulous paper, saturated with a solution of 1 p„ 
nitrate of potassium in 4 parts water, and dried. 

Charta resinosa, 8. antirheumatica, s. antarthritica. Black pitck^ 
turpentine, of each 6 parts ; yellow wax, 4 p.; resin, 10 p. Melt 
together and coat paper with the mixture. 

Cuprum aluminatum, «. Lapis divinus. Powdered sulphate of cop- 
per, nitrate of potassium and alum, of each 16 parts. Fuse them in 
a porcelain vessel, remove from the fire, and stir in a mixture of 1 p.. 
each of powdered camphor and alum. 

Elixir amarum. Extract of buckbean, extract of orange-peel, of 
each 2 parts ; peppermint water, 68 per ct. alcohol, of each 16 parts; 
spirit of ether (made of 3 p. alcohol and 1 p. ether), 1 part. Dissolve 
and mix. 

Elixir Aurantii compositum, s. viscerale Hoffmanni. Orange-ber- 
ries, 6 parts; Chinese cinnamon, 2 p.; carbonate of potassium, 1 p.; 
Sherry wine, 50 parts. Macerate for eight days, express, strain and 
add 1 part of each of the extracts of gentian, wormwood, buckbean 
and cascarilla ; dissolve, allow to settle, and filter. 

Elixir e Succo Liquiritiai. Purified liquorice (by exhausting with 
cold water and evaporating), 2 parts ; dissolve in 6 p. of fennel water 
and add 2 parts of anisated ammonia. 



^£^i, fs73 BM " } Formulas from Pharmacopcea Germanica. 109 
The latter article, named 

Liquor Ammonii anisatus, is made by dissolving 1 part of oil of 
anise in 24 parts alcohol and adding 5 parts water of ammonia. 

Emulsio oleosa. Expressed almond oil, 2 p.; gum arabic, 1 p.; dis- 
tilled water, 17 parts. 

Emulsio Amygdalarum composita. Sweet almonds, 4 p.; hyoscy- 
amus seed, 1 part ; dilute bitter almond water (made by distillation, 
and containing Y Ju per ct. HCy), 64 parts. Make an emulsion and 
add sugar, 6 p., and magnesia, 1 part. 

Extractum OMnce frigide paratum. The cold infusion of 2 parts 
«af pale cinchona bark is evaporated to 1 J parts ; when cold, filtered, 
and evaporated to the proper consistence. 

Extractum Ferri pomatum. The juice of 50 parts sour apples is 
bj digestion saturated with powdered iron, and the filtered liquid 
♦evaporated. 

Extractum Malti. 1 part of barley malt is macerated for three 
tiours with 1 part of cold water ; 4 parts of water are then added, 
the whole digested for an hour at a temperature not exceeding 65° C, 
then heated to boiling, expressed and strained. The clear liquid is 
evaporated with constant agitation, and the extract preserved in a 
cool place. 

Extractum Malti ferratum. 95 parts extract of malt are mixed 
with 2 parts pyrophosphate of iron, previously dissolved in 3 parts of 
water. 

Extractum Seealis cornuti, s. Extr. hwmostaticum, s. Ergotinum. 
1 part of coarsely powdered ergot is twice macerated for six hours 
with 2 parts of distilled water ; the mixed infusions are evaporated 
to the consistence of a thin syrup, to which 1 part of 68 per cent, 
alcohol is added, the mixture being filtered, after standing one day, 
and evaporated. 

Extractum Strychni aquosum, 8. Nucum vomicarum aquosum. 1 p. 
of coarsely powdered nux vomica is treated with 4 parts, afterwards 
with 3 parts of boiling water, and each time macerated for twenty- 
four hours. The strained infusions are mixed, evaporated to dryness 
and powdered. 

Note. Aqueous extract of nux vomica is regarded to be about one- 
fourth the strength of the alcoholic extract. 

(To be continued.) 



110 Gleanings from the European Journals. {^J 1 !;^ 

GLEANINGS FROM THE EUROPEAN JOURNALS. 
By the Editor. 

Water in Volatile Oils. — George Leuchs observed that volatile oilsv 
which have been obtained by distillation with water, contain water 
even if perfectly clear. On mixing them with petroleum-benzin, a 
turbidity is produced by the separation of water. The volatile oils 
of lavender, cloves, spike, cinnamon, rosemary, sassafras and juniper 
were found to contain water ; also oil of lemon and bergamot. Mere 
traces of water were observed in Portugal and wintergreen oil, while 
the oils of turpentine, cedar, lemon, rue and amber were found free 
of water. — Journal f. prakt. Chemie, 1872, 159. 

Process for bleaching the oils of rapeseed, poppyseed and flaxseeds 
— C. Puscher recommends to mix 100 kilograms of the oil with 2 kilo- 
grams of a mixture obtained from equal weights of 96 per cent, alco- 
hol and sulphuric acid. The sulphovinic acid mixes uniformly with 
the oil, the mixture soon shows a green turbidity, which afterwards 
becomes black, and in 24 to 48 hours separates as a black sediments 
Poppy- and rapeseed oils are now colorless, while linseed oil shows, 
in thick layers merely a yellowish tint. The decanted oils require to 
be washed by agitation with hot water, to remove traces of sulphuric- 
acid. — Chem. Centralbl., 1872, No. 52, from Bayr. Ind. u. Grew. Bh* 
1872. 

Corks saturated with paraffin are used for corking bottles contain- 
ing alcoholic or caustic liquids. Ruschhaupt prepares them as fol- 
lows : Paraffin is fused in a suitable vessel, the dry corks are added 
and immersed in the paraffin by means of a perforated cover or disc 
The air is now easily expelled from the pores of the corks, which,, 
after about five minutes, are removed and cooled ; they may now be 
cut and bored like wax, are easily driven into the necks of bottles 
and readily removed, retain their smoothness and are gas-tight through- 
out.— Apoth. Zeitung, 1872, No. 50. 

A new remedy for tooth-ache is recommended by Dr. Dop, who in- 
jects into the gum near the aching tooth some chloroform, of which 
two drops are usually sufficient for the severest cases. Occasionally 
a second injection becomes necessary, which is always successful. — 
Ibid., 1873, No. 1, from Revue med. de Toulouse, 1872. 



Jo Ma M r.tm3 RM '} Dr V Material from Fresh Vegetables. Ill 

Qlycerin lemonade in diabetes mellitus. — 0. Schultzen recommends 
the following, which is to be taken during the day: Glycerin 20 to 
50 grams, water 1000, citric or tartaric acid 5 grm. — Ibid., No. 2. 

Ferrous sulphate, precipitated by alcohol, was stated by Barckhau- 
sen* to contain less water of crystallization than the crystallized salt. 
L. Caro has analyzed this salt, and found it to contain seven mole- 
cules of water, the same as the crystallized preparation. By titra- 
tion with permanganate, he found it of the same composition after a 
month's exposure to the atmosphere. — Annalen d. Chem. u. Pharm., 
clxv, 29—32. 

The water air pump. — Prof. R. Bunsen publishes a card, in which 
he states that the discovery of the fact that, by columns of liquids 
flowing downwards a more perfect vacuum can be obtained than by 
other means, belongs solely to Dr. Sprengel, who published his re- 
searches in the Journal of the Chemical Society January, 1865; in 
his paper on filtration under pressure, published in 1868, he gave due 
credit to the inventor. — Ibid., 159, 160. 

Oxalate of iron is recommended by Dr. Girard for medicinal pur- 
poses, and a report on this preparation, by M. E. Caventou, is pub- 
lished in Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie, 1873, 61, 63. 

This salt, which is now officinal in the United States Pharmacopoeia, 
has been employed medicinally in this country for a number of years ? 
and was first recommended by Dr. G. O. Schseffer, of Washington, 
D. C, in 1854. See Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, 1867, page 407, and 1869, page 389. 



ON THE YIELD OF DRY MATERIAL FROM FRESH VEGET- 
ABLES. 
By Dr. G. C. Wittstein. 

The author gives in his Vierteljahres Schrift, 1873, p. 106, the fol- 
lowing table, compiled from memoranda of his own observations made 
in 1828 and 1829. The yield is given for the air-dry material ob- 
tained from one part of the fresh. 



* American Journal of Pharmacy, 1872, p. 163. 



112 Striated Ipecacuanhas. { 

Flowers. 



Yield. Collect- 


Yield. Collect 




ed in 






«A.chi]].6£i millefolium, 


A July. 


Primula officinalis, 


1 Mo v 


Oonvallana majalis, 


i May. 


Rosa gallica, 


t o uiy. 


iYTfttTipa rin r>lia mnmilla 
iUaiiJWIIla a 111 ULU 11 X2w , 


4-i June. 


Tilia europaea, 


s o my. 


Papaver rhoeas, 


i July. 


Verbascum thapsus, 


1 Tnlv 




Herbs and Leaves. 




Achillea millefolium, 


\ June. 


Mentha crispa, 


1 J«iy. 


Arnica montana, 


\-\ May, 


Mentha piperita, 


1 July. 


Artemisia absinthium, 


i July. 


Menyanthes trifoliata, 


5 May. 


Atropa belladonna, 


1 June. 


Origanum majorana, 


\ July, 


^ ul vUO UCUCUll/lUS) 


I August. 


Tanacetum vulgare, 


^ June. 


l/fmilim *ri!)onlgfnm 


} June. 


Taraxacum dens-leonis, 




Digitalis purpurea, 


1 May. 


(with the root), 


i May. 


Erythraea centaurium, 


* July. 


Tussilago farfara, 


1 May. 


Malva sylveetris, 


h June. 


Veronica officinalis, 


\ June. 




Rhizomes. 




Acorus calamus, 


h April. 


Scrophularia nodosa, 


1 May. 


Arctium lappa, 


7 May. 


Symphytum officinale, 


J May. 


Polypodium vulgare, 


1 April. 


Tormentilla erecta, 


i May. 


Branches. 




Ytung Shoots. 




Solanum dulcamara, 


| March. 


Pinus sylvestris, 


i May . 



STRIATED IPECACUANHAS.* 
By M. Planchon. 

It is known that writers on materia medica designate under the 
name of " striated ipecacuanha " emetic roots which are distinguished 
from other sorts of ipecacuanha by the longitudinal striae that mark 
their surface. This kind appeared to be perfectly characterized and 
its history cleared up, when some years since there appeared a 
memoir by M. Voglf upon the ipecacuanhas in the pharmacological 
collection at Vienna. While comparing the species described in that 
memoir with those in the collection of M. Guibourt, it appeared to me 
that the same name had been attributed to different species. A stri- 

* Translated from the Journ. de Pharm. et de Chiraie [4], xvi, p. 404. 
t Vogl, Zeitschrift des oesterr. Apothekervereins ; Wiggers and Huse- 
mann, Jahresb. d. Pharmacognosie, 1867, p. 64. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
Mar. 1, 1873. j 



Striated Ipicac itanh as . 



113 



ated ipecacuanha which I met with about the same time at the Phar- 
macie Centrale of M. Dorvault confirmed me in the opinion that this 
question was worthy of investigation, and I engaged several of our 
students successively to deal with it in their inaugural theses. M. 
Georges Durand,* in examining the structure of various kinds of ipe- 
cacuanhas, pointed out that the striated ipecacuanha of Vogl did not 
correspond in its anatomical characters to those of the sort so named 
in the Guibourt collection. M. Thenot,f preparateur of natural his- 
tory in the School of Pharmacy, went further, and showed that in the 
collection of the school there existed in reality two species of striated 
ipecacuanha differing considerably in their anatomical characters. 
This result was afterwards confirmed by M. Charles Menier,J who, 
passing in review all the true and false species of ipecacuanhas, sub- 
mitted them to a microscopical examination. 

It thus appeared from these researches that, under the name of stri- 
ated ipecacuanha, Writers have generally confounded two very distinct 
roots. It is to these species I therefore would wish to refer, in order 
to indicate their characters, investigate their botanical origin, and 
establish exactly their synonymy. 

The two sorts are so different in their dimensions that^they may be 
designated respectively the major and the minor striated ipecacuanha. 

1. The Major Striated Ipecacuanha. — This ipecacuanha is~met with 
in moderately long fragments, sometimes attaining a length of nine 
or ten centimetres. The diameter varies between five and nine milli- 
metres. The fragments are sometimes rectilinear, sometimes sinuous, 
more rarely tortuous. At rather distant intervals they are^marked 
by contractions or simply circular interstices. The whole of the sur- 
face is rather coarsely striated longitudinally. On^the upper side the 
roots often bear the base of several stems, distinguishable by their 
much smoother surface. The color of this ipecacuanha is a tawny 
grey, tending sometimes towards a reddish-brown, 

As in the other species of ipecacuanha, a section of this root re- 
veals a cortical portion and a ligneous meditullium. The cortical por- 
tion is soft enough to allow of its being marked^ by the finger nail. 

* Etude des differentes racines d'Ipecacuanha dn Commerce (Theses de 
l'Kcole de Pharmacie de Paris, 1870). 

t De la Cellule Yegjtale; de son importance ail "point de vne de la matiere 
medicale (Ibid., 1870). 

X Des Ipecacuanhas (Ibid., 1871). 

8 



114 



Striated Ipecacuanhas. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm, 
t Mar. 1, 1873. 



It has a horny appearance, and is rather variable in color, being some- 
times whitish, and passing by shades of rose and violet to a violet 
black. Its thickness is relatively considerable, at least two thirds of 
the radius, and it becomes still more so when the root is placed in 
water, which causes it to swell freely. The meditullium is of a yel- 
lowish-white color. The odor of the root is not very marked. The 
taste is scarcely nauseous, being sometimes insipid and frequently 
sweetish. 

A microscopical examination of the cortical portion shows beneath 
five or six layers of tubular cells, with brownish walls, a parenchyma 
formed of large polygonal cells. These cells become smaller as they 
approach the ligneous meditullium ; they become pretty regularly 
hexagonal, and form series radiating almost rectilinearly. They are 
entirely free from starch ; a certain number of them contain bundles 
of raphides, and all are filled with an amorphous substance soluble in 
water, and capable of reducing cupro-potassic solution. The ligneous 
meditullium consists of fibres with incrusted sides arranged in radiat- 
ing series, between which are interposed vessels with very narrow open- 
ings, not exceeding the diameter of the ligneous fibres. It contains 
no trace of starch. 

The salient characters resulting from this examination, and which 
may be regarded as distinctive from those of the second species of stri- 
ated ipecacuanha, are (1) the complete absence of starch, (2) the rela- 
tively small diameter of the vessels of the meditullium, (8) the pres- 
ence of a principle capable of reducing the cupro-potassic reagent. 
This matter exists in very great quantity in the cortical portion ; a 
simple digestion in water giving a liquid with strong reducing power, 
but which does not exercise a deviating influence on a ray of polar- 
ized light. This substance merits a closer study.* 

The major striated ipecacuanha comes from New Granada. It con- 
tains but very little emetina ; at least so it would appear from the 
analyses made by M. Dorvault, which confirmed those made by Prof. 
Attfield,t who attributed to it two and a half per cent, of active 
principle. 

* Professor Attfield has noticed the presence in this root of 5'39 per cent, 
of grape sugar, and 34 per cent, cane sugar, or of substances soluble in water 
and capable of being converted into sugar by boiling with an acid (Pharm. 
Journ., second series, vol. xi, p. 141). 

t Loc. cit. 



-Am. Jour. Pharm. > 
Mar. 1, 1873. j 



Striated Ipecacuanhas, 



115 



2. Minor Striated Ipecacuanha. — This sort is distinguished from 
the former by its much smaller dimensions. It is in very short frag- 
ments, two or three centimetres or more. Some nearly cylindrical, 
scarcely constricted, are only two or three millimetres in diameter ; 
others are narrowly fusiform ; others again are formed of cylindrical 
or pyriform segments placed end to end ; these are generally thicker 
and attain a diameter of five or six millimetres. The general color 
is a grey-brown, darker than that of the first sort. The longitudinal 
striae are fine and regular. In a transverse section the cortical por- 
tion is as horny and the consistence closer than in the major kind, 
The meditullium is yellowish, marked with a great number of pores, 
visible with a glass. 

The microscope shows in the cortical portion — (1) a first zone, 
formed of from seven to nine layers of very narrow tubular cells ; (2) 
a thick parenchyma formed of cells with irregularly sinuous walls, 
filled with starch, and containing here and there bundles of raphides ; 
(3) a liber zone, in a transverse section of which are seen narrow 
polygonal fibres and cells ranged in radiating series. The ligneous 
meditullium is distinguished immediately by the dimensions of the 
vessels, which give a porous appearance to this part, and which stand 
out distinctly by their size from the woody cells surrounding them. 

The salient microscopic characters of this species are (1) the pres- 
ence of starch, (2) the relative development of the liber zone, (3) the 
size of the vessels in the middle of the woody layer. 

This sort of striated ipecacuanha contains a much larger propor- 
tion of emetina than the preceding : nine per cent., according to the 
analysis of Pelletier;* six and a half per cent, of pure emetina, ac- 
cording to Attfield.t 

It will be seen that the two preceding species are perfectly distinct 
m some of their anatomical characters. Let us try and complete 
their history, profiting by the data above given. 

First, what is their botanical origin ? It is known that writers on 
materia medica have referred the striated ipecacuanha to a New Gra- 
nada plant, sent by Mutis to Linnaeus, and described by him under the 
name of Psychotria emetica. Which of the two commercial kinds of 
striated ipecacuanha are obtained from this species ? An examina- 
tion of the roots ought to clear up this question. M. Triana, on the 
one hand, and M. Posada, on the other, have kindly furnished me 

* Journ. de Pharm., vol. vi, p. 261. 
f Pharm, Journ. [2], vol. xi, p. 141. 



116 



Manioc, or Tapioca Plant. 



J km . Joint. Pharm. 
1 Mar. 1, 1873. 



with specimens of these roots, taken from the living plant. These 
specimens, coming from different sources, have both the outward ap- 
pearance and anatomical structure of the major striated ipecacuanha. 
So that in this respect the question is completely settled. 

As to the origin of the second sort, I am obliged to remain in doubt. 
Its structure appears to differ too much from that of the roots of Psy- 
ehotria to allow of its being referred to a species of the same genus. 
Jt presents anatomical characters approaching to those of the white 
or undulated ipecacuanha, which is referred to Richardsonia scabra y 
St. Hil. ; and I should not be surprised if it were to a plant of this 
genus, or at least of a very near genus, that this commercial sort 
owes its origin. I incline the more to this opinion, since some speci- 
mens appear, as it were, intermediate between the minor striated ipe- 
cacuanha and the undulated ipecacuanha. I have in my possession 
some fragments sent to me by Mr. Hanbury, labelled " Spurious Ipe- 
cacuanha. — Richardsonia scabra." Now, the smallest of these frag- 
ments recall the minor striated ipecacuanha, whilst the larger approach 
more nearly undulated ipecacuanha. But I will not dwell further 
upon a point which at present can only be matter for conjecture. — 
Pharm. Journ., Lond., Jan. 4, 1873. 



THE MANIOC, OR TAPIOCA PLANT * 
By M. Paul Saqot. 

Tapioca is obtained from the Manioc, or Cassava, a suffrutescent 
plant belonging to the Order Euphorbiaceae, which has long been cul- 
tivated by the indigenous Indians of Guiana and intertropical Amer- 
ica. It is the Jatropha Manihot of Linnoeus, and the Manihot utilis- 
sima and Manihot Aipi of Pohl. By the Indians it is known under 
various names ; the Caribs call it Kilre and canhim ; the Galibi, Kie 
ray ; the Arrouagoue, 'caluli. In the Antilles, the Spanish colonies, 
New Granada, Peru, and Para it is called yuca ; in Brazil mandiocca 
and maniba and aipi (sweet manioc) ; in Mexico it is called tziim. A 
great number of varieties have been observed under cultivation, each 
of them permanent, although sometimes closely resembling another 
variety, and each distinguished by some particular quality. Botanists 
have not yet met with any form of the cultivated manioc in a wild 

* Abstracted from a paper read before the Societe Botanique de Prance, Dec. 
18th, 1871 (Bull, de Soc. Bot. Fr. xviii, 341). 



Am. Jour. Pharm ) 
Mar. 1,1873. j 



Manioc, or Tapioca Plant. 



Ill 



state; but in Brazil, Guiana and Venezuela many undoubtedly spon- 
taneous species of the genus Manihot exist, and some of them resem- 
ble the cultivated varieties very closely. The province of Goyaz in 
Brazil produces the largest number of species, and amongst those of- 
fering the closest points of resemblance are M. pasilla, M. flabellifo- 
Ua, M. digitiformis and M. triphylla. Pohl describes the sweet (non- 
poisonous) manihot (called Aipi in Brazil, M. Aipi, Pohl), as a dis- 
tinct species from the poisonous manihot (Yuca brava or Mandioca 
brava of the Spanish and Portugese colonies) ; but the author agrees 
with Goudot in thinking that they are only varieties of the same 
species. 

The manioc or cassava plant is propagated by cuttings which grow 
with extreme facility. The plant appears at first as a straight stem, 
furnished with large digitate leaves, with about seven lobes. At the 
age of from six to ten months, and when from one to two metres high, 
it throws off from its summit lateral branches, with smaller leaves, 
and shortly afterwards bears flowers. The root then commences to 
develop several elongated amylaceous tubers, which continue to grow 
underground as long as the branches yield leaves and flowers. At the 
end of a year and a half or two years the roots are ready for collec- 
tion ; but if not wanted may be left in the ground for some time, pro- 
vided they be watched that they do not rot. On the other hand, they 
may, if required, be gathered earlier, but the yield is not so good. 
The stalks, which are planted about a metre apart, usually produce 
two or three tubers, varying in size and weighing together from one 
to three kilograms. The plant is not very choice as to soil, but flour- 
ishes most in freshly cleared ground, and prefers well- drained spots, an 
excess of moisture causing it to rot. Although living for two or three 
years, the plant is not strictly a perennial, since it becomes gradually 
exhausted as the tubers attain their full size. The sweet manihot is 
usually gathered earlier, since the root becomes hard and bad if left 
to develop too much. 

The yield of the manioc root, considering the time it occupies the 
ground, when compared with other farinaceous roots is not great ; but 
on the other hand, it contains less water than any other starchy root ; 
— when mature, less than sixty per cent. Its texture is very dense 
and compact. It contains much starch, and its richness in albumen 
and other nitrogenized matters is estimated at two per cent. In con- 
verting the roots into an edible flour, they are scraped, peeled, and 



118 



Manioc, or Tapioca Plant. 



f Am. Joint. Phajuu. 
\ Mar. 1, 1873. 



then washed ; next they are rasped upon a wooden plank armed with 
email iron teeth, and the pulp is left twenty-four hours, by which time 
a slight fermentation is set up. It is then placed in a long, flexible 
basket, called a couleuvre, usually made of plaited rushes. The cou- 
leuvre is suspended by a handle at its open end, and a heavy weight 
is attached to the other end, by which means the sides are compressed 
together, and a slightly opaline aqueous juice, which is highly poison- 
ous, is caused to ooze through the plaits. The pressed meal is then 
taken out and exposed for some time over a fire ; afterwards pounded, 
coarsely sifted and roasted on a brass plate over a fire to upwards of 
100° C, care being taken by constant renewals to prevent scorching. 
Sometimes during the roasting it is stirred to and fro with a small 
rake of wood or metal ; it is then formed into small hard grains, hav- 
ing the appearance of semolina, which are called couac. When cas- 
sava is to be prepared, the meal is more carefully pounded and better 
sifted. It is then spread circularly upon the plate, pressed slightly 
with a pallet knife to cause it to aggregate and turned two or three 
times during the roasting. In both operations there is complete cook- 
ing and desiccation effected, which enables it to be kept an almost in- 
definite time. The aggregation of the meal is caused, not by the ad- 
dition of water, but by the action of heat, softening and agglutinating 
some of the particles of starch. 

M. Sagot considers the manioc to be healthy food, although of 
small nutritive value. Dr. Schier estimates it to contain 0*18 per 
cent, of nitrogen, but little phosphorus, and a very small quantity of 
fatty matter. The indigenous tribes, who make it the basis of their 
food, supplement it with a good quantity of fish and meat. 

In the preparation of tapioca, the root is rasped and diluted with 
water, in which it is well worked up ; the grosser parts are removed 
and the finer allowed to be deposited by subsidence in the water. In 
this form it is imported into this country in considerable quantities as 
Brazilian arrow-root. The tapioca is produced by roasting this starch 
on metal plates, stirring it the while with an iron rod ; the starch 
grains burst, some of the starch is converted into dextrin, and the 
whole agglomerates into small irregular masses. 

In Demerara, the manioc juice, deprived by boiling of its injurious 
properties, is used under the name of cassareep, as a sauce for the 
table. Besides this, the Indians use the root of the manioc to pre- 
pare fermented drinks, which, however, would hardly suit European 
tastes. 



A MarT'w3 ARM *} New Theory of Fermentation. 119 

It is probable, M. Sagot thinks, that the poison present in the ma- 
nioc is an instable organic compound, hurtful in itself, but especially 
dangerous from the fact that, under certain conditions, it will engen- 
der hydrocyanic acid. The leaves when bruised exhale a smell of 
bitter almonds, and the presence of prussic acid in the roots has been 
established. This he considers to explain the fact that while the ma- 
nioc water, especially when distilled, is very poisonous, in Guiana 
and Brazil the Indians, after boiling it and removing the scum, use it 
as a beverage. Although wild animals, too, are sometimes poisoned 
through eating the leaves, sometimes they are not ; this, he thinks, 
occurs when, a small quantity being eaten, the gastric juice exercises 
an energetic action before hydrocyanic acid can be developed. 

The sweet cassava, or Camanioc, contains so small a quantity of 
acrid principles that the roots are cooked at a fire and eaten like po- 
tatoes. It is a rapid growing variety, becoming ripe in five or six 
months, and in two or three months more the roots become hard and 
unfit to eat. The bark of the stalk is white, the petioles of the leaves 
are of a fine purple-red color, and the luxuriant leaves at the foot of 
stalk are 7-partite. The tubercles are long and of small diameter ; 
when cooked in the ashes of a fire they are agreeable to the taste, 
sweet and of a fine consistence. — Pharm. Journ. (London), Jan. 18 ? 
1873. 



THE NEW THEORY OF FERMENTATION. 

The indefatigable Pasteur again comes upon the stage with a series 
of experiments to prove the accuracy of his theory of fermentation. 
He claims that grape juice, when exposed to the action of the air, or 
of oxygen, never of itself alone undergoes alcoholic fermentation, but 
that this only happens when those particles of dust, or germs of fer- 
ment, which are present both in the grape and the woody stem, are 
introduced into the must. 

The method of experimenting is very simple in theory and perfectly 
convincing. It is as follows : 

Forty glass bulbs were taken, with tubes bent downward to prevent 
dust falling into them. On the side was a neck fitted with rubber 
tubing and glass stopper, through which at a given moment the mate- 
rial could be introduced. 

These 40 bulbs were filled with an easily fermentescible substance 
which had been previously boiled, and were divided into four series. 



120 New Theory of Fermentation. \ %^ 

of 10 flasks each. Those of the first series contained nothing but the 
above-mentioned easily fermentescible liquid ; the bulbs in the second 
series hadjadded to this fermentescible liquid a few drops of must or 
grape juice, taken from the interior of the grape in such a manner as 
riot to come into contact with the dust on the outside of the grape. To 
the fermentescible liquid in the bulbs of the third series was added a 
small quantity of the water in which the grapes and stems had been 
washed and afterwards boiled. To the liquid in three of the fourth 
series was added some of the water used to wash the grape, and which 
contained the dust and germs, but had not been boiled. When these 
preparations were completed, the bulbs were left to themselves and to 
the action of the surrounding air, in a room of a suitable tempera- 
ture, or in a bath artificially heated to the temperature most favora- 
ble to fermentation. 

The result is very surprising, for it was found that the liquid in the 
first three series, with rare exceptions, had not undergone fermenta- 
tion ; but in the 10 bulbs of the fourth series a very violent fermenta- 
tion had taken place. 

To Pasteur belongs the uncontested honor of being the first to dis- 
cover that the organisms, in nature, are divided into two classes : 

The first class consists of germs visible to the naked eye, and in 
order to live they require oxygen either free or combined. 

The second class embraces microscopic organisms, such as germs of 
ferment ; oxygen acts as a poison on these, but becomes a source of 
life if derived from a compound like carbonic acid. 

It has long been a well-known fact that, in fruits taken from the 
tree and exposed to the air, the vital process goes on in the ordinary 
manner ; they absorb oxygen from the surrounding air and give off 
carbonic acid. They ripen because the saccharine matter is produced 
in them without undergoing fermentation. 

This premise being established, Pasteur took some fruit, namely, a 
peach and a plum, and placed them under a bell jar containing car- 
bonic acid ; the fruit lost its vitality — its whole life, outer and inner, 
ceased, because it could not take up and assimilate oxygen from the 
atmosphere surrounding it. The fruit began another and a new life, 
which developed itself outward from the interior, and is, so to speak, 
similar to the life of the atoms, in the sense that the cellular tissue 
takes away the necessary oxygen from the saccharine matter and 
other substances present, in the manner of a perfect alcoholic fermen- 



AM, Jour Pharm. ) 
.Mar. 1, 1873. j 



Gaffeina in Coffee, etc. 



121 



Nation. The fruit gets soft, it becomes wet through continually, and, 
af distilled, pure alcohol is obtained and carbonic acid becomes free. 

Pasteur repeatedly recurs to these facts, for they are the basis of 
m discovery of endless importance, and are of greater weight because 
they will form the connecting link between theories at present opposed 
to each other. 

At the first glance we might suppose that this second discovery was 
a contradiction of the first, and that the views of Liebig and Fremy — 
that ferment germs and fermentation itself develop spontaneously in 
•organisms of themselves, without any action from without — were cor- 
rect ; but Pasteur insists that he will soon complete his observations 
and make all clear. — Journ. Applied Chem., Feb., 187-3. 



THE AMOUNT OF GAFFEINA CONTAINED IN COFFEE, AND ON 
ITS PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTION. 
By Hermann Aubert. 
Although the quantity of caffeina contained in raw coffee is known, 
«k> attempt has ever been made to ascertain how much of the alka- 
loid is contained in a cup of coffee, and it is also uncertain whether 
the beans should be slightly or strongly roasted, and whether the 
ground coffee must be boiled to extract its active principles or simple 
Iiifusion is sufficient. By extracting the coffee with water, either by 
percolation or decoction, and evaporating to a syrup, which is then 
treated from five to eight times with chloroform at nearly 60° till all 
the caffeina has been dissolved out, he obtains a larger quantity than 
previous experimenters. Raw beans of the yellow Java kind yielded 
'0-709 — 0.849 per cent, by this method, while they gave only 0-474 by 
Crarot's method of precipitation with basic lead acetate. AVhen much 
roasted, coffee loses a certain quantity of caffeina which sublimes, 
•whereas it loses none by slight roasting. Notwithstanding this, the 
coffee made in the usual way by percolation from strongly roasted cof- 
<f«e contains rather more caffeina than that made from an equal 
wight of slightly roasted coffee, as the roasting renders it more easy 
to extract. 

When coffee is prepared in the usual domestic fashion by pouring 
six to ten times its weight of boiling water three or four times over 
ground coffee, nearly the whole of the caffeina is extracted, hardly 
one-fifth of it remaining in the grounds. The quantity of caffeina in a 
<eup of coffee prepared from 16§ grams of coffee is about 0.1 to 0*12 



122 Researches upon Santonin. { ku dS^,mt^ 

gram. A cup of tea prepared in the ordinary way from 5-6 grams of 
Pekoe tea contains also about 0*1 to 0*12 grams of caffeina. Caffema. 
acts upon the spinal cord and causes tetanus in doses of 0*005 gram for 
frog, injected subcutaneously ; for a rabbit, 0-120 gram (injected into 
the jugular vein) ; for cats, 0*200, injected in the same way ; and tlie 
same quantity for dogs. It has a peculiar action on the muscles of 
frogs, especially when directly applied to them, causing them to be- 
come rigid and white, apparently from coagulation of the myosin- It 
does not exert this action on the muscles of mammalia. The tetanias, 
is removed by artificial respiration, and if this process is kept up for 
about a quarter of an hour, no recurrence of the tetanus takes place*., 
even though the respiration is then discontinued, showing that the 
caffeina is quickly eliminated or destroyed in the organism. Occa- 
sionally it produces a paralysis of the hind legs in rabbits, but the- 
author is uncertain to what cause this is to be attributed. It quickens 
the heart and at the same time reduces the blood pressure. The ef- 
fect he believes to be due to stimulation of the cardiac ganglia, com- 
bined with diminution of what he regards as cardiac tone, due to par- 
alysis of the nerves passing from these ganglia to the muscular sub- 
stance. 

The action of caffeina does not explain the stimulating and reviving^ 
action of coffee. — The Pharm. Journ. and Trans., Dee. 21 , from 
Journ. Chem. Society. 

RESEARCHES UPON SANTONIN.* 
By M. L. De Saint-Martin. 

Santonin is the active principle of Semen contra, and has been pre- 
pared for some years past, upon a large scale, for therapeutic use.. 
The reactions of this principle have, however, as yet been little 
studied. It remained outside any methodic classification until Ber- 
thelot, in his Traite Elernentaire de Chimie Organique, included it in 
the grand class of organic compounds which in 1860 he instituted 
under the name of phenols. The author, therefore, undertook aft in- 
vestigation in order to ascertain its chemical relations. The investi- 
gation included its reactions with reducing, oxidizing and decompos- 
ing agents ; but the present paper only deals with some reducing ex- 
periments. 

* Memoir read before the Academie des Sciences, Nov. 11th, 1872 (Complex 
Rendus, lxxv, 1190). 



Am m^; 1 p 8 73 RM -} 'Researches upon Santonin. 12S 

If santonin be really a phenol, its formula C 15 H 18 3 indicates that 
it should be possible by its methodical reduction to obtain — 

(1) A diatomic phenol (C 15 H 18 2 ) ; 

(2) A monatomic phenol (C 15 H 18 0) ; 

(3) A carbide of hydrogen (C 15 H 18 ). 

This last carbide would present the composition of a homologue of 
naphthalin, isomeric or identical with amylnaphthalin. 

The author has succeeded in obtaining the monatomic phenol (C 1& 
H 18 0) ; and he hopes to obtain shortly the other terms of the series. 

The monatomic phenol, to which compound the author has given the 
name of santonol, was obtained by introducing into a long green glass 
tube, between two plugs of asbestos, a mixture of one part of santo- 
nin and four parts of zinc in powder, and heating it over a gas stove, 
in a current of hydrogen. A thick yellowish-brown liquid condensed 
in the cool parts of the tube, which, after a few days, was full of crys- 
tals. This crude product was neutral to litmus, insoluble in water, 
very soluble in alcohol and ether ; treated with solution of potash in 
suitable proportions it dissolved completely. An excess of potash 
separated, under an oily form, potassic santonalate. This compound, 
or an analogous body very rich in potash, was also precipitated as an 
oily liquid when the original solution was diluted with pure water. 
Treated with an acid it reproduced santonol. These properties, and 
various others undescribed, show that the product was constituted by 
a body analogous to the phenols. 

But the crude product of the reaction was not a pure substance. In 
fact, the crystals and the mother-liquor presented a different compo- 
sition. The first answered nearly to the theoretical formula C 15 H 18 0, 
while the mother-liquor contained much less carbon, perhaps because 
of the presence of the compound C 15 H 18 2 , intermediate between san- 
tonol and santonin. The crude product was therefore redistilled, 
which operation was effected without difficulty at about the boiling- 
point of mercury. The distilled liquid still separated into two por- 
tions, the one crystallized, and the other liquid ; these were analyzed 
separately, and found to be isomeric. 

The crystallized santonol had the appearance of the stearin which 
separates in the fatty bodies. After being purified as much as pos- 
sible by pressure, it acquires a tolerable degree of hardness. Its 
fusing-point was about 135° C. It was insoluble in water, very solu- 
ble in alcohol and ether. Sulphuric acid formed with it a compound 



124 



Iodized Albumen, etc. 



( Am. Jour. Phahm. 
t Mar. 1,1873. 



sulpho-acid, of which the salt of baryta was soluble. Analysis gave — 







Found. 


Calculated. 


c . 


83-9 


83-8 


84-1 


H 


. 8-8 


8-9 


8-4 


(difference) . 


7-3 


7-3 


7-5 




100-0 


100-0 


100-0 



The liquid santonol was a very unstable substance, which turned 
brown under the influence of the air. Like its solid isomer, it was in- 
soluble in water and very soluble in alcohol and ether. Its properties 
are difficult to define individually, because it was evidently saturated 
with solid santonol. Analysis gave — 



Found. Calculated. 

C 84-1 84.1 

H ..... 8-9 8-4 

O (difference) . . 7-0 7-5 

100-0 100-0 



The author is continuing his investigations of this body, and of the 
other derivatives of santonin. — Pharm. Joum. and Trans., Dec, 28, 
1872. 



IODIZED ALBUMEN AND IODIZED ALBUMEN WITH FERRIC 
CITRATE. 

Professor Luigi Guerri, of Florence, has been studying the ques- 
tion whether it be possible to employ the white of egg to prevent the 
decomposition of ferrous iodide, and to obtain a combination which 
should contain one part of iodine to five parts of oxide of iron. In 
order to investigate the action of iodine upon albumen, Professor Guerri 
saturated it with dilute phosphoric acid, collected the liquid, evapo- 
rated the solution of albumen to 3° Beaume', and afterwards added 
finely divided iodine, obtained by precipitating tincture of iodine with 
water. This caused the albumen to turn red, but after some time, 
when stirred, it regained its primitive color. These changes of color 
occurred repeatedly after additions of iodine, until at length the red 
color remained persistent and mucilage of starch was colored blue. 
When this point was attained the liquid was agitated, and, after stand- 



Am. Jour. Phaem. ) 
Mar. 1, 1873. j 



Iodized Albumen, etc. 



125 



ing ten or twelve hours, it again regained its original color ; it then 
no longer gave the reaction with starch, except under the influence of 
chlorine water or nitric acid containing hyponitric acid. Even these 
were not sufficient to set free some portion of the iodine, it being neces- 
sary to incinerate with potash in order to obtain it in the state of 
iodide of potash. Professor Guerri found afterwards that even during 
the evaporation of the albumen to dryness the iodine remained in com- 
bination, and that during the process some white flakes appeared, 
which separated upon standing, and redissolved in a very small quan- 
tity of potash. 

According to careful experiments of Professor Guerri, 100 parts of 
this iodized albumen, that had been dried at 60° C, contained 3432 
parts of iodine ; and 474 parts of solution of albumen of 3° Beaume 
density, when so evaporated yielded 31*928 parts of iodized albumen, 
whilst 31-928 parts of iodized albumen contained 1 part of iodine. 
The iodized albumen forms yellow transparent scales, soluble in wa- 
ter, with the exception of a few flakes which are not dissolved by ace- 
tic acid or phosphoric acid, but are dissolved by alkalies. The solu- 
tion is precipitated by alcohol, is neutral, and gives no iodine reac- 
tion. 

In order to obtain a ferruginous preparation of the strength before 
mentioned, Professor Guerri dissolved 18 parts of ferric citrate — cor- 
responding to five parts of ferric oxide — in 474 parts of solution of 
albumen 3° Beaume density, previously iodized, and evaporated the 
solution at a temperature of 60° C, to dryness. This gave 50 parts 
of a compound containing one-third of ferric citrate. and two-thirds of 
iodized albumen. The product so obtained has the appearance of fer- 
ric citrate, but^is a little yellower. The solution comports itself simi- 
larly to the iodized albumen. The iron is not separated from it by 
alkalies, or by ferrocyanide of potassium, but is separated by the al- 
kaline sulphides. 

Each of these preparations is easily formed into a pill mass with 
simple syrup, as well as with extracts not containing much tannic 
acid. They can also be administered in powder. — Pharm. Jour, and 
Tram., Dec. 14, from U Union Pharm., 1872, 289. 



126 



Land's Atmospheric Washing Bottle. 



m. Jour. Phabm. 
Mar.l, 1873. 



LAND'S IMPROVED ATMOSPHERIC WASHING BOTTLE. 

We present a cut of 
an improved form of 
* Washing Bottle,' for 
the use of analytical 
chemists. It may be 
described as follows : 

A flat bottom Bohe- 
mian flask, A (of about 
one litre capacity), has 
a branch opening, D, 
on its neck, as repre- 
sented; into the mouth 
of this opening is in- 
serted a caoutchouc 
stopper, E, through 
which a piece of strong 
glass tube projects 
(for one inch), at its 
outer end ; over this 
tube the india-rubber 
syringe bulb, C, is 

slipped, and secured by binding with wire or twine. 

The glass tube or 'jet tube,' F, passes in the usual manner through 
the larger india-rubber stopper, B, and extends nearly to the bottom 
of the vessel. When using the bottle it is supported by placing the 
middle or second joint of the index finger under the* lateral tube at 
E while k the bulb, C, comes into the palm of the hand, and may be 
pressed to the desired extent, forcing a fine stream of the distilled 
water from F with any required force. Upon relieving the bulb of 
the pressure, it takes air through the tube F very quickly. 

This improved bottle obviates the inconvenience of blowing with the 
mouth (which often contaminates the water), and it furnishes a fine 
stream of water, perfectly under the control of the operator. Its 
convenience and cleanliness must yet be universally acknowledged. 
This form of bottle was devised by Wm. J. Land, analytical chemist, 
Atlanta, Ga., more than five years ago ; he has had several of these 
bottles in constant use ever since, and makes known its merits at the 




XW M™Xw? M '} Paraffin in Stearin Candles. 127 

suggestion of several professional friends. Any chemist can easily 
construct the apparatus, or it may be purchased of dealers in chemi. 
eal apparatus. — Amer. Chemist, Dec., 1872. 



DETECTION AND ESTIMATION OF PARAFFIN IN STEARIN 
CANDLES. 

By M . Hock. 

Makers of stearin candles mix paraffin with the fatty mass in quan- 
tities up to 20 per cent. Paraffin candle makers also mix stearic acid 
"with their paraffin, and attribute valuable properties to such a mixture, 
so far as candle-making is concerned. The attempt to determine if 
paraffin be present, and if so, to get some approximate idea of the 
quantity, in a sample of stearin and vice versa, by means of the com- 
parison of the melting-point and specific gravity of such a mixture, 
is shown to be useless, as these vary according to the source from 
which the paraffin is obtained, as also in the case of the stearic acid, 
since the pure commercial article is by no means a chemically pure 
article. 

A good method of detecting the presence of stearic acid in paraffin 
lias been devised by R. Wagner, viz., by treating a boiling solution 
of the paraffin in alcohol with an alcoholic solution of neutral acetate 
©f lead, when, if stearic acid be present, a dense floccular precipitate 
appears, but none if it be absent. The best method, and one which 
can. be used quantitatively as well as qualitatively, is described as 
follows : 

Not less than 5 grms. of the candle are taken and treated with 
warm solution of hydrate of potash, which must not be too concen- 
trated. A soap is formed with the stearic acid, whilst the paraffin is 
left unaltered. Salt is thrown into the solution, whereby the soap is 
separated out as a soda soap, and in precipitating takes down the pa- 
raffin with it. The soap obtained is thrown on the filter and washed 
with cold water or very dilute spirits of wine. Thus, firstly, the salt 
is washed out, and, finally, the soap is brought into solution and like- 
wise washed through the filter, leaving the paraffin, which is then 
dried at a temperature below 35° C, so as not to fuse it. The pa- 
raffin is then treated on the filter with ether, and after repeated wash- 
ing with this solvent, the ethereal solution is carefully evaporated in 
at weighed porcelain crucible, in the water-bath, at a low temperature. 



128 



Explosive Mixture, etc. 



j Am. Joxte. Phajrwv. 
t Mar. 1, 187S, 



The residue, consisting of the paraffin, is then weighed, and the stea- 
ric acid is estimated by difference. — Chem. Neivs, Lo?id., Jan. 10*, 
1873. 



EXPLOSIVE MIXTURE OF NITRATE OF POTASH AND AC ES- 
TATE OF SODA* 

By M. Yiolette. 

An accident in the author's laboratory made known to him a sin- 
gular reaction between nitrate of potash and acetate of soda, which,, 
under the influence of heat, constitutes an explosive mixture equal m 
force to gunpowder. In some researches upon saltpetre he had heated 
moderately in a small phial a few grams each of nitrate of soda and 
acetate of soda, both previously fused and anhydrous. The two salts-; 
melted formed a colorless and transparent liquid, which gave off a few 
gaseous bubbles. At the same moment, a violent explosion occurred*., 
accompanied by flame and smoke, which scattered the phial in frag- 
ments all over the laboratory ; a fresh gaseous combination between, 
the elements of the salts had taken place, leaving a slight residue of 
alkaline carbonate. 

In repeating the experiment a gram of nitrate of potash was melted! 
in a small platinum capsule at a gentle heat, and a gram of acetate o-f' 
soda previously fused added to it. At a temperature of about 300 a 
the mixture remained fluid, transparent and without alteration m< 
long as the temperature remained constant ; upon raising it to about 
850° C. there was a slight ebullition followed instantly by a loud ex- 
plosion, with light and smoke, similar to that of gunpowder. As be- 
fore, there was a slight residue of alkaline carbonates. The same re- 
sult followed when a substance in ignition without flame was plunged 
into the liquid at 300° C. 

If the melted mixture be poured upon a cold surface a white sub- 
stance is obtained, which is hard, brittle, rather hygroscopic^ more 
fusible than nitrate of potash, and being melted explodes violently, 
In the solid form it does not burn when placed in contact with an ig- 
nited body ; but reduced to fine powder, it deflagrates violently uposii 
the application of a flame. 

The explosive properties of the mixture are only developed when 
the nitrate of potash and acetate of soda are present in certain pro- 



* Journal do Pharmacie et de Chimie, xvi, 333. 



Varieties. 129 

portions — from 50 to 100 parts of the acetate to 100 parts of the 
nitrate—the most explosible mixture being 100 parts of the fused 
nitrate to 60 parts of the fused acetate. When the nitrate is in ex- 
cess, the combustion is only partial and of short duration : when the 
acetate is in excess, the mixture burns slowly and similarly to a light 
wood. 

A mixture of nitrate of soda and acetate of potash was found to 
have the same explosive properties, but to be more hygroscopic. "Mix- 
tures of nitrate of potash with the acetates of copper and baryta did 
not yield an explosive product. — Pharm. Journ. and Trans. Jan. 11, 
1873. 



bcirutics. 



Croton Chloral in Painful Affections of the Fifth Nerve. — It is perhaps sur- 
prising that a remedy whose action was several months ago declared to be of 
so extraordinary a character should have received so little attention at the 
hands of the profession, especially when this new medicine promised to be so 
efficient a weapon against some of the most painful diseases known to physi- 
cians. Beyond one or two pharmacological notices, the substance seems to 
have been altogether passed by. 

The hydrate of croton chloral was made by Kramer and Pinner, by the 
action of alkalies upon dichlorallyl and formic acid. Its physiological action 
was investigated by O. Liebreich. He found that in animals it produced a 
deep anaesthesia of the head, without any loss of sensibility of the body. 
Death was caused by a paralysis of the medulla oblongata. In man, an anaes- 
thesia of the fifth nerve only was noticed. The sensibility of the trunk, and the 
pulse and respiration, remained unaltered. 

Having procured some of this substance, I determined to make observations 
upon such of my patients at St. Bartholomew's as appeared likely to be bene- 
fited by the use of the medicine. I gave it to about twenty persons, nearly all 
women. They varied in age from seventeen to forty-four. They were all suf- 
fering pains in the regions supplied by the fifth nerve, — that is the upper and 
lower jaw, the face, and the supra- orbital region of the forehead. The pains 
were paroxysmal. In the majority of the case3 they were increased at night. 
Fn nearly every one of these cases there were caries of the teeth. In about 
half there were signs of anaemia. The medicine was given in doses of five, tea 
and twenty grains, dissolved in water. It was given at night, just before going 
to bed. [n one case, where the pains became aggravated at noon and at bed- 
time, it was given just before the increase of pain was expected. In all the 
patients, except two, great relief from pain followed the dose of croton chloraL 
Some of the patients said that they slept well after it ; others, that they did not 



130 



Varieties. 



J Am. Jour. Phakm.. 
\ Mar. 1, 1873. 



sleep, but that the pains in the head and face either ceased altogether, or were 
much diminished. In two cases, both women, the croton chloral was of no use 
whatever, the pains being aggravated during the use of the medicine ; but in 
the rest of the cases more or less relief was given. 

Should the croton chloral be as efficient in the hands of others as it has been 
in mine, it will prove a most important addition to the materia medica. It will 
enable the physician to give relief from pain until relief can be afforded by the 
dentist, or by attention to the general health, and this without any of the gen- 
eral effects of narcotics. It is almost unnecessary to dwell further upon the 
advantage of possessing such a means. — I). J. W. Legg — Dental Cosmos, Feb., 
1873, from The Lancet. 



Case of Poisoning by Aconite Treated by Digitalis : Recovery. — By "William 
Dobie, L.R.C.S. and P.E., Keighley. — I was requested one morning, between 
12 and 1 A.M., to visit a veteran surgeon who was supposed to have taken poi- 
son. The place where he lodged was scarcely a hundred yards from my house, 
and only a few minutes elapsed before I saw the patient. He was stupidly drunk 
in bed, and unable satisfactorily to answer questions. His landlady, however, 
informed me that he returned home the worse for drink about midnight; that 
he went direct to his surgery, took out a bottle of medicine, and went up stairs 
to bed ; that shortly afterwards he rang the bell, and said he had taken a large 
dose of poison, which was certain in a short time to prove fatal. There was a 
two-ounce bottle, with its lable defaced, lying by the bedside. The bottle con- 
tained about half a drachm of a brown-colored liquid, a portion of which I ap- 
plied to my tongue, and was satisfied, by the characteristic tingling induced, 
that it was aconite. Up to this time there were no symptoms of the patient 
having taken poison. There had been no vomiting, the breathing was natural, 
the pulse of fair volume and strength, and the extremities were warm. An 
emetic was prescribed ; and, in conjunction with my late partner, Dr. Ramsay, 
I visited the man again in less than half an hour. By this time he had vomited 
freely; a considerable discharge had also taken place from the bowels; there 
was evidence, too, of failing circulation; the pulse was rapid and feeble, and 
the feet and hands were getting cold. The use of stimulants was clearly indi- 
cated ; and, in order to give ammonia and brandy, we raised the patient's head. 
This brought on alarming prostration ; the breathing became labored ; the pulse, 
at the wrist, irregular, intermittent, and finally imperceptible ; there was a quan- 
tity of frothy mucus discharged from the mouth and nostrils ; the 3kin became 
dusky; a cold clammy sweat bedewed the face and forehead: in a word, the 
patient was dying. We quickly replaced his head upon the pillow, and, as he 
was unable to swallow, injected subcutaneously twenty minims of tincture of 
digitalis, and then applied galvanism to the cardiac region, and continued its 
use for about twenty minutes, at the end of which period the patient began to 
rally, and in a few minutes more was able to swallow a mixture of ammonia, 
brandy, and a teaspoonful of tincture of digitalis. Marked improvement fol- 
lowed the administration of the mixture, and it was twice repeated within an 
hour, by which time the breathing had become easy, and the circulation re-es- 



Am. Joua. Pharm. ) 
Mar. 1, 1873. J 



Varieties. 



131 



tablished. We remained with him about half an hour longer, and, before leav- 
ing, gave him a cup of strong coffee, which, however, was vomited. I saw the 
patient again the following morning, when he expressed his snrprise at being 
-alive, as he had taken, he said, an ounce of Fleming's tincture of aconite. — 
British Med. Jour., Dec. 21, 1872. 



Abortive Treatment of Boils and Felons. — We find quoted from the Giorn. 
dell Acad. Med. di Ton'no the following method of treating boils and felons, 
which Dr. Simon regards as almost infallible : Wherever the boil may be, and 
of whatever size, so long as suppuration has not commenced, rub it gently with 
the finger wet with camphorated alcohol, pressing especially on its centre. Do 
this half a minute at a time for seven or eight times, and then cover the part 
with camphorated olive oil. If one operation does not produce resolution, 
repeat it at intervals of six hours. A felon may be bathed ten minutes in cam- 
phorated alcohol, then dried and covered with the oil. The writer has never 
known a felon fail to succumb to three of these operations. — N. Y. Med. Jour., 
Feb., 1873, from Gaz, Med. Ital., Nov., 1872. 



Phosphorescent Mixtures — Phosphorescent tubes have been sold in France 
and Germany for several years, but the method of their preparation has not 
been divulged. Dr. Seelhorst, of Nuremburg, has been experimenting on the 
subject, and very considerately makes public the best way to secure mixtures 
that will afford all the colors of the rainbow, and are capable of use in imita- 
tions of flowers, insects and objects of natural history. After the powders are 
prepared they can be stirred into melted paraffin ; and, by means of a brush, 
any pattern or design may be put upon glass. By protecting the glass in a 
frame the powder will retain the property of glowing for a year or more. The 
putting of phosphorescent mixtures upon glass in the form of flowers is capable 
of very beautiful application, and is one that has not been very extensively 
practised. With proper care and study, a landscape could be drawn on glass 
which, after exposure to sunlight, would shine in the dark and form a picture of 
considerable duration. The use of the paraffin is to protect the powders from 
the action of moisture and prevent decomposition. As a general rule, it is 
better to hermetically seal the mixtures in flat bottles, when they will retain 
their good properties for years. The following colors can be obtained very 
readily : 

Green. — Hyposulphite of strontia, heated for fifteen minutes over a Berze- 
lius lamp and for five minutes over a blast lamp till it is fused, yields a yellow- 
ish-green color after exposure to sunlight. The same color can be obtained 
by taking equal parts of carbonate of strontia and lac sulphuns, heat gently 
for 5 minutes, then strongly for 25 minutes over a Bunsen burner, and finally 
five minutes over a blast. It is granular and yields a fine green color, darker 
than the preceding. 

Blue. — Sulphate of strontia is prepared by precipitating with sulphuric acid 
from chloride of strontium; the precipitate is dried, heated in a current of 



132 



Varieties. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm.. 
t Mar. 1, 1873. 



hydrogen gas, then over a Bunsen burner for 10 minutes and for 15 to 20 min- 
utes over a blast lamp. The product sometimes yields a yellow phosphores- 
cent light, and when this is the case, it is necessary to give it another turn over 
the blast lamp. 

Yellow. — Sulphate of baryta 6 parts, charcoal 1 part, fused over a blast 
lamp, at first afforded no light, but after 24 hours gave an orange-yellow light. 

It may not be generally known that magnesium liyht will suffice to bring out 
all the effects of phosphorescence nearly as well as sunlight. — Sci. Amer., Feb^ 
22, 1873. 



Analysis of Commercial Red Ilxosphorus. — The red phosphorus of commerce, 
as a rule, is not perfectly pure. It frequently contains more or less ordinary 
phosphorus, and as this gradually oxidizes in the air, varying quantities of phos- 
phorus and phosphoric acids are formed, which give the commercial article an 
acid reaction and moist appearance. 

The determination of these oxidation products offers uo special difficulty, 
but the separation and determination of the ordinary phosphorus is much less 
easy, and a series of experiments were necessary in order to discover a good 
method for determining all the constituents of commercial red phosphorus, 
Drs. Fresenius and Luck have instituted such a series of experiments and pub- 
lished the method of analysis chosen by them. 

The red and ordinary (yellow) phosphorus were both oxidized and deter- 
mined as pyrophosphate of magnesia. The red and yellow phosphorus were 
next separated by the bisulphide of carbon, and the weight of the former found, 
Subtracting the weight of the red phosphorus from the total amount of phos- 
phorus found above, gives the amount of yellow phosphorus. As a check on 
this, the yellow phosphorus in the bisulphide solution is oxidized with iodine 
aud then converted into pyrophosphate of magnesia. 

The following is the average of two analyses : 

Per cent. 



Total phosphorus, ..... 93*30 

Yellow phosphorus, ..... 0*56 

Red phosphorus, . . . . . 92 63 

Phosphorous acid. ...... 1*308 

Phosphoric acid, . . . . 0*880 

Water aud impurities, ..... 4*622 

— Journ. Applied Chem., Jan., 1873. 



Action of Ethei- upon Iodides — Dr. J. B. de Vry — The author states, in ref- 
erence to an observation made by Ferrieres concerning the decomposition of 
iodides by ether, that several years ago he tried a similar experiment leading 
to the same result ; but when the ether of commerce was first thoroughly 
shaken up with a concentrated solution of sulphate of protoxide of iron, and 
next with milk of lime, and then rectified by distillation, no action of the ether 
upon the iodides was observed. The author further observed that, while he re- 
sided in Java, he always ordered the ether sent to him from Europe to be rec- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Mar. 1, 1873. / 



Varieties. 



133 



tified in the manner just described, because so treated it remains perfectly pure 
and without any action upon iodides even in that warm climate, provided the 
bottles containing it were well stoppered and kept quite full. — Chem. News, 
Jan. 10th, 1873, from Journ. de Pharm. et de Chim., Dec., 1872. 



Artificial Ivory. — William A. Welling's patent for the manufacture of aiti- 
Ificial ivory, has lately been extended by the Commissioner of Patents for seven 
years. The article is composed of 10 ounces of white shellac, 4| ounces of ace- 
tate of lead, 8 ounces of ivory dust, and 5 ounces of camphor. The ingredients 
are reduced to powdeV, heated, and mixed ; then pressed in heated moulds into 
sheets or other desired forms. — Canad. Pharm. Journ., Jan., 1873, from. Amer. 
Chemist. 

Furniture Polish. — Scrape one pound of beeswax into shavings in a pan ; add 
half a gallon spirits of turpentine, and one pint linseed oil. Let it remain twelve 
hours, then stir it well with a stick, into a liquid ; while stirring, add one quar- 
ter pound shellac varnish and one ounce alkanet root. Put this mixture into 
a gallon jar, and stand it before the fire, or in an oven, for a week (to keep it 
just warm), shake it up three or four times a day. Then strain it through a 
hair sieve and bottle it. Pour about a teaspoonful on a wad of baize, go lightly 
over the face and other parts of mahogany furniture, then rub briskly with a 
similar wad dry, and in three minutes it will produce a dark brilliant polish un* 
equalled. Another preparation may be made as follows : Make a mixture of 
three parts linseed oil and one part of spirits of turpentine. It not only covers 
the disfigured surface, but restores wood to its original color, and leaves a 
lustre upon the surface. Put on with a woollen cloth, and when dry rub with 
woollen.— Canad. Pharm. Journ. Jan., 1873. 



Ground Nuts or Pea Nuts. — There is hardly an article of American produc- 
tion, of apparently so little note, that has grown so rapidly in importance as the 
pea nut. There are fully 550.000 bushels sold annually in the city of New York 
ulone. Previous to 1860, the total product of the United States did not amount 
to more than 150,000 bushels, and of this total, full five sixths were from North 
Carolina. Now North Carolina produces 125,000 bushels ; Virginia, 300,000 
bushels; Tennessee, 50,000 bushels; Georgia and South Carolina, each 25,000 
bushels; while from Africa come about 100,000 bushels a year. What is done 
•with all these pea nuts ? In this country they are eaten, and sent all over the 
land, from Maine to Oregon for this purpose. The demand is greater than the 
supply. In France they are used for making oil, which is by many considered 
to be superior to the best olive oil for salad purposes. In the Southern States 
during the war, it was so used. The oil made was also used as a lubricator, 
and as a substitute for lard, while the cake residuum was ground, roasted, and 
sold as a substitute for coffee. At present pea nuts are not used in this coun 
try for oil, the price being too high. Thus it will be seen that their uses are 
extensive and varied, and that the crop which now yields over £2,250,000, and 
which did not add to the commerce of the country more than $200,000 ten 



1 34 Minutes of Pharmaceutical Meetings. { A \{™1 

years ago, is at least not unworthy of note. Pea nuts vary with the soil upon 
which they are grown. The yield per acre averages 40 bushels, especially near 
Wilmington, N. C. They are therefore a better crop at SL.50 a bushel than 
cotton at 15 cents a pound. Much land, however, which will grow cotton well,, 
will not grow pea nuts to the same extent. It is by many considered best to 
be near the sea, and very essential to have lime in the soil, or to manure with 
marl. As with many other products, pea nuts have been materially enhanced 
in value, and their production economized by modern inventions. For years 
before the war, the old-fashioned oriental style of threshing with a flail, and 
winnowing by throwing up in the air, was the universal custom. Both were 
overcome by the skill and talent of an ingenious mechanic of Wilmington, Mr. 
Thos. L. Colville, now deceased. When the war commenced, the great de- 
mand for oil urged the necessity of using pea nuts for this purpose ; but how 
could the hull be got off? The same mechanic overcame this difficulty. There 
is something surprising in the extent of the edible capacity of our American 
nation, for this one little article of, we may say, fancy diet. Who eats them ?' 
Ask the owner of that little sign, " Pea nuts fresh roasted every five minutes/^ 
and he will tell you " Everybody," from the wealthy banker to the homeless 
newsboy ; and that his own sales are over a thousand bushels a year. — H. M* 
Coltonin, Journal of Applied Science. 

. On the Transformation of Albuminoid Material into Urea — M. E. Ritter.— 
M. Ritter has repeated the experiments of M. Bechamp with success, and ex- 
hibited to the Society crystals of urea, of oxalate and of nitrate of urea. He 
thinks he has discovered the cause of the failure of M. Loew, in the following. 
At a certain moment, the transformation, which has hitherto been slow, be- 
comes active, thereby occasioning an increase of heat ; it is necessary then to 
stop heating and even to add a little cold water, otherwise there is a very abun„ 
dant disengagement of carbonic acid and ammonia, and no crystals are ob- 
tained. After a half hour the heating may be resumed, without fear. — Amer^ 
Chemist, Nov.. 1872, from Bull. Soc. chim. Paris. 

On the Presence of Milk Sugar in a Vegetable Juice — M. Bouchardat. — 
Bouchardat has analyzed saccharine matter obtained from the juice of the sapi- 
tillier (Achras sapota), and has found it to consist of 

Fermentable sugar, Cane sugar, .... 55 

Milk sugar, . . . . . . .45 

This is the first well established proof of the existence of milk sugar in a sub- 
stance of vegetable origin. — Ibid. 



A pharmaceutical meeting was held February 18th, 1873, Samuel S. Bunt- 
ing in the chair. 
The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 



AM Mar!i', i873 BM '} Minutes of Pharmaceutical Meetings. 135 

Mr. Shinn said that, at the meeting held in December last,* reference was 
made to a preparation, somewhat in demand in this city, containing fifty per 
cent, of cod-liver oil and a certain amount of lacto-phosphate of lime. Many 
experiments, before and since that time, have been made by him to devise an 
eligible method of combining these remedies in a palatable form, resulting in 
the following formula, made to contain twelve grains lacto-phosphate of lime to 
the ounce : 

Take of Cod liver Oil, . . • Oj, 

Oil of Bitter Almonds, 
" Peppermint, 

" Wintergreen, . . each gtt. x, 

Powd. Gum Arabic, . . ,$iv, 

" Sugar, . . . 

Solution of Lacto-phosph. Lime, (gi to f,$i) fsviss, 
Lime Water, . . . fsviss. 

Mix the gum and sugar in a capacious mortar, and make a smooth mucilage 
with the lime water and three ounces of the solution of lacto-phosphate of lime. 
Add the volatile oils to the cod-liver oil, and gradually triturate them with the 
mucilage until a perfect emulsion is formed. Finally, add the rest of the solu- 
tion of lacto-phosphate of lime, and mix thoroughly. 

The solution of lacto-phosphate of lime is made as proposed by Mr. Neer- 
gaard in the Am. Journal of Pharmacy, June, 1871, by saturating a solution of 
lactic acid with freshly precipitated phosphate of lime. 

The magma obtained from 16 ounces of phosphate of lime dissolved in muri- 
atic acid, precipitated by ammonia, quickly washed and pressed, will be suffi 
cient to saturate a pound of the commercial acid mixed with 4 pints of water. 
After filtering the solution it is assayed by evaporating a fluidounce to dryness 
and weighing the resulting lacto-phosphate of lime, when it can be made of a 
definite strength. In the formula given it contains 60 grains to the fluidounce, 
which is about equal to 30 grains of phosphate of lime, and is of convenient 
strength. It has a slightly acid taste, which, however, is not unpleasant, but 
rather renders the emulsion less cloying than if entirely sweet. As made by 
the formula, the preparation will keep in good condition for two or three weeks, 
but will eventually spoil, as shown by the blowing out of the stopper, although 
the taste and character are not materially altered. 

If meant for sale to the trade the addition of about 20 per cent, of alcohol 
renders it more permanent, and in most cases may not be therapeutically ob- 
jectionable. 

This led to some remarks upon the preparation, during which Mr. Chiles 
gave his formula (which is published on page 105 of the present number). The 
question of the legality of selling the preparation was discussed, there being a 
patent for the manufacture of a similar compound. 

Mr. Chiles stated that he also prepared a lozenge of lacto-phosphate of lime 
and pepsin. 

Then adjourned. Clemmons Parrtsh, Registrar. 



*.Seo January number, page i'Z. 



136 



Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 



f AM. JOlIR. I'HAHM. 

1 Mar. 1, 1873. 



ffearmamttital CoIUgts ani ^satiations. 



Commencements. — We have been informed that the commencement of the New 
York College of Pharmacy will take place at Association Hall, on Monday 
evening, March 31st ; that of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy on Tues- 
day evening, March 18th, at the American Academy of Music ; and that of the 
Maryland College of Fharmacy on Thursday afternoon, March 11th. The vale- 
dictory address will be delivered in Philadelphia by Professor Dr. R. Bridges. 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — The following gentlemen have been 
elected to serve as Examining Committee : Prof. William Procter, Jr., W. J. 
Jenks, W. B. Webb, Jos. R. Remington and William Mclntyre. 

The arrangements for the commencement have been entrusted to a commit- 
tee, consisting of Messrs. W. C. Bakes, J. T. Shinn and A. B. Taylor; by re- 
ferring to the notice found on the inside page of the cover, it will be observed 
that members of the College, owing to the large graduating class, have been lim- 
ited to two reserved seats, tickets for which must be called for before March 12. 

During the session just closed, the following matriculants in the College have 
availed themselves of the instruction in the laboratory : 
8. D. Addis, Pa. Frank Uarper, Ind. F. Radefeld, Pa. 

Edmund Backhaus, 0. W. L. Harrison, Ya. G. M. Russell, Pa. 
E. C. Batchelor, Miss. Herman Haupt, Pa. Henry Schmidt, 0. 
Jacob Baur, Ind. G. S. Henry, Pa. Chas. Schnabel, N.Y. 

N. J. Bayard, Ga. T. C. Hilton, Pa. A. E. Smith, Ya. 

J. A. Bowers, Ind. W. H. Hubbard, HI. C. P. Smith, Pa. 

Chas. S. Brown, Miss. W. N. Janvier, O. O. L. Smith, Ga. 

J. N. Coffee, Ky. J. M, Jones, Pa. S. B. Spence, Wis. 

A. Conrath, Wis. W. Keir, M. P., Prince T. A. Stevens, 

E. S. Dawson, N.Y. Edward's Isl. A. F. Stifel, W. Va. 

H. T. Eberle, Wis. F. J. Koch, la. W. W. Swearingen, 111. 

J. H. Flint, Cal. S. C. Lee, Pa. I. P. Yan Cise, la. 

A. S. French, N.Y. R. Y. Mattison, Pa. W. G. White, Ky. 

W. C. Gill, Pa. J. 0. McPherson, Ga. F. P. Yergiu.O. 

A. G. Griggs, III. St. Neppach, Wis. 

E. Z. Gross, Pa. Chr. Petzelt, Pa. 

Since December last, Prof. J. Reese, M. D., of the University of Pennsylva- 
nia, at the invitation of the Board of Trustees, delivered a course of lectures on 
"Toxicology," to such students of this College, and others who chose to avail 
themselves of this opportunity of acquiring a knowledge of the action of poisons, 
the post-mortem appearance of the body, and the detection of the poisonous 
articles. The lectures, which were well illustrated, were attended by a class 
numbering about fifty. 



New York College of Pharmacy. — At a conversational meeting held Feb- 
ruary 13th, Dr. E. R. Squibb delivered a lecture on "The New United States 
Pharmacopoeia." 



AM Ma J r C fi P 87r-} Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 137 

The New Jersey Pftarmaceutical Association held its annual meeting on 
February 5th, at the State Capital. We understand that Dr. Nichols, the ef- 
ficient President for the past year, declined a re election, and that Mr. James 
Stratton, of Bordentown, was elected in his place. We regret that a report on 
the proceedings, which was promised us, has not been sent. 



Maryland College of Pharmacy. — At the stated meeting held February 
13th, it was resolved to hold the annual meeting on March 13th, to be followed 
by a supper at the Rennert House. The Committee on the Pharmacopoeia was 
instructed to report on the additions and changes in the new pharmacopoeia, 
and to suggest a time for its general adoption by the members with a view to 
informing the medical profession of the fact. Dr. J. B. Baxley read an essay 
on Citrine Ointment, exhibiting samples made with various fats. 



The Saginaw Valley Pharmaceutical Association, at its annual meeting 
held in January last, elected the following officers for the current year: 

S. S Garrigues, Ph. D , E. Saginaw, President; L. Simoneau, E. Saginaw, 
'Vice-President; J. F. Street, Bay City, Secretary; W. Moll, Saginaw City, 
Treasurer; T. Collins, E. Saginaw, and G. Aldridge, Bay City, Finance Com- 
amitlee. 

At a subsequent meeting, the Rhode Island law, to regulate the sale of 
medicines and poisons, was considered and altered, in some respects, with the 
view of submitting it to the Legislature of Michigan for adoption. There ap- 
pears to be a fair prospect of its passing. 



The Tennessee College of Pharmacy has called a meeting of the pharma- 
cists and druggists of the State, to assemble in Nashville, on Wednesday, 14th 
of May next, to take into consideration " the best means to secure the enact- 
ment of laws regulating the drug business in our State ; to encourage proper 
relations between drnggists, pharmaceutists, physicians and the people at large, 
which shall promote the public welfare and tend to mutual strength and ad- 
vantage ; to improve the science and art of pharmacy, suppress empiricism, and 
lo gradually restrict the dispensing of medicines to educated pharmacists." 

Those who are unable t@ attend, are requested to send their views in writing 
to the Secretary, Mr. Jos. J. Hall. 

We sincerely wish that they may be successful in their laudable endeavors 
to improve the science and art of Pharmacy, and to secure to the public greater 
security in the dispensing of medicines, and that the meeting may be a large 
and influential one, since half-fare can be secured to Nashville during the month 
of May to attend the Industrial Exposition. 



Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. — At the pharmaceutical meet- 
ing held February 5th, many donations were made to the library and museum. 

Professor Attfield exhibited some syrup of iodide of iron, containing iodide 
of lead crystallized in golden spangles, and probably derived from the iodine, 
which had subsequently been found to be contaminated with lead. Mr. Wil- 
liams had repeatedly observed iodide of lead in the syrup in question, which he 



138 



Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 



J Am. Joub. PharMo. 
\ Mar. 1, 1873. 



always traced to the iron filings employed, while the iodine was free from lead. 
Mr. Umney had likewise observed this contamination when crude iodine was 
employed, but never with resublimed iodine and iron wire. 

Dr. Arthur Leared read an interesting paper on " Some drugs collected m 
Morocco," and exhibited many specimens. From the discussion we select the 
following remarks : — 

"Mr. Hanbury said that Dr. Leared had referred to a seed extremely like- 
that of Peganum Harmala, but black instead of brown. Peganum Harmala 
was a plant well known in the East, and its seeds possessed a remarkable pro- 
perty of affording, when digested in spirit, a green fluorescent solution. With 
regard to orris root, which, they were told, had lately come into the market 
from Morocco, he had the other day observed the curious fact that at the be- 
ginning of the present century price currents always used to contain both Flo- 
rentine orris root and Barbary orris root. The Barbary orris root was entirely 
derived from Iris germanica, the common blue flay of our gardens. With re- 
gard to cumin we were told that it was used by the Jews in their bread, and 
also for flavoring pickled tunny fish. In the middle ages it was much used m 
Europe as a spice and a condiment. Dr. Leared had drawn attention to the 
remarkable fact of caraways being brought from Morocco. He (Mr. Han- 
bury) confessed that when he was shown Morocco caraway seeds in London 
some time ago. he hardly knew how r to believe his eyes, for the caraway was es- 
sentially a northern plant, dwelling in Scandinavia and the colder parts of Eu- 
rope. On looking, however, at Jackson's 'Morocco,' a work published at the 
beginning of the present century, he found that the author distinctly mentioned 
caraway seeds as an export of Morocco, and upon his (Vlr. Hanbury's; sowing 
some of the Morocco caraway seeds last spring, he obtained a plant exceed- 
ingly like that of Europe. As to grains of paradise, it might be true, as stated* 
by the people of Morocco, that their drug came from Europe, but it was a very- 
curious fact that at Tripoli and the towns on the northern coast of Africa grains 
of paradise were still brought by caravans corning from Soudan and Timbnctoo,. 
and from the tropical parts of Africa east of Sierra Leone. They were so 
brought in the middle ages, and shipped to the ports of Italy ; and as they 
came from an unknown and remote region, and were much esteemed, they ac- 
quired their present name, the people supposing that no place but Paradise 
could produce anything so delightful. In subsequent times, when there was 
direct trade between Western Africa and Europe, grains of paradise were an 
article of very large import, being brought direct even to Englaud and France. 
They were once in common use as a condiment for human food. 

"Professor Bentley said that Mr. Hanbury had anticipated some of the re- 
marks he had intended to make. He must say that, although he had come to 
the meeting fearing that the paper, being technical, would be uninteresting, he 
had found it quite the contrary, and had listened to it with great gain. Re- 
searches such as those of Dr. Leared were the only means by which they could 
get any historical knowledge of old remedies, or form an acquaintance with new 
ones. As to orris root, it was very interesting to find that it came in such 
large quantities from Mogador, in Morocco. Dr. Leared had referred to only 
one species of zizyphus, though there were several species known by the com- 
mon name of jujube ; but as to the so-called jujubes manufactured in London, 
it was quite understood that the juice or the fruit of the jujube plant did not 
enter into their composition. He was very sorry that the great fascination of 
partridge shooting had prevented Dr. Leared from seeing the ammoniacum 
plant, as he should have liked to have been informed of the mode in which it 
was obtained. Perhaps Dr. Leared might have heard from the natives whether 
the drug ammoniacum was obtained from the root, from the stem, or from both. 
In the museum there was a very interesting specimen of the stem of the Per- 
sian ammoniacum plant, with the ammoniacum in situ. That result had beea 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
Mar. 1, 1873. / 



Editorial. 



139 



produced, not by incisions, but by the attacks of beetles or some creatures of 
the kind, in consequence of which the gum had exuded and covered the stem. 
The poisonous nature of Sparttum junceum had been referred to in the paper. 
The Spanish broom had been examined by Dr. Stenhouse, who had found a new 
principle in it, and therefore, anything in connection with that subject was of 
interest. Of course, the drug was a strong diuretic. With regard to starch,, 
no doubt it was present in plants allied to the arum, and could probably be ob- 
tained in large quantities from the large corms and underground stems without, 
much difficulty. He apprehended that the poisonous quality was got rid of not 
so much by washing as by a certain amount of temperature that was employed 
in the preparation of the substance. 

" Mr. Collins said that there seemed to be two kinds of ' harmala' seed, and 
both seemed to have had that name at first. Those of Peg anion harmala he- 
had compared with a herbarium specimen. The other was certainly those of a 
rutaceous plant, but whether it was a variety of Peganum liarmala, he (Mr. 
Collins) could not say. He did not see in the Herbarium of the British Museum 
any specimen which showed a variation in the seed between those two. With 
regard to argan, he could not help wondering why the oil had not been intro- 
duced into this country. Sir William Hooker, in the ' Journal of Botany/ 
gave a very good account of it, and it had been very highly spoken of. As to 
Tacout galls, they were very small, and they did not seem to be equal to the 
Morea galls The latter were introduced to commerce some time ago, but from 
inquiry which he had made, he found that they were not considered good enough 
to be sent. The dealers said that when the galls were very small they did not 
like them, because they were very often mixed with foreign substances. With 
regard to euphorbium, it would have been very interesting if the plant from 
Kew had been seut to the meeting, because it had now, through the researches 
of Dr. Cosson,* some historical interest. It would be remembered that Dr. 
Berg some time ago made an examination of certain parts of the stems found 
in the specimens, and he gave it the name of Euphorbium resinifera. Dr. 
Cosson having examined specimens which he received from Mr. Hanbury and 
others, said that he believed that Dr. Herg was correct. Dr. Hooker in the 
meantime had obtained a plant from Mr. Cartensen, and this was now growing. 
The only matter to be cleared, and to make one sure that it was this species 
which yielded the gum euphorbium, was the flowering of the specimen. That 
event would prove whether Dr. Berg and Dr. Cosson were correct." 

Professor Redwood stated that a reprint of the British Pharmacopoeia would 
again be required very shortly, and referred to some alterations and additions 
which would then become necessary, it is not proposed to issue a new edition, 
but merely a supplement and appendix with the present pharmacopoeia. 



(SMtorial Department* 



Professor Oscar Oldberg's address before the National College of Phar- 
macy was the subject of some editorial comments in our last number. The 
printed copy sent us being prefixed by a quotation from our remarks published 
in November, we deemed the address written with especial reference thereto, 
and therefore regarded it as reflecting upon the motives which prompted the 
first notice. In this we are glad to say we have been mistaken. Professor 
Oldberg writes that " not a word of your quotation was, either imputatively or 



* Pharm. Journ. [3 J, vol. iii, 1049. 



140 



Editorial. 



f Am. Jour. Phar*u 
1 Mar. 1, 1873. 



otherwise, aimed at you." Regretting that we interpreted his words in a differ- 
ent manner than intended by him, it is but just that we should give the entire 
passage verbatim to which we had taken special exception. It follows imme- 
diately after the quotation on page 92 : 

It is, indeed, our duty (no less than our privilege) to profit by the sneers of 
the uncharitable, and so manage that, in the future, all our institutions may 
partake of the nationalism of the city itself. They must not — nay, cannot be 
sectional to succeed. And to say that the people of the District of Columbia 
do not appreciate their privilege in this respect is an accusation much too 
jejune to be made in earnest. 

After this correction in the bearing of the foregoing, we find also the sen- 
tence, immediately following, of an appropriate character, which at first we 
could not discern : 

Thus it is eminently proper that the National College of Pharmacy, situated 
at the National Capital, should make bold to compete with its older sisters 

without a churlish thought of unworthy contention. 



The New Pharmacopoeia — Correction. — In some copies of the new Phar- 
macopoeia will be found two errors, which originated in compiling and tran- 
scribing the manuscript for the printer, and were overlooked in proof reading. 
As soon as discovered the necessary typical corrections have been made. We 
call the attention of our readers to the same, that they maybe enabled to make 
the requisite alterations in case they should have a copy issued before the 
errors were discovered. 

In the article " Pyroxylon " the quantity of sulphuric acid in the alternative 
formula on page 262 should be ten, instead of two troyounces. 

In the formula for " Spiritus chloroformi," on page 275, twelve fluidounces of 
alcohol (not diluted alcohol) should be used. 



Bay Rum. — Our attention has been directed to the two formulas for bay rum 
which, on page 95 of our last issue, we copied from "The Chemist's and Drug- 
gist's Diary." Both formulas were contributed to the "Druggists' Circular" in 
1869, and will be found on pages 185 and 199 of that paper. One of the for- 
mulas has been copied incorrectly into the " Diary," and from it into our last 
number. Instead of -h lb. cardamom, it should read Sem. Amomi^i. e. Pimenta) 
£ lb. 



Elixirs and Secret Formulas. — For several years past pharmacists have 
been annoyed by the continued introduction of new elixirs, medicated wines 
and similar preparations, ostensibly gotten up for the purpose of exhibiting 
nauseous medicines in a form which should be at once pleasing to the eye and 
agreeable to the taste. The baneful effects of this class of preparations have, 
we believe, never been more justly and more forcibly stated than by Dr. Squibb, 
at the Cleveland meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association, who, 
after alluding to the inducement of large profits held out by the manufacturer 
to the dispenser, said :* 

*Proc3edings of the American Pha 'tnaceutical Association, 1872, p. 80. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Mar. 1, 1873. j 



Editorial. 



141 



" Physicians are liable enough to go on the ready-made clothing store prin- 
ciple ; they will take anything that is compounded and save themselves the 
trouble of compounding : but while I am speaking of a large class of physicians, 
fortunately there is another class, and to those pharmacists would do well to 
address themselves. There are no two patients whose conditions are right for 
the same preparation of these elixirs, and therefore it is really a ready-made 
clothing system ; when you put a definite portion of strychnia, cinchona and 
iron into a preparation, you foreshadow a case which requires exactly that pre- 
paration. Some require no iron, some a little more strychnia, some no cin- 
chona, and so the physician puts a good many shot into his gun, or is induced 
to do so by drummers, in the hope of hitting something somewhere. The result 
of this is, it has become reduced to what is a little better than fashionable tip- 
pling. It is a fashionable way of getting stimulants into the stomachs of women 
and children, and as such it deserves the serious reprobation of this Associa- 
tion. There is no way we can do more good, and place it in a better position 
with physicians and the community at large, than by setting our faces against 
this elixir swindle, as it is properly called." 

The danger likely to result to pharmacy from the wholesale introduction of 
these preparations, was recognized at an early day, and various ways were 
adopted, individually, by the conscientious pharmacists, either to avoid their dis- 
pensing altogether, or to dissuade physicians from prescribing preparations 
the formula of which was not made known to such an extent that they could 
be made alike by all pharmacists. Several local pharmaceutical societies then 
took the matter in hand, and published and adopted formularies for the guid- 
ance of their members and others who chose to avail themselves of the infor- 
mation given. The formulas of these societies for the same preparation, how- 
ever, rarely, if ever, agreed, and the variation in the nature of the products as 
obtained from different pharmacies, was therefore not removed. In 1871,'* Dr. 
E. W. Russell, of Baltimore, suggested that the American Pharmaceutical As- 
sociation should select and adopt the most satisfactory formulas, either for 
adoption in the new pharmacopoeia, or to recommend their general use by the 
pharmaceutical and medical professions throughout the country. 

Large bodies proverbially move slowly, and the subject being of vital im- 
portance to two kindred professions of this continent, the National Association 
referred to Mr. Robert J. Brown, of Leavenworth, the following query : " Are 
there reasons sufficient to warrant this Association in propounding formulas 
for unofficinal preparations with a view to securing uniformity in dispensing?" 
which, at the last meeting, was answered! in an able paper, the concluding re- 
marks of which are as follows : 

"We believe the time has come when these preparations should be prepared 
by every pharmacist. If this Association will take a forward step in the pub- 
lication of the best formulas that can be obtained, we believe there are thou- 
sands of apothecaries who will throw aside A., B. and C.'s preparations, and 
prepare them after the formulas propounded by this Association, rejoicing that 
they are free from the odium of dispensing semi-nostrums, and the American 
Pharmaceutical Association will continue in its good work of disseminating 
useful information to American pharmacists." 

The reading of this paper gave rise to an interesting discussion, from which 
we quoted above only a portion of Dr. Squibb's remarks, but which touched 
*See American Journal of Pharmacy, 1871, p. 381. 

t Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1872, p. 207. 



142 Editorial. 

tipon several other important and interesting points connected with this ques- 
tion. At a subsequent session the Association passed the following resolution : 

Resolved, That a committee of five be appointed by the President, to take 
into consideration the subject of elixirs and similar unofficinal preparations, in 
all its bearings upon pharmacy, and, if deemed proper, to report* suitable for- 
mulas for the guidance of the members of this Association. 

And the President appointed the following committee to carry out the objects 
of the resolution : Messrs. John F. Hancock, Baltimore ; James Gr. Steele, San 
Francisco ; Hampden Osborne, Columbus, Miss. ; .Robert J. Brown, Leaven- 
worth, and Ottmar Eberbach, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

We regard this as an excellent choice, all the gentlemen having already de- 
voted much time and labor on the subject, and among them, Mr. Eberbach 
having proven analytically, in an essay on the alkaloids contained in commer- 
cial elixirs, which was read at the Cleveland meeting,* that most of the elixirs 
examined by him fell more or less short, some by two-thirds the amount of 
these important constituents claimed by the manufacturers. 

We have prepared the above sketch of the agitation against the private 
•elixirs, etc., in consequence of the replies which we have received to the paper 
by Mr. J. W. Long, entitled "A defense of elixirs, etc.," which, with some 
editorial remarks, we published in our last number. Our correspondents will 
pardon us us for not publishing their essays in extenso, since all (five have 
been received thus far) agree in the main in their arguments against these 
modern species of nostrums, and advocate the adoption by the American Phar- 
maceutical Association of suitable formulas for all the more important elixirs 
and similar preparations which of late years have gained notoriety, and have 
been more or less extensively prescribed by physicians. Most of our corres- 
pondents seem to have overlooked the notice that the Association has taken 
proper steps in the direction indicated, which K \ve published on page 444 of our 
last volume. In regard to the appointment of a similar committee by the 
American Medical Association, to act in conjunction with that of the Phar- 
maceutical Association — a suggestion made in two or three of the papers re- 
ceived — we must say that such a committee might materially lighten the labors 
of the pharmacists by indicating the most suitable proportions of the active 
ingredients in the formulas to be proposed and adopted ; we suppose, however, 
that the American Pharmaceutical Association will take proper steps to make 
the medical profession of the country acquainted with whatever action it may 
take in this matter, so as to secure uniformity in these preparations in all locali- 
ties. 

A suggestion made by Mr. William B. Addington, of Norfolk, Ya., is worthy 
of consideration by all interested, namely, that "manufacturers whose elixirs, 
syrups, etc., are good, might show a little public spirit, and send in their for- 
mulas to this Committee for examination and selection. . . . Give to him, 
whose formulas are accepted, the credit on all occasions ; and he who feels a 
pride in benefitting and elevating his profession, and not merely in making what 
pecuniary gain he can out of its members, will consider himself amply rewarded." 
Those who feel inclined to adopt this course can readily do so by communicat- 
ing with any member of the Committee named above. 

* Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc., 1872, 264 — 273.* 



* M Min;i P 873" M '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 143 



EE VIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



Year-Booh of Pharmacy, comprising Abstracts of Papers relating to Pharmacy, 
Materia Medica and Chemistry, contributed to British and Foreign Journals 
from July 1. 1871, to June 30, 1872. With the Transactions of the British 
Pharmaceutical Conference at the Ninth Annual Meeting, held at Brighton, 
August, 1872. London: John Churchill & Sons, 1872. 8vo, 676 pages, 
exclusive of advertisements. 

This annual publication comes to us in its usual attractive style, its pages 
filled with matters of interest to the pharmacist. The first 400 pages are 
devoted to the "Year-Book," or, as it is termed by our national association, 
the "Report on the Progress of Pharmacy,'' which is introduced with a review 
— covering 12 pages — of the more important observations and discoveries 
made during the preceding year, relating directly or indirectly to pharmacy. 
This is followed by a review of the investigation on the various articles of 
materia medica, conveniently grouped together into natural orders. 

Part II of the Year-Book treats of pharmaceutical chemistry, upon 172 
pages ; Part III of pharmacy, upon 101 pages, and Part IV contains, upon 20 
pages, a number of notes and formulas, which could not conveniently be arranged 
in the preceding part. 

The abstracts of the papers are very full and complete, and, as far as we have 
examined, cover pretty well the pharmaceutical literature of the year. In our 
opinion, the use of Parts II and III would be materially facilitated if they 
were subdivided by several headings, as has been done in Part I ; the syste- 
matic arrangements which appear to have been adopted for the two parts would 
then become more obvious. 

The Year Book is followed by the Constitution, &c, of the Conference, the 
alphabetical lists of members, and of the towns in which they reside. The 
roll shows 18 honorary, and altogether 2000 members, a number far surpassing 
that of the American Pharmaceutical Association, which latter has been 
organized more than double the length of time. 

The Transactions of this body, including the reports and papers read at the 
meeting, occupy 188 pages. In the October number of 1872 we have given a 
short account of them, and several papers have been republished in this 
Journal. 

Great credit is due to Mr, C. H. Wood, editor of the Year-Book, and Prof. 
Attfield, editor of the Transactions, for the labor bestowed upon this volume, 
not the least important feature of which is a complete and carefully prepared 
index of 26 pages, in double columns. 

The Pharmacist and Chemical Record. A Monthly Journal of Pharmacy, 
Chemistry and the Collateral Sciences. Published by the Chicago College 
of Pharmacy, 1873. Price, $1.50 per year. 

The January number of our contemporary comes to us enlarged from 24 to 
32 pages each month. It remains under the editorship of Professor N. Gray 
Bartlett, with Mr. Albert K. Ebert, associate editor, We congratulate our 
Western friends on this evidence of success and prosperity. 



144 



Obituary. 



( Am. Jock. Pharw. 
t Mar. 1,1873. 



OBITUARY. 

Professor Dr. J. F Hermann Ludwig died at Jena on the morning of Ja»~ 
7th, in the fifty-fourth year of his age. In him pharmacy loses one of her most 
devoted and accomplished scholars, and one of her most conscientious and 
successful teachers For the following biographical notes we are indebted to 
the " Fharmaceutische Zeitung: Bom at Greussen, Sondershausen, on the 
12th of August, 1819, he served his apprenticeship there in the "eagle-phar- 
macy," and subsequently as assistant in various parts of Geimany and Switzer- 
land. In 1844 he went to Jena to study chemistry and pharmacy. In the fol- 
lowing' year he became the assistant in the pharmaceutical institute of the emi- 
nent Wackenroder, and in 1847 Professor of Agricultural Chemistry in the 
Agricultural Institute at Jena. In 1852 he habilitated himself as Lecturer in 
the University of Jena, and, after Wackenroder's death, in 1854, he succeeded 
his teacher as Director of the Pharmaceutical Institute, in which capacity he 
labored uninterruptedly until last winter, wheu he was prostrated by sickness, 
which terminated his useful career. 

Since 1854 Professor Ludwig has been acting as Inspector of Pharmacies,, 
and as a member of the State Board for Chemical and Pharmaceutical Affairs- 
When, iu 1869, a pharmaceutical examining board was created at the Univer- 
sity of Jena, Ludwig was appointed one of the members. Since 1860 he and 
Dr. Mirus conducted the chemieo-Iegal investigations for the grand-duchy of 
Weimar and adjacent states, and, in conjunction with Prof. Reichardt, under- 
took the analysis of the springs of the larger towns of his state to cetermine 
their fitness for drinking and culinary purposes. His chemical and pharma- 
ceutical researches were published in the " Archiv der Pharmacie," of which 
journal he was co-editor with the late Dr. L. Bley from 1863 to 1867, and was 
the sole editor since 1868. Of larger works, Prof. Ludwig published transla- 
tions of A. Philippe's History of the Apothecaries, &c, and of Tardieu and 
Roussin's Toxicology, the latter work in connection with Dr. Thiele ; and,, 
together with Prof. Hallier, an edition of Clamor Marquart's Pharmacy. 

As an earnest student, he accumulated valuable collections; but, overworked 1 
as he had been for years, with a compensation inadequate for his numerous 
responsible duties, he leaves a wife and four children in very moderate circum- 
stances. 

The deceased was an honorary member of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, and a corresponding member of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy. 



George "\Vaugh, a prominent member of the Pharmaceutical Society of 
Great Britain, died, at the age of 71 years, on the 12th of January, at his 
residence, Queensborough Terrace, Kensington Gardens. The deceased was 
for many years a member of the Council of that Society, aud may be regarded 
the originator, as he has been one of the most active promoters, of the Jacob- 
Bell Testimonial Fund. 



THE 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



APRIL, 1873. 



^SCULUS PAVIA, LIN.— RED BUCKEYE. 
By E. C. Batchelor. 
From the Author's Inaugural Essay. 

The red buckeye of the Southern States is generally regarded as a 
poison ; I have often heard farmers attribute the death of stock to 
their having eaten of some part of the plant. I have endeavored, in 
my experiments with the seeds, under Prof. John M. Maisch, to as- 
certain what amount of truth there may be in such reports, and, so 
far as my researches have gone, they prove that the seeds are pos- 
sessed of decided poisonous properties, residing chiefly in a glucoside 
found in the cotyledons. The symptoms are similar to those of strych- 
nia poisoning. Unfortunately I neglected to estimate the yield of 
the active principle, but it must be at least 2J per cent. From the 
following analysis it appears that there is much truth in the state- 
ments of the farmers as to its poisonous properties, and many deaths 
among cattle may be justly attributed to this shrub. 

iEscuLUS Pa via, Lin. — Red Buckeye. 

Nat. Ord. — Sapindaceae. 

Habitat. — United States : Virginia, southward and westward. 

Small tree or shrub, sometimes reaching the height of ten feet. Fruit 
smooth. Leaves opposite, digitate, leaflets 3, 5 or 7, serrate, straight- 
veined, like those of the chestnut ; glabrous or soft downy beneath. 
Flowers in a terminal thyrsus or panicle, often polygamous, the greater 
portion having imperfect pistils and sterile. Pedicels jointed. Calyx 
tubular, five-lobed, rather oblique or gibbous at the base. Petals 4, 
erect and conniving ; the two upper smaller and longer than the 

7 



146 JEsculm Pavia, Lin.— Bed Bucheye. { k \*Timf"~ 

others, consisting of a small rounded blade on a very long claw. 
Stigmas 7, not longer than the corolla, which is bright red, as well 
as the tubular calyx. Ovary 1 to 3 celled, generally 1 or 3, with 
two ovules in each cell, rarely more than one of which forms a seed. 
Seed 1 to 1J inches long, f to 1 inch in diameter, smooth, round on 
one side, flat or angular on the other ; dark reddish brown testa (dry) 
with large pale scar. Cotyledons two, very thick and fleshy, their 
contiguous parts more or less united ; of a pale greenish color with 
light brown resinous spots scattered throughout. Embryo curved. 

Testa no odor ; taste astringent and slightly bitter ; constitutes 17 
per cent, of the seed. 

Cotyledons slightly disagreeable odor ; taste amylaceous and slightly 
sweet at first, then bitter and acrid, with a peculiar and lasting dry- 
ing effect in the fauces. The seeds lose 25 per cent, of weight in 
drying. 

Testa. — 1. Reduced to a moderately fine powder and exhausted 
with benzin, the testa yielded three per cent, of a dark reddish brown 
resin, pulverizable, possessing a slight terebinthinate odor and taste. 

2. The residue dried, exhausted with alcohol of *835, and the al- 
cohol distilled off, yielded a dark red extract-like matter, having little 
odor, but a very astringent taste ; this proved to be tannic acid (green 
with ferric salts) and coloring matter. 

3. The residue was dried and exhausted with cold water, the in- 
fusion treated with lead acetate, precipitate washed, and lead removed 
by SH 2 , filtered ; filtrate heated to drive off SH 2 , and filtered to sep- 
arate S ; concentrated and crystallized, yield a minute quantity of 
long prismatic crystals ; coloring was removed by repeated crystalli- 
zation from boiling alcohol ; crystals possess neither odor nor taste — 
they are organic. 

Cotyledons. — 1. Reduced to a fine powder and exhausted with ben- 
zin, the cotyledons yielded five per cent, of a greenish brown fixed 
oil, lighter than water, little odor, taste bland and rather sweet, non- 
drying ; at 50° F. it separated a concrete principle — more at a lower 
temperature (8° — 10° F). It is probably palmitin with some stearin. 

2. The residue was dried and exhausted with alcohol *817. The 
alcohol distilled off left as residue a dark green mass of the consist- 
ence of honey, possessing a heavy unpleasant odor, and the peculiar 
taste of the cotyledons very much concentrated. The extract was 
treated with ether to remove an oil of a dark green color, having a 



A % J rTi P i873 RM '} jflsculwt Pavia, Lin.— Red Buckeye. 147 

slight terebinthinate odor and taste, and being soluble in ether and 
chloroform. Residue of extract was agitated with chloroform, and 
allowed to stand 48 hours. A thin, slightly green layer separated at 
bottom, which, upon separation and subsequent evaporation, yielded 
a small amount of a light-greenish tenacious mass, resembling the 
glucoside very much in taste, but differing from it by its solubility in 
chloroform and not being readily pulverized. To the remaining tur- 
bid chloroform mixture, alcohol of -817 was added in excess (3 to 1) ; 
the sugar was precipitated, taking with it some of the glucoside. This 
was separated by repeated solution in alcohol -817 and precipitated 
by ether, the ether and alcohol holding the glucoside in solution, the 
sugar precipitating. The yield of cane sugar and syrup was 2J per 
cent. Upon evaporating the alcoholic and ethereal solution, the glu- 
coside was obtained in light yellowish-brown, shining scales, possess- 
ing a peculiar, heavy odor and an extremely bitter and acrid taste, 
with a peculiar and lastingly drying effect in the fauces. This glu- 
coside, by boiling with dilute hydrochloric acid, was converted into glu- 
cose, and a compound, which, by solution in alcohol, was obtained in 
small yellowish-white crystals, devoid of odor and taste, but having 
an acid reaction. The glucoside is insoluble in ether and chloroform, 
soluble in alcohol, more in hot ; freely soluble in water, yielding a frothy 
solution acid to litmus. By distilling with B 2 S0 4 H 2 0, a solution of 
valerianic acid was obtained, which was carefully neutralized with 
NaHO, evaporated, and yielded a small quantity of salt. A portion 
of this mixed with a drop of amylic alcohol and H 2 S0 4 in excess, 
yielded, upon the addition of a drop of water, the odor of apple oil or 
valerianate of amylic ether. 

3. The residue (from alcoholic percolator) was dried and exhausted 
with cold water, the infusion treated with lead acetate, the precipi- 
tate washed and the lead thrown out by H 2 S and filtered. The filtrate 
was rejected; the residue on filter dried, reduced to*a fine powder, 
and exhausted by washing with cold alcohol of -817. The alco- 
holic solution was heated and filtered, the filtrate shaken with a small 
portion of chloroform to remove the coloring matter which floated on 
the top of the solution, and separated by filtration ; filtrate concen- 
trated and crystallized, obtained a minute crop of light yellowish-white 
prismatic crystals, soluble in alkalies, not in acetic acid, possessing a 
decided acid taste and reaction, and totally volatilized by heat. 

4. The residue left of the cotyledons was washed with successive 



148 Msculus Pavia, Lin.— Bed Buckeye. | A VrTi, m 3 RM * 

portions of cold water ; washings mixed and allowed to settle ; sedi- 
ments collected and dried at a moderate temperature, yielded 12 per 
cent, starch, with loss. The seeds yielded 2J per cent, of ashes, a 
qualitative analysis of which proved its composition to be aluminium, 
magnesium, potassium, sodium (iron trace), as bases, and carbonic, 
hydrochloric and phosphoric acids. 

Physiological effects of the glucoside. — A full-grown cat, to which a 
portion of a solution containing a half grain of the glucoside was ad- 
ministered, exhibited signs of great uneasiness within fifteen minutes. 
Symptoms : first stupor, then starts and jerking of the muscles, pro- 
truding eyes, with much frothing at the mouth ; the stupor and mus- 
cular spasms continued to alternate for three days, the cat occasionally 
staggering about the room as if in a fit. At the end of the three days it 
began to recover, and would then take food. Owing to accident, I could 
not state exactly the amount administered, but it was something under 
a half grain ; and having lost my solution by the same accident (prin- 
cipally the claws and teeth of my patient), I failed in estimating the 
amount necessary to cause the death of the cat, but proved that in a 
moderately large dose it would prove decidedly injurious if taken in- 
ternally. 

The glucoside differs from argyraescin and aphrodaescin, found by 
Rochleder in the JEsculus hypocastanum, by the following reactions : 

Argyrcescin. — 1. By H 2 S0 4 , pale yellow solution ; the heat generated 
by adding a drop of water changed the color to a deep red, and upon 
the heat being pushed, deposits grayish-green flocks, at the same time 
evolving the odor of fatty acids. 

2. Its solution in aqueous alkalies, upon being warmed, changes 
into a viscid mass and solidifies to a yellow jelly ; by pushing the 
heat it is liquefied. 

3. Its aqueous solutions are precipitated by acetate and subacetate 
of lead. 

£ 4. It is^not freely soluble in water. 

Aphrodcescin. — 1. Precipitated from aqueous solutions by baryta 
water. 

2. Its solution in aqueous alkalies resembles argyraescin when 
heated. 

Glucoside. — 1. H 2 S0 4 rich yellow solution, a drop of water changes 
the color to a reddish-purple ; by pushing heat, deposits purple flocks, 
evolving at the same time the odor of fatty acids (Val.) Upon cool- 
ing, the color changes to a beautiful dark purple. 



A A P J rTi,i873 RM } Sulpho-Mohjbdate of Ammonia, etc. 149 

2. Its solution in aqueous alkalies does not solidify when warmed. 

3. It is not precipitated from aqueous solutions by acetate or sub- 
acetate of lead. 

4. It is freely soluble in water, making a frothy solution. 

5. It is not precipitated from aqueous solutions by baryta water. 

Summary. 

Ashes, 2J per cent., contain aluminium, magnesium, potassium, so- 
dium and iron trace ; carbonic, hydrochloric and phosphoric acids. 

Testa, 17 percent.: 3 per cent, resin ; tannic acid (green color with 
persalts of iron). Red coloring matter ; a minute crop of white pris- 
matic crystals, devoid of taste. 

Cotyledons : 5 per cent, fixed oil ; a tough matter, resembling the 
glucoside in odor, taste and reaction, but differing from it by its solu- 
bility in ether and chloroform, and by its not being readily reduced 
to powder. 

2J per cent, cane sugar and syrup. Glucoside, soluble in alcohol, 
water and alkaline solutions ; by HC1 and H 2 converted into glucose 
and another principle crystallizable from hot alcohol, having an acid 
reaction, but devoid of the peculiar odor and taste of the glucoside. 
The glucoside is the active principle, poisonous, symptoms resembling 
those of strychnia poisoning. 

A minute quantity of a crystallizable organic acid ; green coloring 
matter ; 12 per cent, starch. 

Valerianic acid, by decomposing the glucoside resin, and glucoside 
by H 2 S0 4 . 

SULPHO-MOLYBDATE OF AMMONIA AS A TEST FOR SOME 
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS. 
By J. H. Buckingham. 
Among the latest tests for the detection of morphia, a solution of 
sulpho-molybdate of ammonia will be found the most delicate. The 
beautiful blue color which it gives when dropped upon that alkaloid, 
is indeed a striking reaction. It will give, however, a characteristic 
color, not only with morphia, but also with many other organic prin- 
ciples. 

One of the peculiarities which I noticed while making my experi- 
ments, was that, when allowed to stand for any length of time in con- 
tact with the compound, the solution always became blue. This color 
was light or dark, according to whether or not the solution, when first 



150 Sulpho-Molybdate of Ammonia, etc. {^r^imT*' 

applied, gave a characteristic color. This change is due to the oxida- 
tion of the solution, as all salts of molybdic acid or its compounds, when 
heated in contact with air, will finally turn blue. This, however, is 
hastened by the contact of some organic matter or any deoxidising 
agent. 

This test may be prepared by mixing eight grains of molybdate of 
ammonia with two drachms of sulphuric acid (chemically pure). The 
milky solution is then heated until it becomes clear, care being taken 
not to raise the heat too high, or a change will take place. 

This solution should be made fresh every time it is wanted for use. 
Small quantities should be used, as diiferent results may be obtained 
by increasing the quantities. 

The following are the reactions with some of the most important 
alkaloids and other principles. 

1. Those which, at first, produce no color, but afterwards change 
to a light blue. 



ALKALOIDS, ETC. 


FIRST COLOR. 


SECOND COLOR. 


FINAL CHANGE. 


1. Quinia, 

2. Quinidia, 

3. Cinchonia, 

4. Asparagin, 

5. Strychnia, 

6. Atropia, 

7. Caffeia, 


Colorless, 

li 
<< 




Light Blue. 

it a 
u u 



2. Those which, at first, produce a characteristic color, and after- 
wards, with exception of meconin, change to a dark blue. 



ALKALOIDS, ETC. 


FIRST COLOR. 


SECOND COLOR. 


FINAL CHANGE. 


8. Santonin, 


Light Purple, 
" Yellow, 




Dark Blue. 


9. Menispermia, 






10. Solonia, 


Yellow, 






11. Veratria, 


Yellow Green, 


Dark Brown. 




12. Meconin, 


Light « 




Light « 


13. Codeia, 


Green, 




Dark " 


14. Narcotina, 


Yellow Green, 






15. Phloridzin, 


Dark Blue, 




Permanent. 


16. Salicin, 


Purple, 


Blue, then Brown Red, 


Dark Blue. 


17. Morphia, 


Dark Red, 


Purple, 




18. Digitalin, 


Crimson, 


Purple, 




19. Brucia, 


Brick Red, 






20. Aconitia, 


Light Yellow Brown, 


Brown, 




21. Piperina, 


Brown Red, 






22. Berberina, 


Purple, 






23. Cubebin. 


Crimson, 




<< u 



A Vr°in,i873 RM '} Examination of some brands of Liquorice. 151 

This test gives an easy and delicate method of distinguishing be- 
tween strychnia and brucia, and also for detecting the adulteration of 
quinia with either salicin or phloridzin. The first color produced 
may be regarded as the real reaction, as the final change is due to 
deoxidation. 



AN EXAMINATION OF SOME BRANDS OF LIQUORICE. 
By Wm. N. Martindell, 
From an Inaugural Essay. 
I procured for my examinations the following well-known brands, 
viz., " Corigliano," " Guzolini," and " P. & S.," all Calabria makes; 
I "G. H." and "Noel & Co.," both Spanish; and "M. k R.," a do- 
mestic article, made in this city by Messrs. Mellor & Rittenhouse. 

Exactly 500 grains of each brand was weighed, and macerated in 
f^viii of water, at the temperature of 39° F. After 24 hours the 
specimens were all softened down into a smooth paste, by occasion- 
ally stirring and shaking. When perfectly smooth they were thrown 
upon tared filters, washed with cold water, dried and weighed, show- 
ing the following results after being thus exhausted in cold water : 



" Corigliano," 
"Noel & Co.," 
"P. &S.," . 
"Guzolini," . 
"G. H," 
"M. & R.," . 



Residue. 


Est. soluble in 
cold water. 


Loss. 


218 grains 


280 grains 


2 grains 


253 


176 


71 


248 


225 


27 


175 


284 


41 


233 


210 


57 


116 


317 


67 



The variableness in the amount of loss is to be attributed to the dif- 
ferent degrees of dryness in the specimens examined. I am informed, 
however, by those who have had experience in the matter, that where 
liquorice is dried for powdering the loss is 10 per cent. 

The residue which was left upon the filters as insoluble in cold wa- 
ter, when treated with boiling water, gave the usual color test for 
starch upon the addition of iodine. 

The figures above given are not intended to be absolutely correct. 
They are very well ascertained for practical pharmaceutical and com- 
mercial purposes, however, and if they are received as such my ob- 
ject has been accomplished. 



152 



Decoctum Zittmanni, etc. 



J Am. Jour. Phamk. 
\ April 1, 1873. 



The various brands of liquorice examined presented very marked 
differences when placed side by side. The size of the sticks varied 
from» 1\ oz. to 4 oz. The texture, if I may use the expression, in 
the Calabria brands was not as fine and smooth as that of the Span- 
ish, and neither of these brands showed the smoothness and freedom 
from grit found in specimens selected from the article manufactured 
by M. & R. 

The fracture, which is generally considered one of the best testa 
for liquorice, was brightest in the American article ; indeed, the bril- 
liancy of fracture was very marked, and excelled that of any other 
examined by me. The next degree of beauty of fracture I found in 
the Corigliano. Next in order of excellence came the other brands 
of Calabria, and finally, and worst of all in this feature, the Spanish. 

The flavor also varied in every brand, no two being alike in this 
particular. This matter of flavor is one of opinion entirely. I merely 
offer my own for what it is worth, and it is that " Guzolini " is equal 
in this respect to " Corigliano," which is usually considered the finest ; 
"P. & S." and the two Spanish brands are about alike in flavor; 
while the "M. & R." has a stronger taste of liquorice at first, but 
leaves a much pleasanter "after-taste" than any of them. This 
strong taste in "M. & R." is due, I think, to its greater degree of 
solubility, as well as less dryness than seen in the imported brands. 

There are many suggestions that occur to me in this connection, to 
which, when opportunity permits, I purpose giving my attention. Of 
one thing, in conclusion, I feel satisfied : it is that the reputation of 
some of the most celebrated brands is fictitious when compared with 
some less known and esteemed, and that the domestic article is very 
superior and should receive that sanction which is due to pure articles 
in pharmacy. 



DECOCTUM ZITTMANNI; SYRUPUS ALTH^E^E ; TINCTURA 
RHEI AQUOSA. 

By H. M. Wilder. 
Decoctum Zittmanni. 
Several years ago a physician entered our store and asked how long 
it would take to make Zittmann's decoction. " Twenty-four hours at 
least," was the answer. (See Wood and Bache, note to decoct, sar- 
sapar. comp.) Upon inquiry, if it were not possible to reduce the 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April 1, 1873. J 



Decoct um Zittmanni, etc. 



153 



time, my employer proposed the following extemporisation, which the 
physician approved of and always subsequently prescribed. 

Strong Decoction. 
¥\. extr. sarsaparill. simpl., . . f^vj. 

" sennae, . . , f^ij. 

Extr. glyeyrrhizae depur., . . 3iss. 

Alumin. pulv., .... 3ii, gr. xlviii. 
Ol. anisi, . . . gtt. iii. 

" foenicul., .... gtt. v. 
Aquae, q. s., ad vol. . . . Oix, or 

to six wine bottles ; add to each bottle Massae pil. hydrargyr. gr. x, 
well rubbed up. 

Mild Decoction. 
Fl. extr. sarsaparill. simpL, . . f^iii. 

" sennae, . . . f^iii. 

Extr. glycyrrhiz. depur., . . 5ss. 

Tinct. cardamomi, . . . f^i. 

Ol. limonis, 

01. cinnamom, . . aa gtt. i. 

Aquae q. s., ad vol. . . . Oix, 

m to fill six wine bottles. 

Syrwpus Althceo?. 
'The Prussian Pharmacopoeia orders 

Althaeae rad. cone. . . part i. 

Macerate a few hours in 

Aquae, . . . pt. xviij. 

Strain without expression, and make to syrup with 

Sacchar. alb., . . . pt. xxiv. 

As above prepared it is kept with difficulty in the winter, and in 
"Summer time it gets sour within a few days unless kept on ice. 

I have, for a couple of years, obviated this difficulty by substitut- 
ing part of the sugar by glycerin, as follows : 

Althaeae rad. cone, (freed from dust), Ji. 
Macerate for two hours in 

Cold water, . . . f^xviii, or 

so much as will produce on straining (without expression) a liquid 
measuring f^xv. Add 

Glycerin, . . . . f^viss. 

White Sugar, . . . ,fxivss. 



154 Emulsions of Cod-Liver OIL {^Ti]!™"* 

Boil once and strain. To render spoiling (even in the hottest sum- 
mer) next to impossible, fill in two or four oz. vials (according to busi- 
ness) up to the stoppers, and lay them in the cellar on their sides. 
If that is too much trouble, the addition of gr. vj of bisulphite of 
lime to the above quantity will retard spoiling for a very long time. 

Tinetura Rhei Aquosa. 
According to the Prussian Pharmacopoeia, take 

Rhei cone, . . . pt. xii. 

Potass, carbon., . . . pt. iii. 

Macerate in 

Aquae cinnam. spirit., . . pt. xvi. 

Aquse, . . . . pt. xcvi. 

for 24 hours, strain, let deposit, and filter. 

This forms a beautiful dark reddish-brown tincture, which, how- 
ever, spoils quite as quickly as syrupus althaeae, getting sometimes 
gelatinous, and always turbid. 

I have been using to advantage Mr. Bille's aqueous fluid extract 
of rhubarb (see Am. Jour. Pharm., vol. xliv, p. 483) in making this 
tincture, as follows : 

Fl. extr. rhei aquos., . . f^i. 

Potass, carbon., . . . 3ii. 

Aquae, .... fjviss. 
Add Alcohol, . . . f^ss. 

01. Cinnam. . . . gtt. ii. 

Said aqueous fid. extr. of rhubarb would form a very useful addi- 
tion to the list of preparations in the next Pharmacopoeia. 



EMULSIONS OF COD-LIVER OIL. 
By William G. Moffit. 
Extracted from an Inaugural Essay. 
The cod-liver oil now found in our market is more pleasant to the 
taste than what was formerly met with, due, in a great measure, to* 
the competition in its manufacture. 

But, notwithstanding the fineness of the oil, and the almost total 
absence of the disagreeable fishy odor (so strong in common cod-liver 
oils), it requires a strong effort on the part of many persons to become 
used to taking it. This is especially the case with ladies and child- 
ren, or in fact any who have weak stomachs. Its taste and odor has 



A VrTi;f 8 H 73 RM '} Emulsions of Cod-Liver Oil 155 

therefore to be disguised in order to make it palatable, and at the 
same time to preserve its virtue unimpaired. 

For this purpose acacia, tragacanth, and various other gums have 
been used for emulsifying the oil, and some pleasant essential oil to 
cover the odor. The main objection found by physicians to this mode, 
is the large quantity usually employed for this purpose. In making 
the mucilago acaciae our Pharmacopoeia directs to use the acacia in 
coarse powder. When made with the powdered drug, it is generally 
of a dirty white color, owing to the impurities in the powder. In 
prescriptions where the quantity of the oil to be emulsified is large in 
proportion to the quantity of the mucilage, it is best to use the pow- 
der, incorporating but a little water, sufficient only to mix the gum 
thoroughly. The oil is then to be added, in very small quantities at 
a time. Sometimes before the oil is all added it becomes very thick, 
and then it is necessary to add a small quantity of water. 

Emulsions of cod-liver oil are now being largely manufactured by 
some of our leading pharmacists. Generally these represent 50 per 
cent, of cod-liver oil, but in some cases fall far short of the amount 
thus represented. 

In some specimens tried by the author, less than 25 per cent, was 
found. Besides not containing the amount of oil advanced, it is very 
often made of the commoner kinds of oil, the strong offensive odor of 
which is generally masked by some of the essential oils. 

From some experiments tried I would select the following formula 
for an emulsion of cod- liver oil. This is generally found to give 
satisfaction, and to remain unaltered for some time : 



Cod-liver Oil Mixture. 

B. Pulv. Acaciae, .... ^ii, 
Sacch. Alb., . . 

Aquae, .... 3iv, 

Spts. Vini Gall., . . . 3iv, 

Syr. Rubi Idaei, . . . si, 

01. Gaultheriae, . . . gtt. xviii, 

01. Morrhuae, .... sviii. 
M. ft. emuls. 



This contains about 50 per cent. (42 per ct., by measure, Edit. A. 
Jour. Ph.) of oil, and is a very pleasant preparation. 

In the above recipe there will be found by some an objection in the 



156 Emulsions of Cod-Liver Oil. {^JRiS? 

use of the brandy, on account of the alcohol which it contains being 
capable of precipitating the gum from solution. This can be obvi- 
ated in a great measure by adding it last. It has, however, the pro- 
perty of preserving it for a length of time. 

An emulsion is by far the best method of incorporating cod-liver oil 
with other medicines. Iron is often introduced. This is easily done by 
adding a soluble salt to the mixture. In the following formula a con- 
centrated solution of pyrophosphate of iron is used, which keeps 
well, and is a very useful addition to our list of cod-liver oil mixtures. 
It is, I think, one of the easiest and most convenient ways of admin- 
istering iron in combination with cod-liver oil, and is much liked by 
those who in their practice have had occasion to use it : 

Cod-liver Oil in Combination with Iron. 



Ify. Pulv. Acacise, . . . . 3i, 

Pulv. Sacch. Alb., . . . ^ss, 

Aquae, ..... 3iv, 
Alcohol, . . . . %\ y 

01. Morrhuse, . . . . 3v, 

Sol. Ferri Pyrophosph., . . gtt. cc, 

01. Amygdal. Amar., . . . gtt. v. 

M. ft. emuls. 



A new preparation of cod-liver oil has recently come under the 
attention of physicians and pharmacists, namely, that of lacto-phos- 
phate of lime and cod-liver oil. The most advantageous manner of 
preparing this is a matter of dispute. I have found the following to 
answer all the purposes indicated : 

Lacto-phosphate of Lime and Cod-liver Oil. 



i^. Pulv. Acacise, . . . . ^i, 

Pulv. Sacch. Alb., . . . ^ss, 

Liquor. Calcis, .... §iii, 

Alcohol, . . . . 3i, 

01. Morrhuse, . . . . gi, 

Sol. Calcii Lacto-phosph., . . q. s. 

01. Gaultheriae, .... gtt. v. M. 



In the above, lime-water is substituted for water, to neutralize any 
excess of lactic acid in the solution of lacto-phosphate of lime. This 
often gelatinizes, on account of the sucrose being converted by the 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
April 1, 1873. j 



Pharmaceutical Notes. 



157 



action of lactic acid into glucose, and thus rendering it so thick and 
ropy as to be unfit for use. 

The solution of lacto-phosphate of lime is made by dissolving phos- 
phate of lime in lactic acid. The solution should be assayed, and 
water added to make the required amount, which is two grains to the 
teaspoonful of mixture. The solution should be filtered in order that 
the emulsion should be perfectly white. 

The phosphate of lime and cod-liver oil is also a new preparation, 
and is sometimes used in preference to the above. It is made by add- 
ing freshly prepared phosphate of lime to the emulsion and stirring 
constantly until it is thoroughly and uniformly mixed. On standing, 
it, however, lets fall the phosphate of lime, and requires to be well 
shaken before it can be used. 

In all the above preparations much labor can be avoided by the use 
of a patent churn, which may be had to hold thirty or forty gallons 
of the mixture. In the process of making an emulsion of this kind 
on a large scale, care should be taken that the mucilage is perfectly 
uniform and free from lumps before the oil is added. 



PHARMACEUTICAL NOTES. 

Boston Highlands, January, 1878. 
Editor of the American Journal of Pharmacy : 

Dear Sir, — In the January number of the " American Journal of 
Pharmacy," I see a method given for making Ung. Zinci Oxidi with a 
paint-mill, which, to a person making only a small quantity at a time, 
would be both cumbersome and expensive. I have found that by rub- 
bing the zinc oxide with a small quantity of glycerin on the slab to 
a fine, smooth paste, and then mixing with the benzoinated lard, gives 
me a perfectly smooth ointment, free from that rough or gritty feel- 
ing when rubbed on the skin, as when made in the ordinary manner. 
I have also found glycerin the best excipient for making pills of ox- 
ide of zinc, care being taken not to make them too soft. 

For suppositories I have always used the common metallic moulds^ 
set in a tray. I fill the tray with ice and water, then immerse the 
moulds. After standing a few moments, take each mould separately 
and breathe in it, so as to form a coating of moisture on the inside ; 
then put in a small quantity of lycopodium, and shake; then empty. 
This leaves a coating of lycopodium. Return the moulds to the tray ; 



158 



Oleate of Mercury and Morphia. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Aprii. 1, 1873. 



prepare your material, and when it is about as cool as can be and 
pours readily, then fill your moulds, and in a very few moments you 
can knock them out without smashing your fingers. 

I never have any trouble in getting them out, not even when made 
of carbolic acid ; neither do I ever add any wax or spermaceti to 
harden them. 



OLEATE OF MERCURY AND MORPHIA. 
By Louis Dohme. 
Read at the Annual Meeting of the Maryland College of Pharmacy. 

Having occasion to prepare some oleate of mercury, I met with the 
aame difficulty complained of by several colleagues — that of being un- 
able to procure a pure oleic acid, which it is asserted dissolves both 
the red and yellow varieties of oxide of mercury without difficulty, 
and without causing the reduction of the oxide and consequent pre- 
cipitation of the metallic mercury. Specimens of commercial oleic 
acid obtained from different sources were all of a more or less brown- 
ish red color, owing to oxidation of the oleic acid, and contaminated 
with stearic and probably palmitic acids. The latter acids were sepa- 
rated to a considerable extent by exposing the acid to a temperature 
of 40° F., and expressing the liquid portion as directed by Mr. Charles 
Rice, in the January number of the Amer. Journ. Pharmacy. In 
attempting to prepare the oleate of mercury, I also followed the di- 
rections given in the above article, but I found considerable difficulty 
in effecting the solution, the oxide dissolving very slowly, and sepa- 
ration of metallic mercury occurring even when the temperature was 
carefully kept below 175° F. This induced me to make some expe- 
riments on the subject, which finally lead to the preparation of the 
oleate of mercury by double decomposition between oleate of potas- 
sium and nitrate of mercury. 

Preparing one pound (7000 grains) of oleate of mercury, contain- 
ing five per cent, of the red oxide (this being the strength specified in 
our order), the following process and quantities were found to yield 
the most satisfactory results. 



E. A. Alden. 



Red oxide of mercury, 



350 grains. 



Nitric acid, 42° 
Caustic potassa, 
Oleic acid, 



335 " 
220 " 
1112 " 



Diluted alcohol, 



4 fluid ounces. 



■ 4 AprT'i P i H 873 M *} Ofoate of Mercury and Morphia. 159 

The red oxide of mercury was triturated with the nitric acid until 
dissolved, and the resulting solution of nitrate of mercury diluted with 
half a fluid ounce of water. 

The caustic potassa was dissolved in the diluted alcohol, contained 
in a dish capable of holding a quart, and to this solution the oleic acid 
was added, which at once combined with the potassa, forming a clear 
solution of oleate of potassium. 

The solution of nitrate of mercury was now poured gradually into 
the solution of oleate of potassium, the mixture being stirred briskly 
with a glass rod, and the precipitation of the oleate of mercury of the 
consistence and color of firm white butter was the result. On apply- 
ing the iodide of potassium test to the mother liquor, this was found 
to be entirely free of nitrate of mercury, showing that all the mercury 
had been precipitated as oleate of mercury. The oleate was now 
thoroughly washed with cold water to remove the nitrate of potassium, 
and finally pressed with a pestel to remove the water as much as pos- 
sible. The oleate was next placed in a tared dish, and sufficient 
oleic acid was added to make the whole weigh 7000 grains. The dish 
was then placed on a water-bath, and the mixture heated to 140° F., 
when a clear solution of the oleate of mercury was obtained of a light 
yellowish brown color, and containing five per cent, of the red oxide 
of mercury. 

When an oleate of mercury containing ten per cent, of oxide is de- 
sired, all that is requisite is to double the above quantities of ingre- 
dients, using 700 grs. of red oxide of mercury, &c, &c, and after 
precipitating and washing the oleate, adding sufficient oleic acid to 
make the whole weigh one pound. 

The solutions of oleate of mercury prepared from the commercial 
acid, whether by the above process or by dissolving the precipitated 
oxide in oleic acid by heat, are prone to pass from the liquid to a gel- 
atinous and finally semi-solid state, caused probably by further oxida- 
tion of the combined acid and also by its partial union with the mono- 
acid salt first formed, and in experimenting to prevent the solidifica- 
tion, it was found that, when adding a mixture of equal parts of alco- 
hol and oleic acid, instead of oleic acid alone, to the precipitated oleate 
of mercury, in making up the final weight of the preparation, a more 
liquid product was obtained, which to the present time (seven days), 
has not gelatinized. 

By substituting olive oil in the same manner for the oleic acid, to 



160 Formulas from Pharmacopoea Germanica. {^priK.msT*' 

mix with the precipitated oleate, a preparation was obtained whicfe 
retains its light straw color and liquid consistence thus far without*, 
the slightest observable change. The precipitated oleate of mercury^ 
although not completely dissolved by the oil, remains mechanically 
mixed with it. 

To prepare the oleate of mercury and morphia, it is only necessary 
in preparing a pound, for instance, containing two per cent, of mor- 
phia, to dissolve 170 grains of basic morphia in six fluid ounces of 
oleic acid, or a mixture of oleic acid and alcohol at a temperature of 
140° F., and after cooling, to add this solution of oleate of morpbi& 
to the precipitated oleate of mercury in making up the weight of one- 
pound, as in the above process. 

When the oleate of mercury is prepared from the commercial acid*,, 
as in the above process, it is necessarily contaminated with combina- 
tions of the mercury with other fatty acids, even when the acid had 
been expressed after exposure to a low temperature. But this will 
hardly affect the therapeutical value of the preparation, as the combi- 
nation of the fatty acid evidently only offers the mercurial in a favor- 
able form to be absorbed when externally applied, without otherwise 
adding to its efficacy. 

Regarding the quantities of material in the formula, I would addIV 
in conclusion, that the calculated quantities of potassa and oleic acid 
sufficient to precipitate the nitrate of mercury, was found to be 182! 
grains of potassa and 917J grains of oleic acid, but the increase in the 
above formula was adopted to insure complete precipitation of the 
mercury, the excess of soap being easily washed out afterwards. The 
quantity of nitric acid is also in excess of the calculated quantity, be- 
ing the quantity found requisite in practice. 

Baltimore, March IMi, 1873. 



SELECTED FORMULAS FROM PHARMACOPCEA GERMANICA. 
By the Editor. 
(Continued from page 109 of last number.) 
Fel Tauri depuratum siccum. Equal parts of fresh ox gall and U0 ! 
per cent, alcohol are mixed, the precipitate separated, and the alcohol 
recovered by distillation. The residuary liquid is treated with puri- 
fied animal charcoal until it becomes yellowish, when it is filtered,, 
evaporated and powdered. 100 parts of fresh yield about 7 parts of 
purified ox gall. 



A Ap J r°iu,i873 RM "} Formulas from Pharmacopoea Germanica. 161 

Ferrum carbonicum saccharatum. 5 parts of sulphate of iron and 
4 p. bicarbonate of sodium are separately dissolved in hot water, the 
solutions mixed and the air excluded. The precipitate is washed by 
decantation, then mixed with 8 parts of sugar, evaporated to dryness 
and powdered. It contains 20 per cent, of carbonate of iron. 

Ferrum chloratum. Granulated protochloride of iron, obtained by 
rapidly evaporating a recently prepared solution until a pellicle is 
formed, adding 1 part of hydrochloric acid for every 520 parts used 
in dissolving the iron, and evaporated, with constant stirring, to dry- 
ness. 

Ferrum iodatum saccharatum. A solution of iodide of iron, pre- 
pared from 3 p. powdered iron, 10 p. distilled water, and 8 p. of 
iodine, is filtered upon 40 p. milk sugar, evaporated to dryness and 
powdered. Contains 20 per cent, of ferrous iodide. 

Ferrum oxydatum saccharatum solubile. 20 parts of solution of 
sesquichloride of iron (sp. gr. 1*480 to 1*484, containing 43*5 per ct. 
anhydrous ferric chloride) are mixed with 20 p. simple syrup; 40 p. 
of soda solution (spec. gr. 1*330 to 1-334, containing 30 to 31 per ct. 
NallO) are gradually added and the mixture set aside for 24 hours. 
The clear liquid is mixed with 300 parts of hot distilled water, the 
precipitate washed first by decantation, afterwards upon the filter, and 
allowed to drain. After the addition of 90 parts of powdered sugar, 
the precipitate is dried in a water-bath, and enough sugar added to 
make the whole weigh 100 parts, which contain ferric oxide equal to 
3 parts of metallic iron. 

It is a reddish powder, of a sweet and slightly ferruginous taste, 
completely soluble in 5 parts of water, the solution having a slight 
alkaline reaction. 

Ferrum sesquichloratum. Fe 2 Cl 6 +6H 2 in crystalline masses, 
completely soluble in water, alcohol and ether. 

Gelatina Carrageen. 1 part of Irish moss is boiled for half an 
hour with 40 p. water, and expressed. To the strained liquid 2 parts 
of sugar are added, and the whole evaporated to 10 parts. 

G-elatina Liehenis lslandici. Prepared like the foregoing, from 
3 parts of Iceland moss, 100 p. of water, and 3 p. of sugar. The 
result is 10 parts. 

Gelatina Liehenis lslandici saccharata sicca. 16 p. Iceland moss 
8 



162 Formulas from Pharmacoposa Oermanica. { A Apiifi', isS* 

is deprived of bitterness by macerating it with 1 part of carbonate of 
potassium, and sufficient water. The washed lichen is boiled with 
200 parts water for four hours, the decoction strained and with 6 parts 
of sugar evaporated to dryness ; sufficient sugar is then added, so that 
the weight of the sugar shall be one-half of the weight of the brown- 
greyish powder. 

Infusum Sennce compositum. Vienna draught. 2 parts of cut 
senna are treated for five minutes with 12 p. hot water ; dissolve in 
the expressed infusion 2 p. Rochelle salt and 3 p. of small flake 
manna, and strain. The whole weighs 15 parts. 

Lichen Islandicus ab amaritie liberatus. 5 parts Iceland moss are 
treated for three hours with 30 p. tepid water and 1 p. solution of car- 
bonate of potassium (containing one-third exsiccated carbonate) ; the 
lichen is then well washed with water and dried. 

Linimentum saponato-ammoniatum. Soap shavings, 1 part, are 
dissolved in 30 parts of water, 10 of 90 per cent, alcohol and 15 parts 
water of ammonia. 

Linimentum saponato-eamphoratum is the old-fashioned opodeldoc. 

Linimentum saponato-eamphoratum liquidum corresponds to the 
soap liniment, U. S. P., but contains ammonia and less than half the 
quantity of camphor. The proportions are : Castile soap 30 p., 68 
per ct. alcohol 230 p., camphor 5 p., oil of thyme 1 p., oil of rose- 
mary 2 p., water of ammonia 8 p. 

Liquor Ammonii carbonicL Carbonate of ammonia 1 p., distilled 
water 5 parts. 

Liquor Ammonii pyro-oleosi, of the same strength, is made with 
pyro-oleous carbonate of ammonium. 

Liquor Ferri acetici. Dilute 10 p. solution of tersulphate of iron 
with 30 p. of water, and mix with 8 p. ammonia water, previously 
diluted with 160 p. water ; the mixture must have an alkaline reac- 
tion. The precipitate is carefully washed with distilled water and 
expressed in a linen strainer until the residue weighs about 5 parts ; 
this is left in contact with 6 p. acetic acid, sp. gr. 1*040, for several 
days, in a cool place, with occasional agitation, filtered and sufficient 
distilled water added to make the solution weigh 10 parts. 

The liquid has a deep brown-red color, becomes turbid on heating, 
has a specific gravity of 1-134 to 1*138 and contains 8 per cent, of 
iron. 



A Aprini,i873™'} Gleanings from the European Journals. 163 

Liquor Ferri chlorati is an aqueous solution of protochloride of 
iron, spec. grav. 1*226 to 1*230, containing 10 per cent, of iron. 

Liquor Uydrargyri nitrici oxydulati s. Liquor Bellostii. Proto- 
nitrate of mercury, 100 parts, is triturated with 15 p. nitric acid, and 
885 p. distilled water are gradually added. The solution is altered 
on keeping. 

Liquor Kali arsenicosi, Fowler's solution, is not colored, and con- 
tains one-ninetieth of its weight arsenious acid; it is therefore about 
one-fifth stronger than the solution of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, which 
contains T j 3 of arsenious acid. 

Liquor Natri carbolici. Pure carbolic acid 5 parts, solution of 
caustic soda, spec. gr. 1*330 to 1*334, 1 part, distilled water 4 parts. 

Liquor seriparus. Liquid rennet. 3 parts of the mucous mem- 
brane of fresh calf's rennet macerated for three days in 26 parts of 
white wine, 1 part of table salt being added. 

Magnesia citrica effervescens. Carbonate of magnesia 25 parts, 
and citric acid 75 parts, are triturated with a little water to a thick 
pulp, which is dried at a temperature not higher than 30° C. (86° F.) 
14 parts of this powder, 13 p. bicarbonate of soda, 6 p. citric acid 
and 3 parts of powdered sugar are thoroughly mixed ; the mixture is 
moistened with sufficient alcohol and rubbed through a tinned iron 
sieve, so that a coarsely granular powder is obtained, which is dried 
at a moderately warm place. 

Magnesia lactica, Lactate of magnesia, is obtained by saturating 
lactic acid, spec. grav. 1*24, previously diluted with 10 parts of water, 
with carbonate of magnesia and evaporating the filtrate to crystalli- 
zation. 

(To be continued.) 



GLEANINGS FROM THE EUROPEAN JOURNALS. 
By the Editor. 

Derivatives of vanillic acid. — P. Carles obtained the iodated com- 
pounds of vanillic acid* by treating the aqueous solution of the latter 
with an alcoholic solution of iodine for 24 hours at a temperature of 
50° C, and purifying the crystals by repeated recrystallization from 
alcohol. The two compounds C 16 H 7 I0 6 and C 16 H 6 I 2 6 are colorless 
and have little odor. 



*See American Journal of Pharmacy, 1872, p. 231. 



164 Gleanings from the European Journals. { k %rT'^mlf % 

On treating the concentrated aqueous solution of vanillic acid with 
bromine, gradually added, a precipitate is formed, which is dissolved 
in alcohol agitated with mercury, crystallized and purified by animal 
charcoal and boiling water. C 16 H 7 Br0 6 forms pearly crystals, of a 
yellowish color, fusing at 16° C. 

The chlorinated compounds are uncrystallizable. 

Oxyvanillic acid, C 16 H 8 8 , is obtained in white odorless prisms by 
adding vanillic acid to fusing potassa, supersaturating with hydro- 
chloric acid, and crystallizing first from ether, afterwards from boiling 
water. 

The author concludes that vanillic acid is isomeric with anisic, for- 
mobenzoylic (amygdalic), methylsalicilic, cresotic, oxytoluic and a 
large number of other acids. — Journ. de Pharm. et de Chim., 1873, 
106-108. 

Antifermentative properties of silicate of sodium. — According to 
Mr. Picot, a small quantity of this silicate arrests the putrid fermen- 
tation, retards other fermentations, destroys the red globules outside 
of the organism and prevents the transformation of the glycogen 
compound of the liver into glucose. — Ibid., 131. 

Malacca Leocns, the fruit of Semccarjms anacardium, Lin., contain 
a fixed oil of a black color, which is readily exhausted from the bruised 
fruit by digesting it in fused paraffin, stearin, &c, so that black can- 
dles may be obtained without having their illuminating power in the 
least impaired. — Prof. Boettger, in Buchner's N. Repert., 1873, 60. 

For the cleaning and i)olishing of silver spoons and other utensils. — 
Eisner recommends warm water in which potatoes have been boiled, 
by rubbing them between the fingers with the fine starchy sediment ; 
even engraved and plated articles, as well as such of German silver, 
are thus easily polished, and the use of polishing powders rendered 
unnecessary. Potato water which has turned sour on standing may 
be used for polishing copper, instead of oil of vitriol. — Pharm. Centr. 
Halle, 1873, No. 5. 

Preparation of pure oxalic acid and oxalate of ammonium. — Habe- 
dank dissolves commercial oxalic acid in a little absolute alcohol and 
filters from the insoluble oxalates of calcium and potassium ; the 
crystals are freed from some oxalic ether by recrystallization from 
boiling distilled water. » 

The alcoholic mother-liquor may be used for dissolving fresh per- 



A AprTi, i873 RM '} Gleanings from the European Journals. 165 

tions of oxalic acid, or it may be diluted, heated to boiling, neutral- 
ized with ammonia and the secondary products, oxamide and oxame- 
than, decomposed by continued boiling and acidulating with oxalic 
acid. On ( rendering the filtrate slightly alkaline with ammonia, and 
recrystallizing the product repeatedly, pure oxalate of ammonium is 
obtained. — N. Jahrb. of Pharm., 1873, Jan., from ZeiUchr. f. anah 
'Ghent., XI. 

Some constituents of Veratrum album. — The bitter taste of the in- 
fusion of this rhizome, after it has been entirely deprived of the 
alkaloids, is due to a principle which was obtained by Hermann 
Weppen, in the form of a light yellow amorphous mass, which ap- 
pears to be a glucoside, and is soluble in alcohol, more readily in 
water, insoluble in ether, chloroform, benzole and petroleum benzin. 
Exposed to the air it is deliquescent and soon becomes discolored and 
dark brown ; its solution is precipitated by subacetate of lead. 

A new acid, jervic acid, C 14 H 10 O 12 -j-2H 2 O, was obtained by the 
author as a light, white, crystalline powder, which is not fusible, not 
sublimable, slightly soluble in cold water and strong alcohol, very 
sparingly in absolute ether, insoluble in benzole, bisulphide of carbon, 
chloroform, petroleum benzin, amylic alcohol and dilute acids. A 
solution of the acid is turned yellow by alkalies, the color deepening 
on heating ; alkaline earths in excess produce white precipitates, 
turning lemon-yellow on boiling. No precipitates are produced with 
the chlorides of barium and calcium, the sulphates of iron, zinc and 
copper, mercuric chloride and nitrate. Precipitates, which are solu- 
ble in nitric acid, are obtained with the acetates of lead, mercurous 
nitrate and nitrate of silver ; the latter is not affected by boiling or 
exposure to light. The acid differs, therefore, from oxalic, succinic, 
malic, tartaric, citric, gallic and Merck's veratric acids. Jervic acid 
was probably mistaken by Pelletier and Caventou for gallic acid ; the 
two acids bear some analogy in composition, but the former is tetra- 
basic while the latter is monobasic. — Ibid., Feb., p. 98-102. 

Poisoning by citrate of iron and quinia. — An interesting case, with, 
an experiment upon himself, is related by Dr. Levie, of Rotterdam. 
The symptoms were pronounced by Dr. Van Hasselt, the well known 
toxicologist, to be those of atropia. Similar cases have repeatedly 
occurred in Rotterdam with the same preparation, but the source of 
the atropia in it has never been ascertained. — Ibid., from Nederl. 
Tydschr. voor Geneesk.j 1872/ 



166 Therapeutical Value of Ape-morphia . { AM Ap^i8T3. M " 

REACTIONS OF APOMORPHIA.* 
By Max Quehl and H. Koehler. 
Besides the reactions noticed before by Matthiessen and Wright, 
the authors observed the following, produced in solutions of apomor- 
phia : 

1. Sulphocyanide of potassium gives a white curdy voluminous 
precipitate, which dissolves on heating. 

2. Ferrocyanide of potassium changes the solution to reddish-yel- 
low, finely flocculent, opalescent ; on boiling, the precipitate becomes 
more apparent, cake-like, and assumes a leek-green color. 

3. Ferricyanide of potassium yields a white curdy precipitate, inso 
luble on boiling, but turning violet-blackish. 

4. Tannin produces a yellow-greenish precipitate, insoluble on boil- 
ing, but separating afterwards slowly in larger floccules. 

5. Chloride of gold gives a purple precipitate, resembling the one 
produced with tin salt ; it is soluble in much water and acquires, on 
boiling, a darker brown-red shade. 

6. Nitropicric acid precipitates solutions, even when largely diluted, 
lemon-yellow ; the voluminous precipitate dissolves on boiling. 

7. Sulphate of copper renders the liquid turbid and blueish-white, 
changing to sap-green on boiling. 

8. With iodine in iodide of potassium a blood-red precipitate occurs, 
disappearing on boiling. 

9. Stannous chloride yields a white precipitate, soluble on heating. 

10. Chloride of zinc produces a light precipitate, readily disap- 
pearing on boiling. 

11. Basic acetate of lead renders the solution gradually turbid and 
greenish. 

12. Arsenious acid produces a greenish turbidity, but no precipi- 
tate. 

13. Acetate of baryta yields at first a slight whitish turbidity ; 
after awhile a greenish sediment. 



THERAPEUTICAL VALUE OF APOMORPHIA.f 
As the histories show, the subcutaneous introduction of apomorphia, 
both in the dog and cat, has always given a positive result, and in 

* M. Quehl, Studien iiber Apomorphin. Translated from Neues Jahrbuch 
fiir Pharmacie, 1873, Jan. 
t Glasgow Medical Journal. 



A % J dn;i8 H 73 RM '} therapeutical Value of Apomorphia. 167 

every one of the therapeutic experiments the emetic action has been 
observed with great certainty. 

g| First of all, as regards the dose administered in man, it varied be- 
tween -003 and -Oil grms. In four cases it was 3 mgrms.; in three, 
it was 4 mgrms.; in three, it was 5 mgrms.; in one, it was 7 mgrms.; 
and in one, 11 mgrms. But it must be observed that in all these cases 
the effect was the same ; that in none of them, beyond the emetic ef- 
fect, and the variations of pulse and temperature accompanying the 
act of vomiting, did further concomitant effects of consequence appear 
even with the largest doses. As we have convinced ourselves, through 
frequent repetition of the experiment with different large doses in the 
same individual, the administration of twice or thrice the quantity of 
the dose from which an effect has been already proved to follow pro- 
duces no more result than that from the smallest efficient dose. It 
must certainly, therefore, be reckoned not the least important proper- 
ty of apomorphin that its administration has great scope, and that 
even large doses may be used with safety, a property which certainly 
does not belong, in the same degree, to our most approved emetics, 
such as antimony, ipecacuanha, and copper. 

As a second, though, perhaps, less important element, we must men- 
tion the smallness of the active dose of our drug, which, for subcuta- 
neous employment, is of moment. 

As a third and most important peculiarity of our drug must be men- 
tioned the possibility of its employment subcutaneously. We may 
specially remark that we never observed, either in man or animals, 
any local irritation at the point of injection ; neither has the act of 
injection been accompanied by special pain, apart from the mere man- 
ipulation of the needle. We may add that we have experimented with 
different strengths of our preparation, but neither with one per cent., 
nor with five or ten per cent, solutions, has irritation been produced. 
The part of the body selected is of no importance as regards the ulti- 
mate result. It must appear superfluous to contrast, with any fur- 
ther detail, the advantages which the employment of an emetic, by 
introducing it subcutaneously, possesses ; and it may suffice to men- 
tion that all previous attempts at this mode of using an emetic have 
failed. We refer specially to the experiments of Eulenburg, Huse- 
mann, Ellinger, and Schuchardt. The advantage of the administra- 
tion of emetics thus must be very apparent in the treatment of chil- 
dren, and not unfrequently even in adults, in cases of poisoning, and 
where there is coma or loss of consciousness, and in many other cases. 



168 Tlierapeutical Value of Apomorphia. { A ^fni, mT ; 

A fourth, and certainly not unimportant, property of our drug is, 
to produce its specific action comparatively soon after introduction, 
and after very short preliminary symptoms, and sometimes even with- 
out any. For the better illustration of this point we may be permit- 
ted to quote here the results which Ackermann obtained in his inves- 
tigations into the physiological effects of the most powerful emetics 
with reference to the commencement of emesis. Ackermann says, 
with reference to the three most powerful emetics, antimony, ipecac- 
uanha, and sulphate of copper, " by the repeated administration (from 
5 to 8 in the evening) every 15 minutes till the occurrence of vomit- 
ing, of half grain of tartar 'emetic, emesis began after about 1 J hours. 
By similar repeated doses of 10 grains of ipecacuanha, emesis set in 
after about f hour, and after 5 grains sulphate of copper, given every 
15 minutes, in about one hour." Let us compare with these results 
the time of the first occurrence of emesis after the administration of 
apomorphia ; and it appears from our experiments on man that the 
shortest interval between its introduction and its action was 4 minutes, 
the longest 16 minutes. The difference in this respect, in comparison 
with the other emetics, requires no comment. We may here record 
an observation which we made both on the English preparation and 
on Merck's, viz : that while apomorphia, preserved in the form of 
powder, seems not to lose its activity in the least, as is evident from 
the circumstance that after more than a year our English preparation 
showed striking results, still, once dissolved, it seems very soon to de- 
compose and lose its strength. We were able to demonstrate in the 
solution a daily diminution of activity, though it still, in comparison 
with other emetics, continued prompt. Further observations will test 
the accuracy of our remark. 

We must lastly point out a fifth agreeable property of this sub- 
stance, that, as may be partly explained by the rapidity with which it 
acts, comparatively very trivial and transient collateral effects occur, 
especially never unpleasant after effects such as accompany tartar 
emetic. In many cases vomiting took place quite rapidly without any 
previous symptoms, and after one or more acts of emesis the patient 
felt perfectly well. At most, a few general symptoms for a short 
time preceded and succeeded the act of vomiting, and the duration of 
these symptoms was always much shorter than attends any hitherto 
known emetics. Generally, several minutes passed after the intro- 
duction of the apomorphia, during which there was no objective or 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April 1, 1873. j 



Striated Ipecacuanhas. 



169 



subjective change. Soon there set in headache, giddiness, especially 
a frequently expressed inclination to yawn, and a variable degree of 
faintness. In not a few cases, vomiting was preceded by the outbreak 
of perspiration, more or less copious, sometimes over the whole body, 
at other times confined to the face. Along with this there was fre- 
quently drowsiness and a certain amount of apathy. As soon as em- 
esis was over, the symptoms above-mentioned always began to disap- 
pear. The actual vomiting was preceded, though not in all cases, and 
only for a short time, with eructations and retching. In a few cases 
vomiting came on so suddenly and unexpectedly that, without any 
previous warning, at one bout, all the contents of the stomach were 
expelled. In these cases, generally, the symptoms also following the 
act were so slight that the patient had scarcely any discomfort imme- 
diately after. But always (and this is of much importance in contrast 
with other emetics), in all cases the patient was perfectly well again 
very shortly after vomiting, and only in the latter observations, in 
which a less active preparation was used, were the after effects some- 
what prolonged, though, even then, in comparison with other emetics, 
they were both much shorter and much less severe. — Canadian Pharm. 
Journ., March, 1873. 



STRIATED IPECACUANHAS* 
By M. Planchon. 
(Concluded from page 116.) 

The synonymy of the two kinds of striated ipecacuanha described 
in the former part of this paper is difficult to clear up, in consequence 
©f the manner in which authors have confused the two species. But 
a consideration of the characters previously indicated has enabled me 
to do so pretty clearly. 

The first author whom I have found clearly referring to a striated 
ipecacuanha is Lemery, who describes the third of his four species of 
ipecacuanha as " especegrise cendree glycyrrhize'e."t Now, this sort, 
according to the characters attributed to it (larger dimensions than those 
of the official species, and a sweetish taste, recalling that of liquorice) 
can only answer to my " major " striated ipecacuanha. It is the same 
sort as Mutis had sent to Europe as identical with "Brazilian" ipe- 

*Journ. de Phirmacie et de Chimie, vol. xvii, p. 19. 
t Dictionnaire des Drogues Simples, 1759, p. 459. 



170 



Striated Ipecacuanhas. 



/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t April 1, 1873. 



cacuanha, and of which he had sent the mother plant to Linnaeus. 
At the end of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the nine- 
teenth this sort was to be met with rather frequently in collections of 
drugs if not in pharmacies. It is clearly the root of the Psychotria 
emetica which Richard describes in his inaugural thesis* under the 
name of striated ipecacuanha ; whilst Merat and De Lensf, and more 
lately Guibourt,J confound it under the same name with the minor 
striated ipecacuanha. 

This kind has occurred in commerce from time to time, but in the 
present day it has little chance of entering a pharmacy. Mr. Han- 
bury has sent me a specimen that was offered to the Pharmacie Cen- 
trale in Paris in 1858 under the name of Ipecacuanha of St. Martha. 
M. Vogl has described it in a memoir under the name of Ipecacuanha 
glycyj)hlcea,% and states that it was sent into the market of Bremen 
as Carthagena Ipecacuanha. Some fragments which I owe to the 
kindness of Mr. Hanbury came from some packages sent from Bogota 
in 1870 and offered in the London market. It was from these pack- 
ages the specimens were taken that were analyzed by Professor Att- 
field,|| and which he called "elastic striated ipecacuanha." Lastly, 
it was a short time previously that M. Dorvault received at the Phar- 
macie Centrale the " violet" ipecacuanha which attracted my atten- 
tion and which agrees as nearly as possible with the roots of Psycho- 
tria emetica. 

It appears difficult to say when the "minor" striated ipecacuanha 
first appeared in commerce. But it is clear that this was the kind 
analyzed by Pelletier in 1820,** since that chemist noticed 79 per ct. 
of woody fibre, gum and starch, and we know that only the "minor" 
contains starch. Now this species existed in the drug cabinet of the 
father of Pelletier under the name of " Ipecacuanha des Cotes d'Or 

*Histoire Naturelle des Diverses Especes d'Ipecacuanha du Commerce 
(Theses de la Faculte de Medecine de Paris, 1820). 
fDict. de Matiere Medicale, 1831, vol. iii, p. 643. 

% Guibourt's figures (Hist. Nat. des Drogues Simples, 6th edit., vol. iii, p. 94) 
agree in part (the two larger specimens) with the " major" striated ipecacuan- 
ha, and in part (the specimen placed between the other two) with the " minor." 

gVogl, loc. cit. The authors of the Jahresbericht der Pharmacognosie, 
etc., are wrong in referring this Ipecacuanha glycyphloea to Cephaelis. All its 
characters, exterior and anatomical, agree with those of my "major" striated 
ipecacuanha. 

|, II Pharm. Journ. [2], vol. xi, p. 141. 

** Journ. Pharm. et de Chim., vol. vi, p. 261. 



Jour. Pharm. ) 
April 1, 1873. J 



Striated Ipecacuanhas. 



171 



(Mioas de Oro)," and Pelletier adds that he also recognized it in a 
mercantile house which had received it from Peru, via Cadiz. More- 
over, it must have been present at that time in most collections. It 
was this sort that M. Guibourt used principally for illustration at the 
School of Pharmacy, and it is the only sort which I have found named 
as striated ipecacuanha at the Pharmacie Centrale des Hopitaux. M. 
Vogl* saw it in the collection at Vienna described as Ipecacuanha 
-striata sen nigra. Professor Attfield found it in the Museum of the 
Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, and analyzed it under the 
name of "brittle striated ipecacuanha."f Finally, it has recently 
been described in detail by Mr. Pocklington in a paper on the use of 
the microscope in pharmacy. J 

It is remarkable that this latter sort has hitherto been considered 
hj most authors to be the produce of the Psychotria emetica, to the 
•exclusion of the former. Pelletier first, then successively Vogl, The'- 
oot, C. Me'nier and Pocklington have referred it to that origin. Pro- 
fessor Balfour,§ also, after describing the Psychotria emetica, attrib- 
uted to the root of that species the chemical composition given by Pel- 
letier, which we have seen could only have agreed with that of the 
4i minor" striated ipecacuanha. The more active properties of the 
4i minor " sort, its greater richness in emetina, and also the fact of its 
having been analyzed by Pelletier, have brought it into greater pro- 
minence and caused it to be looked upon as the true type of striated 
ipecacuanha, and consequently the botanical origin generally attrib- 
uted to striated ipecacuanha has been specially applied to it. In no 
other way can the general error into which authors have hitherto 
fallen be explained. 

To sum up, there exist two sorts of striated ipecacuanha, of which 
the following appears to be the synonymy : 

1. "Major" Striated Ipecacuanha. — Roots of Psychotria erne- 
tica, L. — Ipecacuanha gris cendre glyeyrrhize, Lemery (Diet. Drog. 
Simp. p. 459). Ipecacuanha strie, Richard (These Inaug.) Ipecacu- 
anha strie (partirn), Merat and De Lens (Diet. Mat. Med. vol. iii, p. 
€43) ; Guibourt (Drog. Simp. Gth edit. vol. iii, p. 94). Ipecacuanha 

* Jahresbericht d. Pharmacognosie, 1867, p. 64. 
t Pharm. Journ. [2], vol. xi, p. 141. 

X "The Microscope in Pharmacy" (Pharm. Journ. [3], vol. ii, p. 921). 
£ " Remarks on Plants furnishing Varieties of Ipecacuanha" (Pharm. 
Journ. [3], vol. ii, p. 970). 



172 



Behavior of Etlter, etc. 



! Am. Jouk. PHARH&, 
t April 1, 1873. 



gtycyphlcea, Vogl (Zeits. d. CEstr. Apot.) Ipecacuanha strie, G. Da- 
rand (These, 19). Elastic striated Ipecacuanha, Attfield (Phariii„. 
Journ. [2], vol. xi, p. 141). Ipecacuanha strie de la Nouvelle- Gre- 
nade, C. Meaner (These Inaug. p. 15). Ipecacuanha violet of com- 
merce, Thenot (These, p. 122) ; C. Menier (These, p. 15). Ipecacu- 
anha of St. Martha and Carthagena Ipecacuanha of commerce. 

2. "Minor" Striated Ipecacuanha. — Ipecacuanha des Cote® 
d' Or and Ipecacuanha noir, Pelletier (Journ. Pharm. vol. vi, p. 261),. 
Ipecacuanha strie and Ipecacuanha noir (partim), Merat and De Len& 
(Diet. Mat. Med. vol. iii, p. 648) ; Guibourt (Drog. Simp. 6th edit, 
vol. iii, p. 94). Ipecacuanha strie, Thenot (These, p. 120). Ipecacu- 
anha strie, C. Menier (These, p. 13). Ipecacuanha striata seu nigra^ 
Vogl (Zeits. (Est. Apot.) Brittle Striated Ipecacuanha, Attfield 
(Pharm. Journ. [2], vol. xi, p. 141. — Pharm. Journ., Lond., Feb. 15^ 
1873. 



BEHAVIOR OF ETHER WHEN IN CONTACT WITH OTHER SUB- 
STANCES. 
By A. Lieben. 

In mj treatise on " The Origin and Production of Iodoform and 
on the Application of these Reactions " (Ann. d. Chem. u. Pharm* 
Suppbn. 7, p. 221), I have said that when ether is shaken up witfe 
water and the water then treated with iodine and potassa no iodoform* 
is formed, if the ether is perfectly pure : but I also observed that ifc 
was difficult to obtain pure ether, since the simple contact of ether 
with water, even at the ordinary temperature, and far more rapidlj 
at 100°, causes the ether to become contaminated with alcohol. 1 
have further investigated this subject by first trying whether perfectlj 
pure ether, when kept alone, remains unaltered, and also, whether 
contact with water always produces alteration ; while I lastly tried 
the effect of substances usually employed for drying ether. This re- 
search appeared to me to be the more interesting, since the high sen- 
sitiveness of the iodoform reaction affords a means of detecting slight 
alterations. When a compound so fixed and stable as ether is sub- 
ject to changes hitherto scarcely thought of, it seems reasonable tc* 
conclude that other substances also undergo alterations, which are* 
not detected for want of reagents. 

Ether by itself. — I have in another paper described the methods of 



A.x. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April 1, 1873. ) 



Behavior of Ether, etc. 



173 



sjaaking perfectly pure ether ; I only mention here that it is best to 
re-distil the ether so obtained once or twice over sodium, chloride of 
calcium tubes being fitted to the distilling apparatus to avoid the con- 
tact of moist air. Ether so purified, and kept in well-stoppered bot- 
tles, continues good for several months ; even after fifteen months no 
iodoform reaction was exhibited, and I therefore conclude that pure 
•ether kept as stated does not become altered, at all events not suffic- 
ient to be detected by the iodoform reaction. 

Ether with Water. — I repeated my former experiments by pouring 
ether and water or ether and dilute sulphuric acid in glass tubes, and 
after sealing I heated these tubes for twenty-four hours to 100° ; on 
testing the water afterwards I detected a strong reaction of iodoform, 
«due to formation of alcohol, while, on the other hand, a sealed tube, 
also containing water and ether, kept during the same period of time 
at the ordinary temperature, did not exhibit this reaction. I also 
found by separate experiments that when the sealing of the glass 
tubes is carefully proceeded with there is no chance that any iodo- 
form- producing substance (aldehyde, for instance, due to the action 
of the red-hot glass on the vapor of ether) can be generated ; it is 
therefore quite certain that when ether and water are heated to 100° 
alcohol is in a short time formed. The same action between ether 
and water obtains at the ordinary temperature, but only after the 
lapse of a considerable time ; ether kept with water in well-stoppered 
bottles exhibited the iodoform reaction after some three or four 
months, but in some instances the reaction was obtained in a shorter 
time. Both the ether and water were pure. 

Ether and Sodium. — Pure ether kept in contact with small lumps 
of sodium in a well-stoppered bottle was found after six months to 
exhibit no iodoform reaction. 

Ether and Chloride of Calcium. — Pure ether kept with lumps of 
freshly-ignited chloride of calcium in a well-stoppered bottle for a 
period of six months was found, on being tested, to distinctly exhibit 
the iodoform reaction, and consequently the ether had undergone 
alteration. 

Ether and Caustic Potassa. — Pure ether and freshly-prepared fused 
oaustic potassa kept for six months was found to be unaltered ; and 
the same result was obtained when the ether was kept for the same 
lapse of time with recently burnt caustic lime. When the pure ether 
was kept for six months along with freshly-ignited chloride of sodium 



174 



Emulsions. 



f Am. Joer. Pharkl 
\ April 1, 1873„ 



it exhibited a distinct iodoform reaction, but with freshly-ignited car- 
bonate of potassa no such reaction was obtained after the same lapse 
of time. 

Ether and Anhydrous Sulphate of Copper. — When sharply dried 
(dehydrated) sulphate of copper and pure ether are kept for six 
months in a well-stoppered bottle the ether exhibits no physical ap- 
pearance of change, but on testing the ether it exhibits distinctly the 
iodoform reaction. A portion of the same ether employed in these 
experiments was kept alone, and having been tested after six month® 
did not then exhibit any trace even of formation of iodoform. I can- 
not explain the reason why certain neutral and anhydrous substances- 
(CaCl 2 ,NaCl,CuS0 4 ) should have any peculiar effect on ether without 
entering into hypotheses which are not proved ; it appears that basic; 
substances do not act upon ether, while acids and salts affect it. We- 
might suppose that ethylates are formed, for instance : 

CuS0 4 +C s H 5 OC 2 H 6 =Cu-OW_ OC2H55 

and that by the operation of testing for iodoform alcohol is formed 
by the action of water ; but it is also possible that a small portion of 
the ether is converted into alcohol and ethylen. The main point of 
interest in these researches is that perfectly pure ether can be kept 
by itself in well-stoppered bottles without alteration, and also when* 
in contact with perfectly dry and previously thoroughly ignited 
KHO,CaO,K 2 C0 3 , and also with pure sodium, but the ether cannot 
be kept with water, CaCl 2 ,NaCl, or CuS0 4 , because when in contact 
with these substances it is gradually altered. — London Chem. New**. 
Jan. 24, 1873, from Annalen der Chemie und Pharmaeie. 



EMULSIONS. 
By Herbert G. Rogerson. 
A paper on emulsions, recently published in the Druggists Circu- 
lar, by Mr. P. W. Bedford, was mainly devoted to a consideration of 
the merits of a combination of gum acacia and glycerin, in the pre- 
paration of emulsions of various kinds. Believing, however, that gum* 
tragacanth affords us a mucilage which, when prepared under certain 
conditions, is capable of giving results in every respect superior te> 
any producible by the combination recommended in the paper, I pro- 
pose briefly to outline its more advantageous applications and ex- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April 1, 1873. J 



Emulsions. 



175 



tremely convenient method of preparation. In doing this I am led 
to recur to a formula sent by me to this Journal* some three years 
ago, and published under the title of " Cod Liver Oil Cream," which 
may be taken as a type of this class of emulsions ; and the fact of 
the extensive and successful adoption of that formula having come to 
my knowledge, emboldens me to reproduce it in a slightly modified 
and improved form. 

Before doing so, however, I may state it as a sine qua non, that 
the tragacanth employed for this and allied preparations should be of 
exceptionally fine quality. It should possess a pretty uniform white- 
ness, and freedom from dark patches and specks, or if these latter be 
present they should be broken off and rejected. The selected pieces 
are then cut up into fragments about one-quarter of an inch square, and 
immersed in soft or distilled water for 48 or more hours in the pro- 
portion of about 2J oz. to the gallon, stirring at intervals to prevent 
agglomeration. The addition afterwards of a small percentage of 
glycerin ensures almost indefinite keeping qualities. To avoid dis- 
appointment and secure the best results it will be well not to rely on 
any ordinary sample of the gum, but to apply to one's wholesale 
house for a small parcel of exceptional quality. In this way we suc- 
ceeded in obtaining a sample almost free from blemish, and requiring 
no material weeding ; while but for this precaution one might improve 
but slightly on the Pharmacopoeial mucil. tragac, a dark and muddy 
product. 

The formula referred to above, as amended, runs thus — 

B. 01. Jecor. Aselli, . . . 3 v. 

(Ess. Limon. 

First shake together. 1 " Amygd. (1 in 16) aa . % xxiv. 

I Spts. Vini Rect. 3 iss. 

Syrup I ss. 

Mucil. Tragac. (prepared as above) ad 3 xvi. 
The mere act of shaking together these ingredients for an instant 
or two suffices to unite them into an elegant semi-transparent and 
permanent emulsion, with attractive custard-like flavor that can 
scarcely fail to commend itselt to the votaries of " Elegant Pharmacy." 

Other oils, as castor, almond, turpentine, etc., or balsams may be 
substituted for the one above specified. The proportion there given 

* See American Journal of Pharmacy, 1870, page 247. 



176 



Mile feding, 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I April 1, 1873. 



may be held to be only relative, the precise quantity of any oil 
" emulsifiable" by a given quantity of mucilage depending directly 
upon the degree of viscosity of the latter. If it be desired to combine 
an oil in much larger proportion than appears in the formula given, 
this may be effected to an almost incredible extent by substituting 
brisk stirring in a mortar during the adding of an oil, for the mere 
agitation that sufficed in the former case. It is probable that a great 
variety of substances upon which I have not yet experimented may 
be treated advantageously as above. 

My experience has been mainly with the oils of castor, cod-liver, 
olive and turpentine, and the success attending the use of these was 
perfect, none of them showing any disposition to separate after many 
months keeping, and retaining then a degree of sweetness and fresh- 
ness that proved keeping qualities of a very perfect order. — Pharm. 
Journ. and Trans., March 8, 1873. 



MILK TESTING. 
By Thomas Garside. 

I wish to point out a fact, in connection with the estimation of cream 
in milk by means of. the lactometer, which I have not hitherto seen 
noticed, namely, the great difference in the results which a slight 
variation in the temperature produces. In Dr. Hassall's article on 
the estimation of the cream, given in his work "Adulteration Detected," 
I do not observe that any account is taken of this ; the only reference 
to temperature which I find being in the following terms : — " Cream 
forms more quickly in warm than cold weather ; and in making com- 
parative observations on a number of samples, it is proper that each 
should be set aside in lactometers at the same time and for the same 
period'' (p. 225). Provided that the lactometers were all maintained 
at the same temperature, this method would give accurate results for 
the samples operated upon ; but, as the following experiments will 
show, no dependence could be placed upon them unless the latter con- 
dition were complied with, nor could any set of observations be of 
use for comparison with another set unless the temperature were main- 
tained at the same point. 

In each of the following cases two graduated tubes were filled with 
milk from the same pail, as supplied in the usual way by the dealer, 
and a uniform temperature was maintained during the time mentioned. 



A Aprini, mT' } Form alas for Poultices. 177 

I may also state that in several other experiments of which I kept no 
record, no increase in the quantity of cream was perceived after three 
or four hours : — 

Apparent percentage 
No. Hours. Temperature. of cream. 

(43° . . . . 14. 

A " 4 ' \55° . . . . 8J. 

2 4 J 45° 12. 

z * 4 ' \60° . 8. 

3 2 (45°. . . . 14. 
d * \60° . . 12. 

- — Pharm. Journ. and Trans., Jan. 25, 1873. 



FORMULAS FOR POULTICES.* 
The article " Cataplasm," in the new Dictionnaire des Sciences 
Medicales has been worked up by M. Brochin as completely as possi- 
ble to the actual state of our knowledge of this ancient method or 
treatment. Amongst the opinions of authors and the modern modes 
of compounding cataplasms, M. Brochin cites those of Cayol, Brous- 
sais, Reveillc-Parise, and especially Velpeau and Trousseau. The 
editor of the Journal de Medecine, from whom we quote this article, 
observes that he has had the opportunity of following the last-named 
illustrious physician for some years, and never heard him order either 
a bath or a cataplasm ; occasionally, however, and with a certain air 
of solemnity, he would order the poultice. This was made nearly as 
follows : 

Extract of Stramonium, or 

Extract of Belladonna ; 

Extract of Opium ; 

Camphor in Powder ; 

Water. Of each 10 parts. Mix. 
A bread poultice having been made, some camphorated alcohol is to 
be boiled with it ; the paste should then be enclosed in a little muslin 
or tarletan, and the surface watered with the above mixture. It is 
then to be applied, and covered with some impervious cloth and a large 
piece of flannel. M. Brochin leaves out the camphor in powder, and 
replaces it with ten parts of ether. This topical application, which is 
rather expensive, can be retained in place several days. Trousseau 



* Practitioner, from the Journal de Medicine. 

9 



178 



Varieties. 



J Am. Jour Pharm. 
\ April 1, 1873. 



only employed it in grave cases, such as mono-articular arthritis with 
acute osteitis and puerperal arthritis. He prescribed calomel simul- 
taneously, and insisted on perfect immobility of the limb. The fol- 
lowing is a narcotic poultice prescribed by MM. Bouchat and Des- 
pre's : — 

Powdered Hyoscyamus Leaves ; 
" Conium Leaves ; 
" Belladonna Leaves ; 
" Solanum Tuberosum Leaves ; 
Linseed Meal. Of each 20 parts. 
Decoction of Poppyheads, q. s. 
Conium is also used in poultices specially intended for the relief of 
superficial cancers : 

Bruised Carrots, 500 grains ; 
Powdered Conium Leaves, 30 grains ; 
Powdered Opium, ^ grain. 
The following is intended to act as a diuretic poultice : 
Bruised Squill, 100 parts ; 
Nitrate of Potash, 10 parts. 
And this to render the emission of urine less painful: 
Bruised White Onions, 6 in number ; 
Leaves of Parietaria, 50 parts ; 
Decoction of Marshmallow, q. s. 
Both may be applied over the pubis. — Pharm. Journ., (Lond.), Feb. 
1, 1873. 

Varieties. 

Indelible Ink. — Dr. Bcettger. — 3'65 grms. of anilin black are rubbed down 
in a porcelain mortar with 60 drops of concentrated hydrochloric acid, and 22 
grms. of alcohol. This solution is mixed with a hot solution of 1*82 grms. of 
gum-arabic in 85 grms. of hot water. This ink does not attack steel pens, and 
is not acted upon either by strong mineral acids or by alkalies. If the anilin, 
black solution is diluted with shellac solution (21 grms, in 85 of alcohol), an 
anilin black lake is obtained, which is suited for coloring wood and leather. — 
Chem. News, Lond., Feb. 14, 1873 

Portable Dry Ink. — At a recent meeting of the Frankfort Polytechnic Asso- 
ciation, Professor Bcettger exhibited a novel kind of ink, which is admirably 
adapted to take on journeys and exploring expeditions. White blotting-paper 
is saturated with anilin black and several sheets are pasted to form a thin pad 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
April 1, 1873. / 



Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 



179 



When wanted for use, a small piece is torn off and covered with a little water. 
The black liquid which dissolves out is a good writing-ink. A square inch of 
the paper will give enough ink to last for considerable writing, and a few pads 
would be all that an exploring party need carry with them. As water is always 
available, the ink is readily made. — Set. Amer., March 1, 1873. 



An Tndelible Red Ink. — Dr. Eisner states that an indelible red ink can be 
prepared as follows : Equal parts by weight of copperas and cinnabar, both in 
fine powder and sifted, are rubbed up with linseed oil with a mulier, and finally 
squeezed through cloth. The thick paste can be employed for writing or 
stamping woollen or cotton goods, and the color remains fast after the goods 
have been bleached The reds usually employed are not fast colors, and do 
not resist the action of bleaching agents. — Ibid. 



Superior Adhesive Paste. — Take 4 parts by weight of good glue and cover 
it with 15 parts of cold water; allow it to stand for a few hours, and then 
gently heat until a clear solution results. Dilute the mixture with 65 parts by 
weight of boiling water under constant stirring. In the meantime prepare a 
paste of 30 parts by weight of starch and 20 parts of water, avoiding all lumps. 
Into this pour the boiling hot solution of glue, under constant stirring, and 
keep the mixture boiling. After it is cold add 10 drops of carbolic acid. This 
paste is unusually adhesive. It can be used on leather, pasteboard and parch- 
ment, and if it be kept in closed bottles, to prevent the evaporation of water, 
may be preserved for a long time. In cases where ordinary stock paste will 
-answer every purpose, it is always well to add a few drops of carbolic acid to 
avoid fermentation or molding.— Jour, of App. Chem., Feb.. 1873. 



A New Experiment. — Mr. Elihu Thompson has made the observation that 
tin- foil, if wrapped about a few crystals of chlorate of potassa, can be made to 
detonate loudly upon being struck smartly with a hammer upon an anvil, or in 
a mortar ; the phenomenon being precisely analogous to the well-known ex- 
periment of triturating sulphur and the chlorate. To the best of our knowl- 
edge, the observation that such metals as tin can be oxidized in this way, i? a 
new one and worthy of notice. — Jour. Franklin hist., March, 1873. 



§|armamttioi ^alleges anft ^mtmiims. 

Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — At the recent examination of the can- 
didates for the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy the following questions were 
offered, to be answered in writing: 

Chemistry. Professor Robert Bridges, M. I). Session 1872-73. 

No. 1 What is the composition of Cyanogen? Mention the officinal com- 
pounds in which it is contained ; their composition, mode of preparation, 
physical and chemical properties, and state those which are poisonous. 



180 



Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 



f Am. Pharm Jour 
\ April 1, 1873. 



No. 2. How is nitric acid prepared ? Explain the process and state the com- 
position of the strongest acid. Give the physical and chemical proper- 
ties the composition and leaction of the officinal acid. 

No. 3. What officinal compound is formed by the action of chlorine and slacked 
lime? Give its supposed composition with the reactions which take 
place during its production. To what are its peculiar properties due? 

No. 4. What is the chemical name of Borax ? Give the sources from which it 
is derived, its chemical composition and physical properties. 

No. 5. What is the chemical name of Epsom Salt? Give its mode of prepara- 
tion, the impurities it may contain and the mode of detecting' them. 

No 6. (rive the tests by which the mineral acids may be distinguished. 

No. 7. In what officinal preparations does iron exist in a condition not to be 
detected by the more common tests? 

No. 8. What are the best antidotes for Arsenic, and the best form and con- 
dition in which they should be used? 

No. 9. What are the best antidotes for the alkalies, and how do they act? 

No. 10 What product is formed by heating cream of tartar in close vessels, and 
of what does it consist ? 

Matkria Medioa. Professor John M. Maisch. Session 1872-73. 

1. Spanish Flies — Give the name of the insect, and where collected ; how may 
the vesicating principle be obtained, in what per eentage is it present, and 
which parts of the animal contain the largest proportion? 

2. From the root of which plants, and by what process is Kxtractum Glycyr- 
rhizai made ; in what modifications is the glycyrrhiziu contained in it, and 
how may its quality be determined? 

3. Benzoin. — Where, from what plant and how obtained? Name the princi- 
pal varieties, give its constituents and how to determine its quality. 

4. Nntgalls. — Where obtained ? How produced? Give the structure, con- 
stituents, varieties and how to ascertain their quality ? 

5. What plant yields Valerian? W T here and in what localities does it grow? 
Describe the drug and state the difference in appearance and composition, 
when obtained from different localities. 

6 Give the name, natural order and habitat of the plant yielding dulcamara. 
When should the drug be collected ? W T hat are its physical characters and 
its constituents ? 

7. Describe mezereou : its botanical origin, native country, physical appear- 
ance, constituents and medical properties. 

8. What is the source of Alexandria. Bombay and Tinnevelly Sennas ? How 

do they differ from each other and from other officinal leaves. What, if 
any, are the impurities and how recognized ? 

9. Cubebs : their botanical origin, native country, time of collection, differ- 
ence from similar drugs and medical properties of the principal constit- 
uents. 

10. Give the botanical characters of the natural order of Composite, and name 
the officinal herbs and flowers obtained from it. 

Pharmacy. Professor William Procter, Jr. Session 1872-73. 

1. When a hollow Sphere, weighing 1000 grains, floating on water at 60° 
Fahr. has exactly one half of its surface immersed, what is its specific gra- 
vity? and what would be the weight of the water displaced if it be entirely 
submerged ? 

2. What is the definition of Evaporation in Us pharmaceutical sense? What 
physical laws influence it? What forms of apparatus are used in the 
laboratory to accomplish it ? For what classes of preparations is it chiefly 
used ? 

3. State the physical law which enables the chemist to purify a salt, from con- 
taminating small quantities of other Salts, by the processes of solution 
and crystallisation. 



^prTi.mT'} Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 181 

4. Describe officinal acetic acid, giving its composition, specific gravity and 
tests of purity. State briefly the method of obtaining acetic acid from wood 
and the several names under which it is known in commerce. Also mention 
all the officinal acetates, and how to distinguish them from other salts and 
from each other. 

5. Describe aconitia as found in the shops; state how it is distinguished from 
veratria, and by what quality it is recognized. State also the dose of aco- 
nitia, how it is usually employed, and name the officinal preparations to 
which it gives activity. 

6. Cive a brief general idea of the constitution of fats and fixed oils; give the 
process for making " Sapo'' U. S. P. and that for Emp : Plumbi, with the 
reactions that occur, and explain the manner of obtaining and purifying 
the glycerin of commerce. 

7. Describe cantharidin, state its best solvents, and give the best process for 
preparing it; also give the formula for Ceratum cantharidis and Canthari- 
d il collodion. 

8. Give the -antidotes for poisoning by arsenious acid, tartar emetic, sugar of 
lead, nitrate of silver, oxalic acid aud water of ammonia, and state in what 
cases soap may be used as an antidote. 

9. Give the formulae for syrup of iodide of iron, infusion of digitalis, solution of 
tersulphate of iron, compound mixture of iron, fluid extract of ergot, and 
diluted nitro-muriatic acid 

10. Give your reasons why percolation is to be preferred to maceration and 
expression, in the preparation of extracts, fluid extracts and tinctures, and 
state what are the chief points to be observed in obtaining success by the 
former process. 

Questions by the Examining Committee. Session 1872-73. 

1. Describe the substance called "Argols" ; state its natural source ; name 
the acid it contains, and the base with which it is combined ; how the acid 
is made for commerce ; what are the officinal Salts to which it contributes ; 
and how may the acid be distinguished from all other organic acids ? 

2. State the names of the units of measures of Length, Weight and Capa- 
city in the Metrical system ; give their value respectively in inches, troy- 
grains and fluidounces ; and mention in what way the units of measure and 
weight are determined. 

3. What is specific gravity? Solve the following problem : 

Four hundred grains of Sugar weigh in Oil of Turpentine 182 5 grains. The 
specific gravity of oil of turpentine being 0'870 what is the specific gravity 
of the sugar ? 

4. How may Levant and American wormseed be distinguished from each 
other? from what plants are they obtained? and what causes the activity 
in each drug ? 

5. Give the process for making Citrine Ointment; explain the chemical com- 
bination. 

6. Give the officinal name of the plant from which Extract of Hemlock is 
made. State the mode of its preparation, and the dose; also the physical 
characteristics of the plant. Explain the manner in which Remlock pitch 
is obtained ; give its officinal name, and state whether it is derived from a 
different source; and if so, give the botauical name of the tree which pro- 
duces it; describe its physical characteristics, and state where it grows. 
What officinal preparation does Hemlock Pitch enter into, and what is it 
combined with ? Give the mode of preparation. 

From what source do we obtain Oil of Hemlock of commerce? 
Is it officinal ? 

7. (jive the process for making Liquor Plumbi Subacetatis. What is its specific 
gravity? What officinal preparations does it enter into? Is it for internal 
or external administration ? 



182 Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. { k \$^*lT* 

Give the process for making Red Iodide of Mercury, and state the reac- 
tion which takes place. In what is it soluble? 

Give the process for making Green Iodide of Mercury. Is it soluble in 
alcohol or water? 

8. Give the process for making Resin of May-Apple, and the tests whereby 
the Resins of May-Apple, Jalap and Scammony may be distinguished from 
each other. 

9. What is Opium? what per cent, of Morphia should it contain? and what 
officinal preparations contain Morphia or Opium, and in what proportion? 

10. State which of the following prescriptions it would be proper to dispense, 
and which improper, and, in the latter case, the reasons : 



A. Toxic Pills. 
R. Quinite Sulphatis. 

Pilulae Ferri Carbonatis 
Strychnia? Sulphatis, 
Misce, et fiat massa in pilulas decern J 
dividenda. 

S. One to be taken twice or three 
times a day. 

B. For Mr. Thompson. 
Antim. et Potassii Tart., . gii, 

s\ Potassii Nitrat., 
k Spt. yEth. Nit., . 

Aqua;, .... ^iiiss, 
M. S. Dessertspoonful every 2 hours. 

C. For Mr. Jones. 

R. Morphia? Sulph., . . gr. jss, 
Sacch. Alb., . . . gr. xii. 
M. ft. chart, no. iv. 

S. For pain, one every 2 hours until 
relieved. 



gr. x, 
gr. v, 



5ss, - 



R. Potassii Iodidi, 

Extracti Belladonna 1 , aa gr. xxx, 
Camphora?, 

Iodinii, aa gr. x, 

Unguenti, . . . ^i. 
Misce fiat unguentum. 

(How would you dispense this prescrip- 
tion?) 

E. 

R. Morphia? Sulphatis, . . gr. ij, 
Spiritus /Etheris Nitrosi, . ^ss, 
Potassii Iodidi, . . ^ij, 
Aquas Mentha 1 , pip., . . f ]§iv. 
M. ft. Solutio. Sig. A dessertspoonful 
for a dose, three times a day. 

(What change occms in this on stand- 
■ng?) 



The following specimens were exhibited to the candidates for recognition : 



Chemistry. 

Calx chlorinata, 
Plumbi oxidum, 
Sulphur sublimatum, 
Ammonii carbonas, 
Ferri et Ammonii Su 

phas. 
Potas.sii biciirbona?. 
Alcohol amylicum, 
A' idum aceticum, 
Aeidum oxalicum. 
Fotus«ni ciiloras. 



Materia Medica. 

Ipecacuanha, 

Podophyllum, 

Liriodendron, 

Hyoscyaini folia, cut, 

Uva ursi, 

Arnica, 

Pimenta, 

Pepo, 

Terebinthiua, 

Crocus adulterated with 



Pharmacy. 

Potassii bromidum, 



Examining Committee. 
Sodii boras, 

Aeidum gallicum, Zinci acetas, 
Cinchonia- sulphas, Pulvis aromaticus. 
Pulvis aloes et canelloe, Senna alexand., 
Liquor ferri uitratis, Cerat. plumbi subace- 
Tinct. digitalis, tat., 
Tinct. gentiarire comp., Liq. ferri subeulphat., 
Tinct. opii deodorata, Tinct. cardamomi 
Extract, spigelian flui- comp. 
dum, Tinct. iodinii, 



and dyed Oleo-resinae cubebee. 



The following report was presented to the Board of Trustees : 
The Professors and Examining Committee of the School of Pharmacy 
respectfully report that the following named candidates, having presented the- 
ses with the usual certificates, have been examined, and are now favorably 
reported for the degree of " Graduate in Pharmacy." 
They are set down in the order of merit : 



Name. 

1 E. C. Batchelor, 

2 Nathan B. Danforth. 

3 Richard V. Mattison, 
A Adam Conrath, 

5 Herman T. Eberle, 
H. G. Keasbv, 



&TATK. 

Mississippi. 
Pennsylvania. 

Wisconsin. 

New Jersey. 



JEsculus Pa via. 
Solidago odora. 
Elegant Pharmacy. 
Solidago bicolor. 
Baptisia tinctoria. 
Syrupvs ferri iodidi. 



Am Jour. Pharm. ) 
April 1, 1873. J 

7 Richard T. Chiles. 

8 William G. White, 

9 Frank M. Harper, 

10 Munroe Bond, 

11 S. A. Neppach, 

12 E. Harlan Babb. 

13 E. Z. Gross, 

14 W. C. Brown, 

15 John E. Cook, 

16 W. G. Moffit, 

17 A. H. C. Rowand. 

18 Morris S. Guth, 

19 A. A. Apple, 

20 Joseph W. Griscom. 

21 A. E. Smith, 

22 G. 0. Keck, 

23 L. Stanley DuBois, 

24 J. Howard McCrea, 

25 W. N. Stem, 

26 Charles Scott Brown, 

27 James F. Hurt, 

28 Will. N. Janvier, 

29 Joseph V. Antill, 

30 Horace G. Hallowell, 

31 Harry M. Capp, 

32 J. Howard Beck. 

33 John E. Mathews. 

34 P. F. Brakeley, 
'35 Charles Schnabel, 

36 T. A. Conlyn, 

37 M. Alvarez y Ortiz, 

38 Alfred Helgeson, 

39 Herman Haupt, jr., 

40 Gus. A. Zimmerman, 

41 H. W. Porter, 

42 Henry Kielhorn. 

43 Wm.N. Martindell. ' 



Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 



44 



S. D. Addis, 
W. J. Lerch, 
James A. Parker. 
Albert F. Stifel. 
A. S. French, 
David G. Potts, 
Harry G. Kille, 
Frank C. Dale, 
A. B. Bishop, 
Edward L. Boyer, 
Thomas D. Brown. 
Christopher Petzelt, 

C. Carroll Meyer. 

A. B. Stewart, 
J. H. Flint, 

B. M. Magill, 
Richard J. C. Williams, 

D. W. Marshall, 
J. P. Wood, 
Henry Schmidt, 



Kentucky. 

Pennsylvania. 
N. Hampshire, 
Wisconsin. 
Pennsylvania. 

Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 



New Jersey. 
Virginia. 

Pennsylvania. 
New York. 
Pennsylvania. 



Mississippi. 

Missouri. 

Ohio. 

Pennsylvania. 



New Jersey. 
Ohio. 

New Jersey. 
Pennsylvania. 

Cuba. 

Wisconsin. 

Pennsylvania. 



Indiana. 
Pennsylvania. 



West Virginia. 

New York. 

Pennsylvania. 

New Jersey. 

Indiana. 

Delaware. 

Pennsylvania. 



California. 

Pennsylvania. 

New Jersey. 

Pennsylvania. 

Delaware. 

Ohio. 



183 



tonia aspleni folia. 
Preliminary Education. 
Sodii bicarbonas venalis. 
Biblical Record of Drugs. 
Manganese deutoxide. 
Dioscorea villosa. 
Coptis trifolia. 

Antimonii et Potassii tartras. 
Botany. 

Emulsions of Cod-liver Oil. 
Lactucarium. 

Education of the Pharmacist. 
Rubus villosus. 
Nitrite of Amy I. 

The Advantage of the Study of Botany t* 

Druggists. 
Tht Ethics of Pharmacy. 
Pharmaceutical Uses of Glycerin. 
Cortex Amygdalse persicse. 
Syrupus ipecacuanha;, Syrupus scillse com- 

positus, Syrupus senegse. 
Ilelenium autumnale. 
Our College. 

Pharmacy as a Profession. 

Prinos verticillatus. 

Iris versicolor. 

Pharmacy of To-day. 

A Pharmaceutist and his Requirements. 

Pharmaceutical Education. 

Acids. 

Elixirs. 

Disinfection. 

Obtainment of Tartar Emetic. 
Verbena hastata. 
Osha Root. 
Iodoform. 

Extr actum Pruni Virginianse fluidum. 
Ferrum. 

An Examination of Some Brands of Liq- 
uorice. 
Aloe vulgaris. 
Prinos verticillatus. 
Scutellaria, lateriflora. 
Pharmaceutical Education. 
Court Plaster. 

Aromatic Astringent Syrups. 

Epigsea repens. 

Experimental Pharmacy. 

Pharmaceutical Text-books for Beginners. 

Pharmaceutical Manipulations. 

Condurango. 

Euphorbia ipecacuanha. 

Ichthyocolla. 

Collegiate Course in Pharmacy. 

Arctostaphylos glauca. 

Chelidonium ma jus. 

Drugs from the Animal Kingdom. 

Iron in Chalybeate Waters. 

Latter-day Pharmacy. 

Citric Acid. 



184 

64 E. B. Reicbel, 

65 August Hohl, 

66 Allen G. Griggs, 

67 Charles R. Lange, 

68 A. P Raser. 



69 Worthington Emerson. 

70 G. M. Russell, 

71 Herman F. Voshage. 

72 E. Jefferson. 

73 J. Adam Wiegner. 

74 Harry J. Nicf\ 

75 James L. Yost, 

76 Saml. W. Martin. 

77 F. E. Miller, 

78 R. Willard, jr., 

79 J. K. Young, 

80 0. L. Smith, 

81 S. W. Fairchild, 

82 W. C. Gill, 

83 Frank P. Yergiu, 

84 J S. Spriggs, 

85 J. Mori is Jones, 

86 W. C. Nicholas, 

87 Paul Bridger. 

88 James W. Hommann, 
H9 Eugene D. Ritter, 



Pharmaceutical Colleges , etc. 



( Am. Jour Pharm. 
[ April 1, 1873. 



Pennsylvania. 
Michigan. 
Illinois. 
Pennsylvania. 



Delaware. 
Pennsylvania. 



New Jersey. 

Pennsylvania. 

Georgia. 

Connecticut. 

Pennsylvania. 

Ohio. 

Illinois. 

Pennsylvania. 

West Indies. 
Pennsylvania. 



Nature's Medicinal Resources. 
Practical Experience. 
Aqua. 

Volatile Oils. 

The Judicious Arrangement of Shops, and 
the Better Preservation of Drugs ana} 
Medicines. 

Condurango. 

Semen cucurbitx cilrulli. 

Patent Medicines. 

Cannabis indica. 

Dracontium foctidum. 

Mistakes in Prescriptions. 

Lycopus Virginianus. 

Heracleum lanatum. 

Anemone Ludoviciana. 

Petroleum 

Cyp r ip edium pub esc ens. 
Mercury and its Preparations. 
Legitimate Pharmacy. 
Glycerin in Hit id Extracts. 
Cytisus scoparivs. 
Panax. 

Benzoin odorijerum, 
Cosmolin. 

Protoxide of Hydrogen. ' 
Hamarnelis virginica. 

Atropa belladonna Toxicologically consid- 
ered. 

Hamarnelis virginica. 
Ung uentum Hy drargyr i. 
Pancreatin. 

A Country Drug Store. 
Aqueous Fluid Extract of Smna. 

William J. Jenks, 
Wm. B. Webb, 
Wm. McIntyre, 

Joseph P. Remington, Committee. 



90 G. Louis Trnckenmiller, Illinois. 

91 A. R. Housekeeper, Pennsylvania 

92 A. B. Rohn. " 

93 William Delker. 

94 F. Hadefeld. " 

(Signed) Robert Bridges, 
John M. Maisch, 
William Procter, Jr., 

Professors. 

The fifty-second annual commencement took place, at the Academy of 
Music, on the evening of March 18th, when the degree of Graduate in Phar- 
macy was conferred upon the gentlemen named above by the President of the 
College, Mr. Dillwyn Parrish, followed by the valedictory address, by Prof. 
Robert Bridges, M.D. Mr. W. N. Stem, in a neat and well delivered address,, 
presented to the College, in behalf of the graduating class, a splendid air-pump 
and electrical machine, which, on the part of the College, were received by the 
Committee on Apparatus through Mr. Chas. Bullock. The numerous presents, 
consisting mainly of bouquets and books, sent for the graduates by their friends, 
were distributed by graduates of the preceding years. 

A very large number of members and friends of the College had assembled 
upon the stage, and the vast house was thronged with an attentive audience* 
The music, by the Germania orchestra, under the leadership of Mr. Geo. Bas- 
tert, was excellent, and the arrangements made by the Committee could not 
have been better. 

In the midst of these joyous and festive scenes the crape worn by the grad- 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
April, ], 1873. j 



Phar mace at teal Colleges, etc. 



185 



uates upon their left arms reminded us of our departed friend Edward Parrish, 
who, two years ago. had, in the same place, spoken the parting address to the 
then graduates. 

Class on Toxicology. — At an adjourned meeting of the Class, held March 6, 
1873, at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, H. Haupt being President, and 
J. W. Worthington, Secretary, it was unanimously 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Class on Toxicology are hereby tendered to 
Professor John J. Reese, for the able manner in which he has presented his 
subject, the number, variety and aptitude of his illustrations, and for the uni- 
form care and anxiety displayed by him to make our relations mutually pleasant 
and agreeable. 

Also, that the Secretary be directed to forward a copy of this resolution 
for publication in the American Journal of Pharmacy. 

J. Willits Worthington, Secry. 

The Annual Meeting of the Alumni Association of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy was held in the College Hall, the preliminary session on 
Monday evening, March 17th, and the general session on Tuesday afternoon? 
March 18th. At the first session the President read his Annual Address; the min- 
utes of the last annual meeting, and also those of the several meetings of the 
Executive Board were read and approved. After the usual business of the Asso- 
ciation, Mr. H. Ed. Wendel entertained the Association by reading a paper enti- 
tled "The Perplexities of a Drug Store." At the general session movements 
were inaugurated looking to make our annual gathering more interesting. Wm. 
C. Bakes was appointed, and C. L. Eberle as alternate, to deliver an address to 
the Association at its next meeting, which will be its tenth anniversary. 

The Executive Board was directed, in addition to the medal for the student 
having the highest average, to award suitable prizes for proficiency in such 
branches as in its judgment is advisable. 

C. L. Eberle, the retiring President, presented on behalf of the Association, 
the Alumni Medal to E. C. Batchelor, of Macon, Mississippi, he having received 
the highest average. 

An election for officers was held with the following result : President, Clem- 
mons Parrish; 1st Vice-President, E. Chiles ; 2d Vice-President, Jos. P. Re- 
mington ; Recording Secretary, W m. Mclntyre, 2229 Frankford Avenue, Phila- 
delphia ; Corresponding Secretary, H.Ed. Wendel; Treasurer, E.C.Jones, 
S. E. corner 15th and Market street, Philadelphin ; to fill vacancies in the 
Executive Board, E. McC. Boring and R. V. Mattison ; Trustee of Sinking 
Fund, T. S. Wiegand. 

The Secretary was directed to publish the Annual Report, containing the 
Valedictory Address of Professor R. Bridges, M. D. 

The meeting adjourned. Wm. McIntyre, Secretary. 

Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. — The annual meeting ot the Massa- 
chusetts College of Pharmacy was held on Monday, March 3d, at its new 
rooms, No. 8 Boylston street, and, despite the severe storm, was more largely 
attended than for many previous years, a number of members being present 
from various parts of New England. 



186 



Phannaceutical Colleges, etc. 



( Am. Jour. Phabm. 
I April 1, 1873. 



The President, Mr. S. M. Colcord, in his address congratulated the College 
upon the success which has attended its movements during the past year, 
and the brilliant prospects for the future. The better facilities which the new 
laboratory affords for practical instruction have made the lectures more inter- 
esting and valuable, and the number of students has been larger than at any 
previous season. 

The report of the Treasurer showed the financial condition of the College to 
be as favorable as at any previous year, while the expenditures have been much 
larger than heretofore. 

Reports were read from various Committees on Library, Cabinet Instruction, 
etc. Donations of books, specimens and funds were gratefully acknowledged. 

Professor Markoe gave an entertaining account of the meeting of the British 
Pharmaceutical Society at Brighton last summer; an interesting discussion 
upon legislation in reference to the practice of pharmacy took place, and other 
matters relating to the advancement of pharmaceutical science were consid- 
ered. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year : President, S. M. 
Colcord; Vice-Presidents, C. A. Tufts, B. F. Stacey ; Recording Secretary, 
H. W. Lincoln; Corresponding Secretary, G. F. H. Markoe; Treasurer, 
Ashel Boyden ; Auditor, Thomas Hollis ; Trustees : R. R. Kent, J. S. Melvin , 
J. S. Orne, C. I. Eaton, S. A. D. Sheppard, Thomas Doliber, C. E. Tappan, E. 
L. Patch. 

New York College of Pharmacy. — The annual meeting was held on th« 
13th of March. We have not been advised of its proceedings, nor has the 
promised list of graduates reached us. Of the transactions of the Alumni As- 
sociation of this College, only the address of its President, Mr. D. C Robbins, 
has been sent. 

Maryland College of Pharmacy — At the 21st annual commencement, 
which took place on the 11th of March, the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy 
was conferred upon the following gentlemen : 

J. M. Benziuger, Maryland, Iris versicolor; J. C. Cronhardt, Jr., Maryland, 
Adiantum pedatum ; C. C. Habliston, Maryland, Tinctures; J. H. Livingston, 
Florida, Asarum Canadense ; J. R. Marshall, North Carolina, Ancient Phar- 
macy ; H. Nordmann, Maryland, Med. pr<?p. of Manganese; And. Petz, Jr., 
Maryland, Hydrargyrum ; Thomas Shermer, Maryland, Iris versicolor. 

Seven first course students were by their examination entitled to honorable 
mention. 

The honorary degree of Doctor in Pharmacy was conferred upon Edward R. 
Squibb, M.D., of Brooklyn. N. Y.. and Benjamin Lillard, Nashville, Tenn. 

The valedictory address was delivered by Hon. C. E. Phelps. 

The annual meeting of this College took place March 13th, at the hall of the 
College, President J. Faris Moore, Phar. D.. in the chair. The minutes of the 
previous meeting and of the Board of Trustees were read by the Secretary, Dr. 
E. Eareckson, and approved. The Committee on unorficinal formulas reported 
that the manuscript was almost entirely in the hands of the printer. 



JLm. Jour. Pmarm. > 
April 1, 187;$., j 



Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 



187 



The Committee on the Pharmacopoeia reported through its Chairman, Jos. 
Hoberts, Phar. D., on the dismissals and additions, and through Mr. Louis 
'Oohme, on the changes in the processes of the new pharmacopoeia. These 
reports, when finished, were ordered to be printed and to be circulated among 
■the medical profession. 

Dr. R. Murdoch delivered a lecture on botany, the subject being well illus- 
trated by drawings. A vote of thanks was tendered to the lecturer, and a reso- 
lotion introduced by Mr. J. F. Hancock, and passed, advocating the establish- 
ment of a botanical garden in one of the public parks, and a chair of botany 
an the College. A Committee to act and report on this resolution was appointed 
as follows : Messrs. J. F. Hancock, Jos. Roberts, Louis Dohme, J. J. Smith 
and N. H. Jennings. 

After the reading by Mr. J. F. Hancock of the report on deceased members, 
■Professor Moore exhibited several pharmaceutical novelties which had been 
placed on exhibition ; also a number of preparations of the new pharmacopoeia, 
about which subjects an entertaining and profitable discussion took place. 

Mr. Louis Dohrne read a paper on the oleates of mercury and morphia,* 
after which the College adjourned. 

On the evening of the same day a pleasant reunion took place at the Rennert 
House, where the members of the Maryland College with their invited guests 
assembled, to hear first the President's address by Professor J. F. Moore, and 
then the annual address delivered by Professor I. J. Grahame. Both were lis- 
tened to attentively, and besides retrospects contained many valuable sugges- 
tions. The company afterwards sat down to a sumptuous repast, and after 
justice had been done to all the good things upon the table, toasts were offered 
and responded to until the meeting adjourned. 

The Cincinnati College of Pharmacy, which, during the past session, has 
§iad a class of 51 students, on March 12th conferred the degree of Graduate in 
Pharmacy upon the following gentlemen: William E. Kieley, Andrew W. Bain, 
Jos. H. Feemster, Augustus G. Luken, Chas. P. Rendigs, Henry Wagner, 
Chas. E. Ferris, John E. Martin, Gustav Weisbrodt, George D. Pinger. 

Professor J. F. Judge gave a historical sketch of the rise of pharmacy, and 
•alluded to the efforts made in Cincinnati since 1849 to establish a pharmaceu- 
tical educational institution, which have resulted in the organization of the pre- 
sent College. 

The valedictory address on behalf of the College was delivered by Judge 
Stallo, who in the course of his remarks, said : 

" I honor this school the more, gentlemen, from the Fact that it does not re- 
ceive aid from the State or city. I expect far more from an institution which 
grows out of the necessities of a community or section of country than from one 
which springs from the ambitious devices of political bodies. National bureaus 
of education are being established by bodies of politicians. I knew a man who 
as now a President of an agricultural college established by legislation. Some 
years ago he came to my office, and wanted me to help him to a consulship or 
^ollectorship, or, in fact, anything. 

" I do not believe that the public will gain at all by the actions of these poli- 
ticians in these directions. They are very unfit men to manage such a subject, 

* The paper is printed ou page 1.08 of the present number. 



188 Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. {^Tm™* 

though. they may do very well to manage street railroads. Nature lets func- 
tions develop organs. The law of nature is spontaneity and self help." 

The valedictory, on the part of the class, was delivered by Jos. H. Feemster- 
After the exercises closed, a goodly company adjourned to the festive boards 

where a fine collation was set, to which over one hundred pharmacists, physir- 

eians and invited guests devoted their attention 



The Louisville College of Pharmacy, acting under a charter previously- 
obtained through the Jefferson County Court. Ky., at a meeting, held March 
10th, 1873, re-organized under a special charter, granted by the Legislature,, 
which requires the election of twelve directors. The following gentlemen were- 
duly elected for the current year : F. J. Pfingst, Wm. G. Schmidt, E. SchefFer, 
John Colgan, P. P. Sutton, F. C. Miller, C. L Diehi, V Davis, S. F. Dawes, J. 
A. McAfee, B. F. All'ord and E. N. Woodruff. The directors organized by 
electing C. L. Diehl. President ; E. Scheffer and H. F. Alford, Vice-Presidents; 
F. C. Miller, Recording Secretary; William G. Schmidt, Corresponding Sec- 
retary ; S. F. Dawes. Treasurer, and J. A. McAfee, Curator. 

The directors, some time since, appointed a board of trustees, consisting of 
Messrs. Schmidt, Davis, Colgan, Sutton and Pfingst, for the purpose of creating 
a building fund to enable the College to erect in the future a suitable edifice for 
the growing school. So far, the trustees for the first year have reported monthly 
subscriptions to the amount of $996, with the prospect of more. This fund is 
deposited in a bank paying interest at the rate of six per centum per annum, 
computable every thirty days. 

The following matriculants of the school passed a successful examination at 
the close of this year's session : Ed. S. Anderson, John Loomis, Henry Voigt^ 
Ed. D. Caldwell, Chas. R. DeKress and Phil. G. Beutel. 



St. Lolls College of Pharmacy. — This College has been in successful oper- 
ation during the past winter with a class numbering 23 students, several of 
whom were expected to take their degree in March. During the past two years 
the College has been the recipient of many valuable donations. Principal 
among the contributors to its cabinet and collection of philosophical instru- 
ments may be mentioned : The Chicago College of Pharmacy ; E. R. Squibb,. 
M.D., Brooklyn ; McKesson & Robbins, N. Y. ; Hartmann, Laist & Co , Cin- 
cinnati; Herring & Co,, and F. C. Calvert, London. Eng.; E. Scheffer, Louis- 
ville, Ky. ; W.J. M. Gordon, Cincinnati; Powers & Weightman, Bullock & 
Crenshaw, and John Wyeth & Bro., Philadelphia; Jeremiah Quinlan, Nevr 
York; Cheney, Myrick, Hobbs & Co., and B. 0. & G. C. Wilson, Boston;; 
Hernstein, New York; J. L. Lemberger, Lebanon, Pa., and G. Mallinckrodt 
& Co., Larkin & Scheffer. Meyer Bros. & Co., J. S. Merrill, Richardson & Co... 
Wm. H. Crawford, Theo. Kalb, Chas. Habicht & Co.. and M. W. Alexander, 
St. Louis. 



The Ontario College of Pharmacy held its semi-annual meeting February 
5th, Mr. Lyman, President, in the chair. The delegation to the Cleveland 
meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association made a verbal report- 



>-M. Jour. Ph mim \ 
April 1, 1873. j 



Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 



189 



It was then, on motion of Professor Shuttleworth, sccowded by Mr. Saunders, 
resolved " that the certificates of proficiency or the diplomas of the Pharma- 
ceutical Society of Great Britain, the Pharmaceutical Association of Quebec, 
and the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy be recognized by this College, pro- 
vided that the holder of such diploma has been four years in business, and the 
production of such diploma shall be considered by the Board of Examiners as 
sufficient evidence of the qualifications of the holder thereof, provided such 
resolution is in harmony with the Pharmacy Act.'' 

The reports of the Registrar, the Examining Board and the Treasurer were 
?ead. arrangements were made for the election of Councillors in June next, and 
votes of thanks passed to the retiring officers and to the Business Editor of the 
Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal, Mr. Henry J. Rose. 

The following gentlemen were elected honorary members of this College : 
Prof. Redwood, Prof. Attfield and Mr. 11. B. Brady, of Great Britain ; Dr. K. 
l\. Squibb, of Brooklyn, and Prof. J. M. Maisch, of Philadelphia. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. — At the pharmaceutical meet- 
ing held March 5th, Professor Attfield read a paper by Chas Symes, Ph. D., 
entitled " Legal Pharmaceutical Preparations." Mr. Umney exhibited several 
fluid extracts, illustrative of American Pharmacy, and explained the processes 
of the new United States Pharmacopoeia. 

He said, as far as one could judge, the aim of our American friends had been 
to economize alcohol, labor and fuel, of course not losing sight of the most 
essential points — reliability and stability of the extracts themselves. As to 
the elegance of these preparations, he would ask the meeting to judge. He 
was personally of opinion that they far surpassed the fluid extracts of British 
pharmacy, as prepared by several aqueous infusions of the drug, and concen- 
tration by evaporation. He might add the preparation of taraxacum was much 
stronger than any officinal preparation we have of the same root in our Phar 
maeopceia; it is, at least, ten times the strength, as far as the weight of dry 
taraxacum root it represents, as the succus taraxaci of the British Pharmaco- 
poeia, and has therefore a more decided bitter flavor. 

Mr. Sandford said that he had examined with interest the specimen of fluid 
extract of pareira brava, as it was a preparation to which he had given con- 
siderable attention, and he w-s of opinion that it by no means excelled, if even 
it were equal to, the preparation made according to the British Pharmacopoeia. 

During a discussion between Messrs. Gerrard and Mackay several mixtures 
were mentioned as having been experimented with as bases for suppositories 
and pessaries. A mixture of gelatin and glycerin is still used in Edinburgh. 
A combination of 80 glycerin and 20 soap is solid on cooling and easily moulded, 
but in a few hours is covered with an exudation of glycerin. Equal parts of 
theobroma oil and paraffin fused together yield a combination which seems to 
offer the advantage of being sufficiently hard, and yet to soften readily at the 
temperature of the body. 

Professor Redwood then spoke at length on the proposed additions to the 
British Pharmacopoeia, discussing the processes of different pharmacopoeias 
and the results of his own experiments. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Parts. — Mr. Regnauld presided at the meeting 
held January 8, at which the following members were added to the Committee 



190 



Pharmaceutical Colleges ; etc. 



( AM. JoCR. PHABSft, 

1 Aprii I, 1873. 



on the Universal Pharmacopoeia, previously appointed : Messrs. Buigne'e, 
Lefort, Mayet, Jungfleisch, Duquesnel and Mehu ; Mr. Bussy was appointed? 
honorary president of the committee. 

Mr. Limousin exhibited wafers stamped of the size of a five franc piece ; two 
pieces of these wafers form a capsule, in which pulverulent medicines may be- 
taken, the name being printed or written on the wafer. 

Mr. Jungfleisch reported on his researches concerning various transformations 
of tartaric acid, the synthesis of these bodies by means of bibromosuccinic acid 
and the production of tartaric acid acting upon polarized light. 

Mr. Latour read a paper on the syrups of tolu and tar, in which these sub- 
stances are emulsionized ; the syrups are of an acrid taste and, though offering 
various advantages, must not be substituted for the officinal syrups. Th®> 
formulas are as follows : 

Take of Balsam of Tolu, . . 100 grams. 

Sugar, . . . 300 " 

Powdered Gum Senegal, . 100 " 
Water, . . .600 

Simple Syrup, . . . 2400 £ - 

The balsam is carefully triturated in a porcelain mortar with the sugar an«S 
gum until an intimate mixture and fine powder is obtained, which is then poured 
into a tinned copper kettle, previously heated to 100° 0. A sufficient quantity 
of boiling simple syrup is added, afterwards the water, the trituration and the 
application of heat being continued until the balsam is fused and thoroughly 
emulsionized ; the remainder of the hot syrup is then added, in small quantities, 
the whole mixture raised to the boiling point and strained, to separate impuri- 
ties and a small quantity of resin. The preparation weighs three kilograms,, 
and a tablespoonful represents 30 grams of syrup, or 1 gram of tolu. 

Syrup of emulsionized tar is made in the same manner from 100 grams of 
tar which has been washed with boiling water. 600 grams of sugar, 100 grams* 
powdered gum Senegal, 400 grams water and 2000 grams simple syrup. 

A mixture of the two syrups is better tolerated than the tar syrup alone:: 
the latter might probably be employed for the extemporaneous preparation of 
tar water. 

At the session of February 5th, Mr. Boudet directed the attention of the- 
society to propylamina. which has been extensively used, and which, as pre- 
pared by the action of potassa upon herring pickle, contains besides propyla- 
mina also trimethylamina and ammonia; he censures physicians who, before 
undertaking long experiments, do not assure themselves of the purity of the* 
products with which they experiment. The society directs the appointment oi 
a committee to report on this subject. Messrs. Boudrimont, Boudet, Jung- 
fleisch, Adrian and Wurtz were appointed At the suggestion of Messrs... 
Blondeau, Boudet and others, the subject of hyoscyamia was referred to the- 
same committee. 

Mr. Guichard stated that he arid Mr. Delpech suggested, in 1870, the em- 
ployment of an alcoholic solution of potassa in the preparation of cantharida I 
plaster, aud claims priority to the suggestion of Mr. Rother, made last year. 

After the election of three corresponding members the society adjourned 



The Pharmaceutical Institute of the University of Strassburg has been 
placed in charge of Prof Dr. F. A. Fliickiger, formerly of Bern, Switzerland 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
April 1, 1873. J 



Editorial. 



191 



(JrMtorial Department 

Bogus Diplomas Again. — In our last volume we have repeatedly referred to 
the nefarious trade in bogus diplomas which had its head-quarters in Philadel- 
phia The illegal transactions having been proved before a committee ap- 
pointed by the Legislature of Pennsylvania, that body promptly repealed the 
charters of several so called universities and colleges.* We are sorry to have 
to inform our readers that this repeal of its charter appears to be invalid in the 
case of at least one of these concerns, as we learn from the following, -which we 
clip from a newspaper of this city : 

" Judge Agnew of the Supreme Court, has decided that the Legislature has 
no power to repeal a charter granted prior to the constitutional amendment of 
1857, and that a committee of the Legislature has not the judicial power to in- 
vestigate and declare that a corporation has been guilty of unlawful acts. The 
opinion was in the case of Allen vs. Buchanan, in which the validity of the 
Eclectic Medical College charter was in question, and the Court decides that 
the Act of 1872, repealing the charter, was without legislative force and void, 
4 The corporation,' said the Judge, ' is entitled to a trial in due course of law, to 
ascertain its breach of duty, before its charter can be taken away. A franchise 
is a valuable privilege, and is property in the contemplation of law ; and the 
body possessing it is as much entitled to a judicial determination of its right or 
want of right to hold it as a natural person is of his right to his lands or his 
goods.' " 

Meanwhile the business of selling diplomas has been going on uninterruptedly 
in Europe. The headquarters of the European agency appear to have been 
established in Jersey, Great Britain, and one Dr. P. A. van der Yyver appears 
to act as chief commissioner for several of those concerns who were supposed 
to have been swept out of existence by legislative authority. Advertisements 
have appeared in various publications in Germany, Austria, Spain, and proba- 
bly other European countries, advertising, as we have been informed, the Eclec- 
tic College of Medicine, the University of Philadelphia, etc., as willing to grant 
to those who are hungry for cheap honors, and in consideration of a round sum 
of money, any desired degree in absentia. 

We call upon our European cotemporaries to expose this swindle, and hope 
that measures may be devised and proceedings instituted in this city, which 
will bring the home offenders to a speedy justice, and put a stop to a business 
which has for too long a time disgraced the fair name of a city, a State, and, in 
fact, of our whole country. 

REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



Manual of Chemical A?ialysis as Applied to the Examination of Medicinat 
Chemicals. A Guide for the Determination of their identity and Quality, 
and for the Detection of Impurities and Adulterations. For the use of Phar- 
maceutists, Physicians. Druggists and Manufacturing Chemists, and of Phar- 
maceutical and Medical Students. By Frederick Hoffmann, Ph.D., Pharma- 
ceutist in New York. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1873. 8vo., pp. 393. 



Spp American Jcnrnal of Pharmacy, 1S72. page 191. 



192 



Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { 



Am. J»ur. Pharm. 
April I, 1873. 



A work of this kind has long been needed, and for this reason alone the vol- 
ume would be heartily welcomed, even if it had been less complete than it is. 

The book is divided into two parts, the first of which treats of operations, 
reagents and systematic analyses, including the volumetric estimation of those 
compounds to which this mode of examination is especially applicable. The 
first two chapters consist mainly of practical instructions, without entering un- 
necessarily into detail, concerning the principal operations and the nature and 
preparation of the reagents. The following chapter, comprising 15 pages, 
treats in a clear and concise manner of the systematic course of chemical analy- 
sis, and has a table appended, showing the deportment of the compounds of 
the common metals with some of the general reagents, such as acids, alkalies, 
ammonium, sulph hydrate, water, etc. The chapter on volumetric analysis is 
devoted first to a description of the requisite apparatus and their use, which is 
followed by accounts of the different kinds of volumetric analysis, performed by 
saturation (neutralization), precipitation, oxidation and deoxidation. 

Part II is the most important part of the work before us, giving an account 
of the medicinal chemicals and their preparations, their physical and chemical 
characteristics, and directions for the examination of their quality and purity. 
About two hundred compounds and preparations are here enumerated in alpha- 
betical order, and fully considered in accordance with the object of the work. 
The nomenclature adopted in the alphabetical arrangement is that of the new 
United States Pharmacopoeia, the Latin officinal names being first given, fol- 
lowed by the Latin synonyms in use in this country and in Europe, and finally 
by the common English names. There are but few deviations from this ar- 
rangement, potassa and soda being considered under " Potassii hydras "and 
" Sodi hydras,'' chlor?l under " Chlorali hydras," and the officinal pyrophos- 
phate of iron under " Ferri pyrophosphas et ammonii citras," while under the 
officinal name " Ferri pyrophosphas" the pure salt is described. 

Each compound is carefully described according to its physical properties, 
its solubility in different menstrua, simple and chemical, and its behavior to 
reagents (tests of identity). This is followed by the Examination, under which 
heading the various accidental impurities, resulting from the processes followed 
in making the chemicals, or from insufficient purification, and also the inten- 
tional adulterations and substitutions are considered, and their detection clearly 
and concisely described. References to the description of volumetric assay, 
noticed before, are made, wherever the compounds allow of such an analysis, 
within the scope of the work. 

An appendix contains several valuable tables, and the work concludes with 
a complete index, embracing the Latin and English terms. 

This brief outline of the contents of this valuable work is scarcely sufficient 
to convey a correct idea of all the information presented in it. That directions 
for estimating the morphia strength of opium and its tincture, the amount of 
quinia contained in cinchona bark, etc., have found appropriate places, might 
have been expected. 

The descriptions and directions given in the work are clear and precise, so 
that they are readily understood by those having a knowledge of the fundamen- 
tal principles of chemistry and of the ordinary chemical manipulations, mauy 
of which, also the more important apparatus, are well illustrated by very good 
wood-cuts. The author has consulted the latest literature, and describes all 
the latest processes which appear to possess the merit of ready execution and 
sufficient accuracy for the purposes in view. 

The publishers have presented the work in an attractive style, and we feel 
sure that those whose vocation requires the frequent or occasional examination 
of medicinal chemicals, will find it what the author designed it to be — a guide 
for the determination of their identity and quality. 



THE 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



MAY, 1873. 



ANALYSIS OF COPTIS TRIFOLIA. SAL1SB. — GOLDTHREAD. 
By Edward Z. Gross. 
Condensed from an Inaugural Essay. 

The essay, which was accompanied by a very good pencil drawing 
of the plant with flowers and fruit, first gives the botanical history, 
and, after some general remarks on the properties, proceeds to de- 
scribe the chemical examination. 

One ounce of the herb, including rhizome and roots, was coarsely 
ground and macerated for twenty-four hours in cold water, then trans- 
ferred to a displacement apparatus and exhausted with the same men- 
struum, when twelve fluid-ounces were obtained. This was of a dark 
yellowish brown color, and had the odor and very bitter taste of the 
plant. Neither red nor blue litmus paper were affected by it, prov- 
ing absence of free acids or alkalies. The presence of albumen was 
clearly proven by coagulation with heat. 

Tincture of chloride of iron produced simply a dark coloration 
without precipitation, and without disappearing when heated; the in- 
fusion was likewise unaffected by solutions of gelatin and of quinia, 
proving the total absence of gallic and tannic acids. 

The dregs in the percolator were next boiled in water a short time, 
strained and allowed to cool ; to the filtered decoction a few drops of 
solution of iodine, in iodide of potassium, were added, without pro- 
ducing any change. No starch. As only a small portion of the in- 
fusion was used in the foregoing experiments, the balance was heated 
to boiling to coagulate the albumen, filtered and then evaporated, 
yielding an extract of a brownish black color, which was entirely so- 
luble in water, and was possessed of the characteristic bitterness and 
odor of the plant. 

13 



194 Analysis of Coptis Irifolia, Salisb, {^VayT'fs™ 

Alcohol dissolved about one-third of the extract, leaving a residue 
possessed of a slightly bitter aftertaste. It was altogether soluble in 
water and gave no precipitate with a solution of iodohydrargyrate of 
potassium, while the alcoholic solution gave a dense one. The alco- 
holic solution on evaporation yielded a beautiful garnet colored ex- 
tract, wholly soluble in boiling, and only partially so in cold water. 

A solution of the original extract was made with water, and this so- 
lution tested for sugar by Trommer's test, when the red oxide of cop- 
per was precipitated. The test of burning was also tried, and the 
odor of caramel being given off, the presence of sugar was clearly 
proven, though the reduction in Trommer's test, taking effect more 
readily after the solution had first been boiled with hydrochloric acid, 
caused doubts as to whether in a free state or as a glucoside. It 
might readily be supposed in the latter state. 

One ounce of the herb was macerated with ether for seven days, 
when it was placed in a displacement apparatus and exhausted, and 
the percolate, which was of a greenish black color, on spontaneous 
evaporation, yielded an extract of the same color, which was proven 
to be fatty resin by saponification when boiled with caustic potassa or 
soda. The resin was insoluble in water, hot or cold, but completely 
soluble in alcohol, and proved to be the same as that obtained by al- 
cohol after the plant had been exhausted by boiling water. It was 
only partially soluble in petroleum-benzin, and had an acrid taste* 
While evaporating, the resin seemed to separate from the remainder 
of the solution, which looked like a whitish fatty oil. 

Investigation of the alcoholic tincture, and principles contained there^ 
in. — Eight avoirdupois ounces of coptis were exhausted with alcohol, 
yielding a dark greenish brown tincture of intensely bitter taste. 
This tincture was evaporated to a comparatively small bulk, and 
strongly acidulated with hydrochloric acid, when a dark green resin- 
like precipitate was thrown down, which was separated by filtration ; 
a sufficient quantity of water was added to the filtrate, and the alco- 
hol driven off by heat. The addition of water caused a copious pre- 
cipitation of a dark green resin-like substance, which accumulated as 
evaporation was continued, and assumed a dark brown and granular 
appearance on cooling. This, and a precipitate in every way similar 
which took place on further evaporation, will be noticed hereafter. 
The supernatant liquor, after the addition of more hydrochloric acid, 
was set aside for awhile and deposited a brilliant yellow mass of a 



^M^;m3 RM -} Analysis of Coptis Trifolia, Salisb. 195 

crystalline character. The mass was redissolved in hot water, and 
again set aside to crystallize, Berberina, — No. 1. The precipitate in 
the last detailed experiment, after the addition of more hydrochloric 
acid, had a somewhat crystalline structure. This was boiled in water, 
forming a solution of bright yellow color, and leaving a resinous mass 
soluble in alcohol and ether. When the solution was acidulated with 
hydrochloric acid, a yellow precipitate was formed, which re-dissolved 
when heated; this was set aside for further examination — No. 2. 

The mother liquor from crystals No. 1 was heated with a view to 
driving off some of the acid, when a resin was precipitated similar in 
every respect to a deposit spoken of before. This was soluble in al- 
cohol, of very bitter taste, and, on spontaneous evaporation, yield- 
ed an amorphous bitter mass possessed of the odor of the plant. 
This was examined with the crystals. After separation of the sub- 
stances just mentioned from the liquor, it (the liquor) was supersatu- 
rated with carbonate of sodium, when a precipitate occurred, which, 
on being collected and thoroughly washed, was treated with alcohol, 
yielding a bright yellow tincture, which was allowed to evaporate 
spontaneously. The alkaline liquid was next shaken with amylic al- 
cohol, giving to it a bright yellow or orange color,, which color was 
readily yielded to water acidulated with sulphuric acid. As the solu- 
tion of the precipitate given by carbonate of sodium on evaporation 
yielded no crystals, it was supposed that a sufficient excess of carb. 
sodium had not been used ; so the acidulated solution obtained from 
amylic alcohol was treated with carbonate of sodium in considerable ex- 
cess, when a precipitate was obtained which, on being well washed with 
aqua ammonise, became almost colorless. This was dissolved in water 
by the aid of hydrochloric acid, evaporated to syrupy consistence and 
allowed to crystallize, No. 3. The supernatant liquid from the soda 
precipitate was acidulated with sulphuric acid, treated with alcohol to 
remove sulphate of sodium, then evaporated to a small bulk, and set 
aside — No. 4. 

Examination of the crystalline substances. — The crystals from Nos. 
1, 2 and 4, all answered the tests peculiar to and distinguishing Ber- 
berina, though those of No. 4 were plainer and no doubt purer — the 
first being more or less contaminated with coloring matter. These 
tests were as follows : 

Sparing solubility in ether and alcohol when cold, more soluble in 
ether when hot, and entirely so in boiling alcohol. They were dis- 



196 Analysis of Coptis Trifolia, Salisb. { AM M J a ° y D ;;£"' 

solved by sulphuric acid, giving to the solution an olive green color ; 
by concentrated nitric acid, a deep red coloration, evolving nitrous 
acid fumes. Caustic alkalies dissolve them, turning them deep brown. 
Their taste is extremely bitter. 

The extractive was to some extent soluble in water, entirely so in 
alcohol ; insoluble in petroleum benzin and ether. It was not precip- 
itated from its solution by alkalies, but on being boiled with caustic 
potassa for a while, it combined with it. It was entirely amorphous, 
and its acid solution gave no precipitate with iodohydrargyrate of po- 
tassium. 

The crystals, No. 3, were noticed to be different from Berberina, 
first, by their being colorless, and next by the difference in the form 
of the precipitate with iodohydrargyrate of potassium ; berberina be- 
ing flocculent while this was crystalline. This was separated from 
berberina by an alkali, therefore insoluble in alkalies, but proven af- 
terwards and precipitated by them from solution ; in this resembling 
hydrastia and oxyacanthin. Boiled with caustic potassa, it evolves 
the odor of ammonia, proving presence of nitrogen. It restores blue 
color to reddened litmus. Heated on platinum foil, it puffs up, and 
at length disappears. With sulphuric acid and-binoxide of manga- 
nese or nitrate of potassium, it dissolves, giving sulphurous (?) acid. 
With cold sulphuric acid it simply dissolves, but on heating, a pur- 
plish color is produced. In this test it again resembles hydrastia. 
Nitric and hydrochloric acids dissolve it without change. The crys- 
tals were re-dissolved in water, in which they were freely soluble, and 
from the solution precipitated by ammonia. Now we have a white 
powder insoluble in alcohol or water. 

We have thus far proven that it has the appearance and answers 
the'tests of an organic alkaloid, and that it forms at least one crys- 
tallizable salt with an acid. From all appearances, it bears the same 
relation to Coptis that hydrastia does to Hydrastis canadensis, or ber- 
Vm^to^Berberis vulgaris, and as its tests, compared with the tests 
characteristic of the two before-named, prove it to be not identical 
with either, I see no reason why it might not, for the present, or until 
further developments are made at least, be called Coptina. We have 
not had any opportunity of finding out its medical properties. 

Examination of the ashes. — One avoirdupois ounce of Coptis was in- 
cinerated in a crucible, and the result was twenty (20) grains of ashes, 
which, on analysis, were found to contain silica, carbonic acid, iron, 
aluminium, calcium, magnesium and potassium. 



A \ J ay R i,i8 H 7 A 3 P : M '} Arctostapliylos Glauca, Lindley. 197 

From the foregoing experiments, the organic constituents of Qoptis 
trifolia may be briefly summed up as follows : 

Albumen, resin and fixed oil, coloring and extractive matter, lig- 
neous matter, sugar, berberina, coptina. The herb yields from 4 to 
5 per cent, of ashes, of which one-tenth is silica. This analysis, 
proving absence of tannic and gallic acids, the plant cannot have as- 
tringent, but simply bitter tonic properties. The bitterness of Coptis 
is mainly due to berberina. To such as want to use the root in a 
concentrated form, I would recommend the alcoholic extract as a 
neat and elegant preparation, containing all the active properties. 



ARC TOS TA PHYL OS GLAUGA, LINDLEY. — MANZ ANITA. 
By John Henry Flint. 
From an Inaugural Essay. 

Arctostapliylos glauca, one of the many manzanitas, is a small tree 
or shrub, indigenous to California, growing principally upon the west- 
ern slope of the Sierras, and preferring dry and rocky localities. The 
wood is very hard, white, with a dark-red heart ; the bark is reddiish- 
brown, thin, smooth, and adheres very closely to the wood ; the leaves 
are pale-green, and quite numerous. 

A decoction of the leaves is held in high esteem by the natives in 
the localities where it is found, as a specific in the treatment of diar- 
rhoea and gonorrhoea. 

The following description is translated from De Candolle's " Pro- 
dromus :" 

" Aretostaphylos glauca, Lindley. Smooth glaucous ; leaves ovate- 
oblong, acute, coriaceous, with the base very obtuse ; racemes short, 
compound; bracts inferior, scale- like; fruit ovate." (The fruit is 
usually depressed globose.) 

A quantity of leaves was reduced to a coarse powder, decocted with 
water, the decoction strained, and the tannin removed by a solution 
of gelatin ; to the filtrate neutral acetate of lead was added, the pre- 
cipitate separated and washed. 

Through the filtrate and washings, hydrosulphuric acid was passed 
until all the lead was precipitated ; the sulphide of lead was removed 
by a filter, and the liquid evaporated to a soft extract, treated with 
alcohol, filtered and set aside. 

After standing twenty-four hours a brownish-yellow mass was de- 



198 Arctostaphylos Glauca, Lindley. {^g^Sf"" 

posited, soluble in water, alcohol and ether ; sparingly so in chloro- 
form, petroleum benzin and bisulphide of carbon. Each of these 
menstrua was tried as a medium for obtaining crystals, but without a 
favorable result. 

The precipitate with neutral acetate of lead was diffused in water, 
decomposed by hydrosulphuric acid, the sulphide of lead removed. 
The filtrate gave no evidence of organic matter when evaporated on 
platinum foil. Barium chloride gave no precipitate, but on the addi- 
tion of ammonia a yellowish precipitate was thrown down, redissolved 
in an excess. Nitrate of silver gave a yellowish precipitate, dissolved 
on the addition of ammonia. No precipitate was produced with ferric 
chloride. 

The leaves yielded 42 per cent, of soluble matter to boiling water. 
The amount of tannin was ascertained by volumetric analysis with 
solution of gelatin to be 9 4 b per cent. After incinerating the air dry 
leaves, 6 per cent, of ashes was left as a residue, containing potas- 
sium, calcium, magnesium and iron. 

A second portion of leaves was reduced to a fine powder, displaced 
with alcohol, the percolate evaporated to an extract, this treated with 
hot water, the residue separated by a filter, the solution precipitated 
with neutral acetate of lead, filtered and washed. Through the fil- 
trate and washings hydrosulphuric acid was passed, the sulphide of 
lead was removed by a filter, and the liquid evaporated to the consist- 
ence of an extract. This was digested with ether, and the filtrate 
allowed to evaporate spontaneously. 

After standing several days, a crystalline mass was deposited, hav- 
ing the appearance of white crystals diffused in a brownish-yellow 
coloring matter. This was proved to be very soluble in water, alco- 
hol and ether ; slightly so in chloroform, benzin and bisulphide of 
carbon. 

A portion was treated with each of these solvents, and shaken with 
animal charcoal, filtered and set aside to crystallize. 

When first filtered the solution was clear, but after standing a few 
hours re-assumed the original color (brownish-yellow). 

An aqueous solution of the residue left, after treating with ether, 
gave the characteristic precipitate of suboxide of copper with Trora- 
mer's test for grape sugar. 

A minute quantity of the crystalline product was dissolved in water, 
and the solution rendered alkaline by ammonia, when phosphomolyb- 



% J a o ;i'f8 H 73 RM -} FL Ex. of Valerian Containing Glycerin. 199 

die acid produced a blue color, proving the crystals to be arbutin 
(Jungmann's test). 

Kawalier's process for obtaining arbutin was attended with the same 
results. 

Since my efforts have been successful in isolating arbutin, I hope 
to be able to investigate more thoroughly the constituents of this 
plant, which seem to be so closely allied to those of Uva ursi. 



FLUID EXTRACT OF VALERIAN CONTAINING GLYCERIN. 
Editor American Journal of Pharmacy. 

Dear Sir : In preparing fluid extract of valerian with stronger al- 
cohol according to the directions given in the U. S. P., I was dissat- 
isfied with the result, which induced me to proceed to prepare a fluid 
extract of valerian, using as a menstruum a mixture of alcohol, glycerin 
and water, with a highly satisfactory result. 

I proceeded according to the directions of the U. S. P., 1870, for 
making that class of fluid extracts which, when finished, contain four 
fluid ounces of glycerin. 

After obtaining eighteen fluid-ounces of percolate, the next fluid- 
ounce which passed through was nearly colorless, and entirely desti- 
tute of the odor and taste of the root, showing that the drug was ex- 
hausted ; and having reserved the first fourteen fluid-ounces, after 
adding a fluid-ounce of glycerin to the remaining four fluid-ounces, 
evaporating to two fluid- ounces, and mixing with the reserved portion, 
I obtained a fluid extract much richer and heavier in appearance, pos- 
sessing a more powerful and much finer odor of the rhizome, and su- 
perior in every way to the officinal alcoholic preparation. 

Valerian in "moderately fine powder," is better adapted for perco- 
lation with the above menstruum than the "fine powder" which is di- 
rected in the officinal formula. 

I deem this mode of preparation worthy of bringing forward to your 
notice from its three-fold advantages, which are — 

Its cheapness, when compared to the alcoholic preparation ; the less 
amount of evaporation required, and hence it is a more speedy and 
•consequently less troublesome way ; and lastly and pre-eminently, 
the superiority of the preparation when completed, both in a medici- 
nal and pharmaceutical point of view. 

Yours respectfully, 

Philadelphia, April 3, 1873. Munroe Bond. 



200 



Glycerin in Fluid Extracts. 



I Am. Jour. Pharm 
i May 1, 1873. 



MAGENDIE'S SOLUTION OP MORPHIA PRESERVED BY 

SULPHUROUS ACID. 
The following letter of Professor C. Johnston, of Baltimore, has 
T)een kindly placed at our disposal. Mr. Jennings informs us that he 
uses from three to five drops of the officinal sulphurous acid to each 
fluidounce of Magendie's solution. 

Baltimore, March 11, 1873. 

N. H. Jennings, Esq. 

My Dear Sir : I beg to recall your attention to a suggestion I made 
you about two months ago in reference to the use of sulphurous acid, 
in procuring solution of morphia for hypodermic use. 

I carried in my pocket for a month a half ounce vial of a solution, 
two grains to the drachm, prepared by you, and at the end of that 
time the fluid was clear and free from any fungous formation, the ab- 
sence of which might fairly be attributed to the sulphurous acid. In 
use I found the solution to prove as little painful as the ordinary one 
of Magendie, and but very little more so than the simple watery so- 
lution. 

One of the advantages resulting from the employment of sulphur- 
ous acid is the permanent freedom of the solution of morphia from 
sediment or growth, whereby a good supply of the solution for hypo- 
dermic use may be prepared and kept ready for a long time. 

The apothecary and the physician can both estimate the benefit of 
this possibility. I am yours very truly, 

Christopher Johnston. 



GLYCERIN IN FLUID EXTRACTS. 
By William C. Gill. 
Extracted from an Inaugural Essay. 
Sixteen troyounces of valerian root, reduced to proper form, was 
exhausted and made into fluid extract in the usual manner; the 
result was a clear reddish-brown preparation, odor and taste strong of 
valerian, and indicating a good extract. Another sixteen troyounces 
was treated, after Mr. Campbell's process, with a menstruum consist- 
ing of alcohol, three parts ; glycerin, one part. The fluid extract 
obtained was of a very dark reddish-brown color, with the character- 
istic odor and taste, but to all outward appearance much stronger than 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
May 1, 1873. J 



Glycerin in Fluid Extracts. 



the preceding. Both preparations were labelled, dated and set aside. 
At the expiration of five weeks the fluid extract containing glycerin 
had changed to a muddy liquid, very unsightly and with considerable 
precipitate ; the other, on the contrary, remained clear, with but a 
very slight precipitate. The glycerin preparation was then filtered ; 
the filtered liquid again presenting a beautiful clear appearance, and 
seeming to have lost but little of its strength, and by many would 
have been pronounced the best preparation of the two. In this 
instance the glycerin served merely to dissolve the coloring matter 
(which it was unable afterwards to hold up), and thus placed the pre- 
paration in a false light, giving rise to what by a vulgar expression is 
called "strong" simply on account of its depth of color. 

Similar experiments were made with buchu, cubebs, lupulin and 
ginger. In the first three the result was very nearly the same as with 
the valerian, namely, a strong-looking preparation, but one which in 
each instance precipitated after standing some time. In fact, with 
the cubebs and lupulin it was apparent that glycerin was not at all 
suitable, while the buchu yielded, instead of the rich green color noticed 
in the alcoholic fluid extract, a preparation having a brownish hue. 
The fluid extract of ginger made with the addition of glycerin was, 
however, superior to that simply made with alcohol, not only present- 
ing a much nicer appearance, and proving on dilution to be equally as 
strong, but remaining permanent. 

While performing these few experiments with the above well-known 
drugs, an order was received for fluid extract of poke root. Having 
previously used diluted alcohol as a menstruum, and with considerable 
success, we thought to improve on the same by addition of glycerin. 
A dark reddish-brown preparation was the result, coming up fully to 
our expectations ; and, feeling perfectly satisfied, we placed what 
remained on hand after filling the order, on a shelf. On going to 
the bottle some three weeks after we found, on examination, the ex- 
tract had gelatinized, and was in a semi-solid condition. Since then 
we have noticed a similar change in several other fluid extracts which 
were stable before glycerin was used in preparing them, yellow dock, 
golden seal, and elecampane being among the number. 

In making the above statements we do not wish to condemn the use 
of glycerin in fluid extracts ; on the contrary, we rather approve of 
it ; but its indiscriminate use, as recommended by many, we do cer- 
tainly disapprove of. In many cases the use of glycerin seems spe- 



202 



Aromatic Astringent Syrups. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ May 1, 1873. 



cially called for. In the fluid extract of senega it appears to be the 
only preservative ; for, no matter what menstruum we use, if glycerin 
is omitted the preparation will precipitate, while if this liquid is used 
in the proportion of one-fourth to the usual menstruum, a fluid extract 
is obtained which will remain permanent, with but very slight precipi- 
tation, for an indefinite period. 

The above observations are more of a practical than experimental 
nature, and are, perhaps, a little at variance with the ideas generally 
published ; though adding nothing new to our knowledge of glycerin, 
they show that we must be guarded in its use, and carefully study the 
composition of the drug before using it as a menstruum. 



AROMATIC ASTRINGENT SYRUPS. 
By David G. Potts. 
From an Inaugural Essay. 
Syrupm Acidi Tannici Aromaticus — Spiced Syrup of Tannin. 
R. 

Acidi Tannici, . . . gr. lxiv. 

Cinnamomi, in fine powder, . ^i. 

Myristicse, in mod. fine powder, . gss. 

Glycerinae, . . . f^vi. 

Sacchari, .... ^vii. 

Aquae, .... fjxxii. 

Alcoholis Diluti, . . . q. s. 

Mix the aromatic powders, and, having moistened the mixture with 
a sufficient quantity of diluted alcohol, pack it firmly in a small glass 
funnel arranged for percolation, and gradually pour diluted alcohol 
upon it until one fluid-ounce of tincture has passed. Triturate the 
tannic acid first with the glycerin, and then with the water gradually 
added ; transfer the solution to a glass flask, and boil for ten minutes, 
filter, passing water through the filter until the filtrate measures 
twenty-eight fluid-drachms. To the filtered solution add the sugar, 
and, having dissolved it by a gentle heat, strain while hot. Lastly, 
add the reserved aromatic tincture to the solution when it is cold, and 
mix thoroughly. 

One grain to the fluid-drachm is the tannin strength of this syrup. 
In comparing it with others, to be subsequently mentioned, it would 
seem to be of less therapeutical value. My medical friends, whom I 



Am. jotrR. Pharm. 
May 1, 1873. 



} 



Aromatic Astringent Syrups. 



203 



have consulted in this dilemma, have approved of it as it is, for the 
reason that for children a powerful astringent is not needed, but 
rather one just strong enough to be absorbed without corrugating or 
condensing the mucous membrane of the stomach ; for in looseness of 
ithe bowels it is not the local action on the stomach, but the remote 
action on the bowels which is expected from an astringent. 

It is stated in the U. S. Dispensatory (p. 958 and 978) that some- 
times when an aqueous solution of tannic acid is exposed to the at- 
mosphere that a change takes place with the partial conversion of 
tannic into gallic acid, and, according to the opinion of M. Edmond 
Robiquet, it is due to the presence of pectase in the tannin, which, 
with a proper temperature and in the presence of water, acts as a 
ferment. To obviate the change in this preparation, the tannic acid 
solution is directed to be boiled as recommended by the above named 
chemist, who asserts that if a tannic acid solution be boiled for some 
time, that the pectase loses its properties of acting as a ferment, and 
the solution may be kept indefinitely without change. According to 
Prof. Procter (Am. Jour, of Pharm., Jan., 1865, p. 53 and 54),. the 
odor of commercial tannic acid is chiefly due to the odorous principle 
of nut-galls, and this is dissipated in a great measure in this prepa- 
ration by the boiling, no odor being perceptible save that of the aro- 
matics. 



Mix the powders, and, having moistened the mixture with a sufficient 
quantity of brandy, pack it firmly in a small conical glass percolator, 
and gradually pour brandy upon it until it commences to drop ; then 
insert a cork tightly in the lower orifice of the percolator and let it 
stand twenty-four hours. Then withdraw the cork and continue the 
percolation with brandy until six fluid-ounces of tincture are obtained 
Mix this with the glycerin and evaporate by a water-bath, at a tem- 
perature not exceeding 125° F., to three fluid-ounces, filter, and 
thoroughly mix the syrup. 



Syrupus G-allce Aromaticus. 



Gallse optimse, in fine powder, 
Cinnamomi, in fine powder, 
Myristicae, in mod. fine powder, 
Glycerine, 
Syrupi, 

Spintus Vini Gallici, 



aa 311. 



3 vi. 
3vi. 
q. s. 



3 88. 



204 Aromatic Astringent Syrups. { AM May i;i P 873? M ' 

The formula given for preparing this syrup in Parrish's Pharmacy 
is, in my opinion, unsatisfactory, and the above might be substituted 
for it, being of equal strength and more pharmaceutical in appearance 
and manipulation. After preparing this syrup by several different 
methods, I find that prepared according to the above formula is the 
most satisfactory in appearance, palatableness and qualities of keep- 
ing ; it corresponds in strength to the one heretofore in use, differing 
from it in its mode of preparation, containing glycerin, also more 
sugar, and having none of it caramelized, the advantage of which is 
doubtful. The quantity of aromatics used in this formula seem to 
produce so much oily matter as to render the syrup slightly opaque, 
and would be improved in appearance by using less aromatics, but 
wishing to keep the proportions of the original formula is the reason 
I did not use less in preparing this syrup, although I think that if its 
preparation be carefully managed, particularly in adding the glycerin 
before evaporating, and not employing too high a temperature in 
evaporating, it will always result in a satisfactory preparation. The 
advantage that is gained in adding glycerin before evaporating, is 
that it holds more of the soluble matter in solution, which separates 
on evaporating the alcoholic liquid ; the glycerin also improves the 
palatableness of the syrup considerably. 

Syrupus Kino Aromaticus. 

R. 

Kino, in fine powder, . . 3vi. 

Cinnamomi, in fine powder, 

Caryophylli, in fine powder, . 

Myristicae, in mod. fine powder, . aa ^i. 

Sacchari, . . ... %vii. 

Glycerinae, . . f^vi* 

Aquae, .... f^xxvi. 

Alcoholis Diluti, . . . q. s. 

Mix the aromatic powders, and, having moistened the mixture with 
a sufficient quantity of diluted alcohol, pack it firmly in a small glass 
funnel arranged for percolation, and gradually pour diluted alcohol 
upon it until one fluid-ounce of tincture is obtained. Triturate the 
kino first with the glycerin, and then with the water gradually added, 
and filter. To the filtered solution add the sugar, and having dis- 
solved it by a gentle heat, strain while hot. Lastly, add the reserved 
aromatic tincture to the solution when it is cold, and mix them thor- 
oughly. 



4 \ayiii873? M '} Aromatic Astringent Syrups. 205 

The value of kino as a reliable astringent has been long and well 
known; it is frequently prescribed during the summer months, when 
astringents are most in demand, and to supply this demand the above 
syrup forms an aromatic preparation of it, representing about five 
grains of kino to each fluid-drachm. The alcoholic tincture is uncer- 
tain in its stability, unless sugar be added at the time of preparation. 
The syrup, however, is almost of equal strength, is stable, palatable 
and convenient, especially when a preparation free from alcohol is 
desired. 

Syrupus Catechu. 

R. 

Catechu (select), in fine powder, . ^vi. 

Sacchari, . . . Jvii. 

Glycerinse, .... f<5vi. 

Aquae Cinnamomi, . . f^iv. 

Triturate the catechu, first with the glycerin and then with the water 
gradually added, and filter. To the filtered solution add the sugar, 
and having dissolved it by a gentle heat, strain while hot. 

This syrup is of the same strength as the alcoholic tincture of 
catechu, U. S. Pharmacopoeia, but differs from it in containing no 
alcohol or peculiar extractive, which latter is the cause of the mawk- 
ish taste in the tincture. 

Syrupus Cferanii Maculati Aromaticus. 

R 

Geranii maculati, in fine powder, . ^iii. 

Cinnamomi, in fine powder, . 31. 

Caryophylli, in fine powder, . 

Myristicae, in mod. fine powder, . aa £ss. 

Sacchari, .... ^viii. 

Alcoholis Diluti, . . q. s. 

Mix the aromatic powders, and having moistened the mixture with 
a sufficient quantity of diluted alcohol, pack it firmly in a small glass 
funnel arranged for percolation, and gradually pour diluted alcohol 
upon it until half of a fluid-ounce of tincture is obtained. Moisten 
the geranium with a sufficient quantity of diluted alcohol, pack it 
firmly in a conical glass percolator, and gradually pour diluted alco- 
hol upon it, until one pint of tincture has passed. Transfer the liquid 
to a porcelain vessel, boil for a few minutes, evaporate by a water 
bath to four fluid-ounces, and filter. To the filtered liquid add the 



206 



Court Plaster. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm,. 
\ May 1, 1873. 



sugar, and having dissolved it by a gentle heat, strain while hot- 
Lastly, add the reserved aromatic tincture to the solution when it is 
cold, and mix them thoroughly. 

This is an agreeable and efficient astringent, and is spoken highly 
of by the late Dr. Eberle in his work on the practice of medicine. 
A fluid- drachm represents twenty grains of the powdered drug; this 
would seem to be a large dose, and no doubt would be, if tannin were 
the only active principle, but Geranium maculatum is peculiar in its 
composition, containing both tannic and gallic acids, and therefore 
acts both as a local and remote astringent. 

Syrui?us Staticis Aromatieus. 

R. 

Staticis, in fine powder, . . Jiii. 

Cinnamomi, in fine powder, . gi. 

Caryophylli, in fine powder, . 

Myristic«i, in mod. fine powder, . act £ss. 

Sacchari, .... sviii. 

Alcoholis Diluti, . . q. s. 

The details of the process are identical with those for the preceding 
syrup of geranium. 

The syrup prepared according to the above formula furnishes a 
preparation of statice that is powerfully astringent, with a saline 
taste, which latter is due to the presence of various salts, which be- 
tray its habitat. Notwithstanding the taste it is eligible in appear- 
ance, keeps perfectly well, and is convenient for preparing gargles 
and mouths-washes, for which this drug is chiefly used. 



COURT PLASTER. 
By Arthur S. French. 
From an Inaugural Essay. 
The author gives the following practical details for making court 
plaster, handsomely-made specimens of which accompany his essay. 

The difficulty seems to be in most cases that of cracking and break- 
ing, which fault can be remedied by the addition of glycerin. The 
following I will offer with a view of producing a superior quality of 
court plaster, and to prevent the breaking. 



Russia Isinglass, . 3j. 

Water, . . . Oj. 

Alcohol, . . flgj. 

Glycerin, . . . fl3ss. 



AM Mayr;mf M } On the Training of Apprentices. 207 

Soak the isinglass in the water for one day, then dissolve it by the 
aid of a gentle heat, after which strain it and add the alcohol and 
glycerin. The mixture being now ready for use, is spread on a fine 
quality of silk stretched on a frame, each successive coat being allowed 
to dry before applying the next. Heat should not be used in drying 
the plaster, as it is apt to drive the glycerin out, and leave the plaster 
streaked. 

By another formula, court plaster is made in the following manner. 
Russia Isinglass, . ^iss. 

Resin, . . . ,3xiv. 

Alcohol, 

Water, . . . aa q. s. 

Glycerin, . . ^ss. 

Beat the resin in a mortar until perfectly powdered, then dissolve 
it in alcohol q. s., and mix with the isinglass solution ; strain and add 
the glycerin. 

Court plaster made in this way is very adhesive but not as hand- 
some as when made by the previous formula. 

In another formula, gelatin is used instead of isinglass, and makes 
a very handsome plaster. 

Gelatin, . . . 3iss. 

Water, . . Oj. 

Glycerin, . . . fl^j. 

Soak the gelatin in the water for one day, then dissolve it by the 
aid of a gentle heat, and after it is dissolved add the glycerin. 

This mixture, if spread on coarse and heavy silk, makes a white 
and opaque plaster ; while, if spread on thin and finer silk, the plaster 
will be nearly transparent and of a yellowish tint. 



ON THE TRAINING OF APPRENTICES. 
By Geo. Ude. 

The proper plan of educating young men in the profession of phar- 
macy is a question which is frequently discussed at the present time, 
and I think it very proper that this should be thoroughly done. 

The late Professor Parrish has written a very able answer to a query 
about the preliminary educational requirements of apprentices who 
wish to enter stores of pharmacy. It may be readily seen from this 
essay that he has been attached devotedly to our profession, and that 
the system of teaching in schools might be improved considerably. 



208 



On the Training of Apprentices. 



{Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May 1, 1873. 



I should advocate the teaching of the Latin language in our high 
schools, as it would not only be beneficial for youths entering our pro- 
fession, but for all, in any kind of business, as Latin phrases are fre- 
quently used even in our daily papers. As to the plan of teaching 
apprentices, there is a very large space left vacant for improvement. 

Having at this very time a new apprentice, and considering the 
question now pending, I would here briefly state my plan, and if any 
of the profession sees room for improvement, it will be for the benefit 
of the profession at large to publish it. 

I have, so far, instructed two. When the youth enters his appren- 
ticeship, I hand him a list of the names of all the drugs and prepa- 
rations in the shop, written on cap paper in the Latin, English and 
German languages, and let him commence with the names of those in 
materia medica, not in rotation of the Pharmacopoeia, but in rotation 
•of drawers and bottles as they are on the shelves. For instance, 
thus : 

Cetraria, Iceland Moss, Islaendisches Moss. 

Cera alba, White Wax, Weisses Wachs. 

Cera flava, &c, Yellow Wax, &c. Gelbes Wachs, &c. 

This plan may appear one-sided to some, but it is just this in which 
I have had occasion to see how little the labor of Wood and Bache is 
appreciated when they give us not only the English names besides the 
Latin, but also the German, French, and in many instances those of 
different other languages. Considering that there are quite a number 
of Germans in this city (St. Louis, Mo.), I let my apprentices study 
the three above mentioned. s I have been on visits to some of my 
friends, also apothecaries, and was informed that some German party 
would come in and ask for Flaxsaamen Thee, and such like articles, 
and, not knowing what the party meant, the sale had been lost. 

Certainly it is a little trouble to write say 600 or 700 names in 
three languages, but the reward will be ample. Five or six sheets of 
foolscap paper and a couple of days' leisure hours will do it. 

I let the apprentice learn during the leisure hours in the day-time, 
and hear his lesson, say, for instance, 100 names, in the evening; 
and when he is cleaning the shelves and bottles, Saturdays, I tell him 
to take a look at the ingredients, and thereby let his work, be it as it 
is, a dusty job, be an instruction to him. 

After he has learned the names I let him peruse the U. S. Dispen- 
satory, and a small treatise on chemistry, and another on botany. 



*Vi?i, mT'} On the Medicinal Use of Green Soap. 209 

These three, together with the work he has to perform, and with 
personal instruction, make him a good student for the College of Phar- 
macy and a reliable pharmacist thereafter. 



IMPROVED FORMULA FOR CAMPHOR WATER. 
By Wm. B. AddinctTon, Norfolk, Ya. 

R. Camphors, ..... 3iv, 

Magnes. Carb., .... 3ii, 

Aquae Destillat., .... Oiv, 

Alcohol., . . . . q. s. 

Take just enough alcohol to dissolve the camphor and bring it to a 
liquid state ; while liquid add the magnesia and triturate (during this 
time the alcohol will evaporate). Then mix the water, as usual, and 
filter. By making a perfect solution of the camphor, the particles 
are thoroughly divided, whereas by the U. S. P. process only enough 
alcohol is added to break up the adhesion of its particles and reduce 
it to powder, and all must have noticed the numerous small grains of 
camphor left on the filter by the present process. Camphor water is 
made by the process I suggest in one-half the time ; magnesia is saved 
by it, and all the camphor directed is taken up in the solution. By 
the present process it is not. There is no deposit formed on the bot- 
tom or sides of the jar by standing. I have tried this formula for 
the last eight months, and am vey much pleased with it. 



ON THE MEDICINAL USE OF GREEN SOAP. 
By the Editor. 

A short time ago, a correspondent asked us for a formula for Tinc- 
tura Saponis viridis composita, which he informed us was used in the 
eastern cities. At first we were unsuccessful in our endeavors to 
comply with the wish of our correspondent, until Messrs. Wm. 
Mclntyre and Gustavus Krause furnished us with the following for- 
mulas, which we publish below for the benefit of our readers. 

Commercial soft or green soap is usually made now, wholly or in 
part, from common whale and other fish oil. Hemp-seed oil, or rather 
a, mixture of it with various other liquid fats, has formerly been used, 
but long since substituted by almost any refuse oil which, on account of 
smell, rancidity or color, is unfit for other uses. These oils are saponi- 

14 



210 Extr actum Ipecacuanhce Fluidum. {^^I'Jm^ 

fied with caustic potash, and the desired green color is imparted to it 
by blue, green or yellow pigments, as may be required. Frequently, 
however, soft soap is met with of a blackish, or rather such a dirty 
color that it is difficult to distinguish a particular tint. The soft soap 
of the London Pharmacopoeia of 1851, and of the Edinburg Phar- 
macopeia of 1841, was directed to be made from olive oil and potash. 

Green soap is mainly used in medicine for the cure of itch, and in 
various other skin diseases ; but, on account of its caustic nature, is 
not often applied. 

The following formulas* have been furnished to us : 

Lotio Saponis viridis [Prof. Hebrd). Green soap ^i, boiling water 
Oj, oil of lavender sss. Mix. 

Spiritus saponatus kalinus {Prof. Hebra) % Green soap 2 parts, 95 
per cent, alcohol, 1 part. Scent ad libitum. 

Tinct. Saponis vir. cum pice {Prof. Hebra). Green soap, tar, alco- 
hol, equal weights of each. 

Tinct. Saponis vir. comp. {Tilbury Fox). Green soap, oil of cade,f 
alcohol, aa gi, oil of lavender f^iss. Mix. 

Some older preparations of green soap we find quoted in Red- 
wood's Supplement to the Pharmacopoeia, London, 1857 : 

Freeman s Bathing Spirits. Soft soap 6 lbs., camphor 8 oz., alco- 
hol and water of each 3 galls. The solution to be colored with 4 oz. 
Daffy's Elixir (Tinct. Sennge et Jalapae). 

Jackson s Bathing Spirits. Soft soap 2 lbs., camphor 12 oz., oils 
of rosemary and thyme of each 1J oz., alcohol 2 galls. 



EXTRACTUM IPECACUANHA FLUIDUM.* 
By B. F. McIntyre. 
The Pharmacopoeia of 1860 and the revision recently published 
give formulas for the preparation of Fluid Extract of Ipecac. The 
alteration of the old formula given in the new edition, suggested the 
following experiments to determine whether the change is an improve- 
ment. 

* Several of these formulas may be found in Napheys' Modern Therapeutics. 

t The empyreumatic oil obtained from the wood of Juniper •us oxycedrus. 

X Read at the second annual meeting and published in the Annual Report 
of the Alumni Association of the College of Pharmacy of the City of New 
York. 



A "k J ay t 'i, i873 RM ' S Extractum Ipecacuanlwe Fluidurn. 



211 



The results obtained seemed of sufficient importance to bring before 
the annual meeting of the Alumni. 

The Pharmacopoeia of 1860 directs that powdered ipecac be 
exhausted with stronger alcohol, the alcohol partially recovered by 
distillation, the concentrated extract mixed with water and acetic 
acid, the filtrate evaporated to a definite measure, a portion of alcohol 
added to preserve the preparation, the finished fluid extract measur- 
ing 16 f. oz. for every 16 Troy oz. powder manipulated. 

The details of this process will be considered further on. 

The Pharmacopoeia of 1870 directs that two menstrua be used to 
exhaust the powder, the first a mixture, (24 f. oz. stronger alcohol, 
12 f. oz. water), followed with diluted alcohol until the resultant per- 
colate measures 32 f. oz. ; one-half pint glycerin is added to this 32 
f. oz. of percolate, and the whole evaporated at a temperature not 
exceeding 140° F. 

The first menstruum given in the formula was used to exhaust the 
ipecac. Each successive pint of percolate from the drug was accu- 
rately weighed at 62° F., the several differences found, and the pro- 
portional distribution of extract through the percolate, calculated in 
the manner indicated by Dr. Squibb before the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association in 1870. 

One pint of the menstruum weighed 6,590 grs., the powder required 
10 f. oz. to moisten it thoroughly, and after four days maceration, 26 
f. oz., before the percolation commenced. 

A tabular statement of the rate of exhaustion is given : 



1 Pint weighed 7,108 grains. Difference, 518 grains. Extract, 1,299 grains. 



6,805 
6,670 
6,635 
6,630 
6,622 



(Quantity powder percolated 
Dried residue, after exhaustion 

Loss by percolation, solid extract 



215 
80 
45 
40 
32 

930 grains. 



560 
200 
112 
100 

69 " 

2,340 grains. 
7,680 grains. 
5,327 

2,353 grains. 



The Pharmacopoeia percolates 2 pints. Percentage of total extract, 
80 per cent. Extract in pint when of 80 per cent., 1,859 grains. 
The weight of 8 f. oz. glycerin, specific gravity 1.25, was found 



212 



Extractum Ipecacuanhas Fluidurn. \ A \ 




to be 4,574 grains ; this, mixed with the first 32 f. oz. percolate, and 
evaporated to 16 f. oz., weighed 8,310 grains finished fluid extract. 

A practical difficulty presents itself in the manufacture of this pre. 
paration. Economy of alcohol in the manipulation of fluid extracts 
is an important consideration, and this is paramount whenever it can 
be practiced without injury to the preparation. 

The Pharmacopoeia directs that the first 32 f. oz. percolate be 
evaporated at a temperature not exceeding 140° F., therefore the 
recovery of alcohol from the tincture is impossible, the temperature 
given is too low for distillation ; if it is heated to the boiling point, 
the finished preparation will be gelatinized and unsatisfactory. 

If the evaporation is conducted at 140° after filtering, the finished 
fluid extract has a syrupy consistence, dark rich color, odor strong 
and characteristic of the drug. 

The new formula provides no method for the separation of the 
inert resin, which is the troublesome object that required attention. 
The writer made several experiments, varying the process, but ad- 
hering to the glycerin and low temperature, and found in every 
instance that a syrup made from the fluid extract precipitated the 
resin, giving the syrup a dirty appearance, which is a cause for com- 



The loss of alcohol is great, first in the residue or exhausted pow- 
der, then from the tincture, finally glycerin is added, and the pre- 
paration has gained nothing but density and color. Emetia, the 
active principle in ipecac, is perfectly soluble in alcohol and sparingly 
soluble in water, U. S. Disp. — page 495. 

This fact suggests stronger alcohol as the proper menstruum, the 
rate of exhaustion is given below, 16 f. oz. stronger alcohol weighing 
about 5,907 grains. 



plaint. 



1 Pint weighed 6,333 grains. Difference, 426 grains. 

2 " " 6,110 " " 203 " 

3 " " 6,065 " " 158 " 

4 " " 6,055 " " 148 " 

5 " *' 6,055 " " 148 " 

6 " " 6,060 " " 153 " 

7 " " 6,038 " " 131 " 



1,367 grains. 

Quantity powder percolated . . 7,680 grains. 
Dried residue, after exhaustion . 6,320 " 



Loss by percolation, solid extract 



1,360 grains. 



^iii7i;m3 RM '} Exiractum Ipecacuanhas Flu id urn. 213 

The dried residue, after powdering, was wet up with water (weight 
of 16 f. oz. water about 7,300 grains) and exhausted. 

1 Pint weighed 7,630 grains. Difference, 330 grains. Extract, 734 grains. 

2 " " 7,415 " " 115 " " 255 " 

3 " " 7,335 " " 35 " " 77 « 

480 grains. 1,066 grains. 

Quantity residue percolated . . . 6,320 grains. 

Dried residue, after exhaustion .... 5,252 " 

Loss by percolation, solid extract . . . 1,068 grains. 

The three pints aqueous percolate when evaporated to dryness, 
gave of extract 1,150 grains. This extract has a perceptible odor, 
and in 10 grain doses produced nausea and slight emetic effect ; its 
taste is peculiar and disagreeable. Ten grains of the extract would 
be equivalent to seventy grains of the powder, if the former had 
special medicinal value. The separation of resin from fluid 
ipecac is difficult ; the Pharmacopoeia process of I860 will not effect 
its removal. The formula directs 10 f. oz. water with 1 f. oz. acetic 
acid to be mixed with the concentrated alcoholic extract — the writer 
has found it necessary to use from five to ten pints of water with 1 f. 
oz. acetic acid for every Pharmacopoeia portion — frequently this dilu- 
tion is repeated before the preparation is free from resin. 

One pint of fluid ipecac, made by the old process, weighs about 
7,980 grains at 65°F. Fluid extract of ipecac prepared by the pro- 
cess given in the 1860 Pharmacopoeia, is rarely found free from resin ; 
the following formula for syrup of ipecac has proved reliable, pro- 
ducing a clear elegant syrup : 

Fluid Ipecac f. oz. j. 
Water f. oz. xvij. 

Gran. Sugar, Troy oz. xij. 

Dilute the fluid extract with 16 f. oz. water, set aside for 12 hours, 
filter, evaporate to 6 f. oz., filter, add through filter 1 f. oz. water, 
then dissolve sugar with gentle heat, the finished syrup to measure 
16 f. oz. 

The conclusion of these experiments indicate that the old formula 
is reliable and economical, though difficult in manipulation. The 
physician rarely has cause to criticise the effectiveness of fluid ipecac 
when prepared from good root, and by the old process. 



214 Value of Certain Salts of Iron, etc. Jigg?* 

The Pharmacist wants a fluid extract of ipecac that will not pre- 
cipitate when in the form of the officinal syrup. 

The formula in the Pharmacopoeia of 1870 does not supply this 
want. 



ON THE COMPARATIVE THERAPEUTICAL YALUE OF SALTS 
OF PROTOXIDE AND SESQUIOX1DE OF IRON, AND ON A 
NEW SERIES OF TASTELESS IRON COMBINATIONS* 

By J. L. A. Creuse, of Brooklyn, N. Y. 
It is not my intention here to treat on the medical properties and 
uses of ferruginous compounds as a class ; this has been done before 
me by more competent persons. My purpose is only to discuss the 
relative physiological and chemical properties of the various iron 
combinations and describe a new series of tasteless ferruginous com- 
pounds. 

Iron has been used in medicine, it may be said, from time imme- 
morial. Metallic iron, green copperas, iron rust, carbonate of iron, 
bole armenia, etc., are mentioned in the oldest authors on medicine 
and pharmacy. It seems also that in former times little importance 
was attached to the peculiar form in which iron was administered. 
Some fifty or sixty years ago, however, a decided preference began 
to be shown for metallic iron, finely comminuted, and for the proto- 
salts of iron. It was thought, then, that the easy solubility of those 
preparations in the stomach was a great advantage, and that theory 
gave rise to a number of officinal remedies like iron by hydrogen, 
Vallet's mass, proto-iodide of iron, etc., etc., well known to all Phar- 
macists. 

But of late years, especially since the discovery of the citro-am- 
monical pyrophosphate of iron, by Robiquet, my old master, salts of 
sesquioxide of iron have been steadily growing into favor. It has 
been argued, with reason, that, since iron in human economy is in- 
variably found in the shape of sesqui-salts, such compounds should 
be preferred to all others whenever iron is indicated. I may add, 
also, that it is always in the form of sesqui-salts that iron exists in 
all vegetable and animal substances which compose human food, and 
that metallic iron or its proto-salts cannot be mixed with the simplest 
aliments without completely decomposing them. Protoxide of iron 

* Read at the second annual meeting and published in the annual report of 
the Alumni Association of the Colllege of Pharmacy of the city of New York. 



A Miy?;i P 873 RM *} Value of Certain Salts of Iron, etc. 215 

is as unyielding as it is unstable : when you have combined it with 
strong acids you can go no further with its salts : you can do nothing 
with them, not even an alum. Sesquioxide of iron, on the contrary, 
is a perfect Proteus ; sometimes a base, sometimes an acid, it is al- 
ways ready to enter into some combination or other on the slightest 
provocation. 

In a paper published some time ago I demonstrated that nearly all 
the insoluble sesqui-salts of iron could be combined with the alkaline 
citrates, forming soluble and tasteless compounds, to which I gave the 
name of quadruple citrates. 

Since then, further experiments have shown me that other vege- 
table salts, besides the citrates, possessed also the same property, and 
that not only the insoluble but also the soluble sesqui-salts of iron 
could form similar combinations. 

In other words, I may lay down this rule : All the salts of sesqui- 
oxide of iron, without exception, soluble or insoluble, form combinations 
with all the alkaline citrates, tartrates and oxalates. Such combinations 
are invariably green, whatever may be the color of the iron salt ; they 
are all soluble in water, nearly insoluble in alcohol ; they are all free 
from ferruginous taste, all perfectly stable, and miscible with prepa- 
rations of Peruvian bark without decomposition. In all of them the 
presence of iron is so disguised as not to be detected by chemical 
reagents, unless after the addition of strong acids or sulphuretted 
hydrogen, both of which destroy the combination. 

In other papers I have described the soluble compounds obtained 
in combining the phosphate, hypophosphate, valerianate and arseniate 
of iron with the alkaline citrates. In this I will merely describe the 
tasteless combinations of the alkaline citrates with iodide, chloride, 
sulphate and nitrate of iron. 

Tasteless Iodide of Iron. 

This is, no doubt, the most important of the whole series, both 
therapeutically and chemically ; therapeutically, because iodide of 
iron is admitted to be the best of all iron combinations ; chemically, 
because all the reactions happening during its preparation are so re- 
markable and so easy to follow with accuracy as to be likely to give 
a key to the real composition of the rest of the series — a result which 
can hardly be obtained with any of the other similar combinations. 

The salt is obtained in the following manner: 126,3 grs. (1 eq.) of 



216 Value of Certain Salts of Iron, etc. { A ^vTimf^ 

iodine are first combined with metallic iron, in the usual way to ob- 
tain the proto-iodide of iron ; this is filtered, and 63 grs. (J eq.) of 
iodine are dissolved into it. Then, a solution of 201 grs. (1 eq.) of 
citric acid saturated with a fixed alkali, such as potassa, for instance,, 
is added by small portions to the sesqui-iodide of iron. The ferru- 
ginous solution which is at first of a ruby red color and has a strong 
smell of iodine, becomes lighter by degrees, till as the last drop of 
citrate is added, it takes a bright apple green color ; at the same time,, 
all smell of iodine, all taste of iron have disappeared ; the solution 
strikes no color on starch paper, and gives no precipitate with either 
tannin or ferrocyanide of potassium. It may be then evaporated at 
a low heat, with gentle stirring to dryness, when it gives a green mass 
formed of very small acicular crystals, looking somewhat like cauli- 
flowers. It is tasteless, perfectly stable, unless exposed to direct sun- 
light, and may be exhibited, in the shape of syrup, elixir, solution., 
tincture, pills, etc. The dose of it need not be more than one-half of 
that of the proto-iodide of iron, as it is absorbed much more readily. 

Chemically, this iodide of iron seems to be a combination in which 
sesqui-iodide of iron plays the part of an acid and the alkaline citrate 
that of a base ; but the subject requires further investigations before 
it can be decided with complete certitude. 

The other alkaline citrates may be used instead of citrate of potas- 
sa ; similar combinations may also be obtained with the alkaline tar- 
trates, oxalates, and malates, but none are so tasteless, and especially 
none so stable as the one just mentioned. 

I must add a few words on this subject which is a most important 
one, for the same remarks may be applied to all the other analogous 
iron combinations, pyrophosphate included. On reading the above 
process, some may think that, after all, the product is only a mixture 
of citrate of iron, iodide and iodate of potassium. But, aside of the 
fact that the different ingredients are not in proportion to form such 
combinations, chemical tests show that such is not the case. Citrate 
of iron, for instance, is of a ruby red color and turns immediately ink 
black on the addition of tannin, while tasteless iodide of iron is bright 
green and is not colored black by tannin, but only turned to a light 
purple hue, after some time. Iodide of potassium dissolves iodine 
freely : the new salt dissolves it but sparingly, unless when in a con- 
centrated solution. Iodate of potassium is colored red by solutions, 
of morphia : no coloration is produced by them in solutions of the new 



A VayT, i P 873 RM } Value of Certain Salts of Iron, etc. 217 

salt. This last reaction is important, as iodate of potassium is deemed 
poisonous by some physicians. 

Tasteless Chloride of Iron. 

Sesqui-chloride of iron, the salt which enters in the preparation 
generally known as tincture of muriate of iron, has the property of 
forming combinations precisely similar to those of the sesqui-iodide* 
If an alkaline citrate be added to a solution of sesqui-chloride of iron,, 
in the proportion of two equivalents of the former to each three equiv- 
alents of chlorine, a new salt will be obtained of a green color, quite 
tasteless, and miscible with vegetable preparations such as infusions, 
of bark, quassia, etc., without change or discoloration. 

This tasteless muriate of iron may be dissolved in diluted alcohol 
in the proportion required by the Pharmacopoeia of the United States ; 
it forms, then, a tincture of muriate of iron, which is as superior to- 
the old one as a civilized man is above a barbarian. Its effects, I 
know, from experience, are fully equal to those of the officinal tinc- 
ture. 

I cannot give the exact weight of citric acid required for a given 
quantity of the officinal tincture of muriate of iron, on account of 
the great variation in the strength and acidity of that preparation^ 
but, on an average, 120 to 140 grains of citric acid saturated with 
either soda or ammonia will answer for one fluid-ounce of the tincture. 
This is to be added to the iron solution before the alcohol, and the al- 
coholic strength of the tincture, when finished, must not be more than 
30 or 40 p. c. instead of 70 p. c, as usual. 

The sesqui-sulphate and the sesqui-nitrate of iron form also combi- 
nations precisely alike to those described above, but present no spe- 
cial interest to be entitled to more than a simple mention. 

All these combinations, however, lack the property of coagulating 
the blood, and for that reason cannot be used as styptics in cases of 
hemorrhagia, etc. The old officinal pre parations will have to be re- 
tained for external use, the only thing they are fit for in a civilized 
community. 

Note. — The tasteless Iodide of Iron has been patented, but with no inten- 
tion of interfering with any Druggist who wishes to make it himself for his owii 
dispensing. 



218 Preparation of Pare Protiodide of Mercury. { A \ J ™1 gSf^ 

ON THE PREPARATION OF PURE PROTIODIDE OF MERCURY * 
By Jules Lefort. 

Protiodide of mercury as at present prepared, is often a mixture of 
protiodide and metallic mercury with more or less of biniodide, and 
though it is not difficult to remove the last named compound, the con- 
taminating metal cannot be separated. To prepare the protiodide by 
double decomposition, it was necessary to find a mercurous salt, neu- 
tral in its reaction and readily soluble in water. The author has 
found these conditions in the hitherto unknown double salt of pyro- 
phosphate of sodium and mercurous acetate, which must be placed in 
the same category with the double pyrophosphates investigated by 
Persozf and PahlJ. 

The new double salt crystallizes in handsome needles, which alter 
on prolonged contact with the air, but dissolve readily in water without" 
decomposition. The solution yields with potassium iodide a greenish 
yellow precipitate of mercurous iodide, having exactly the composition 
Hgl ; in the reaction, the pyrophosphate of sodium plays no other 
part except that of a solvent for the mercurous acetate. 

To prepare the double salt 60 grams of pure crystallized pyrophos- 
phate of sodium are dissolved, with the aid of heat, in 300 grams of 
distilled water ; when cool, 30 grams of mercurous acetate are added 
to the solution, and the mixture stirred from time to time. If the 
pyrophosphate is chemically pure, the mercurous salt will completely 
dissolve without the least decomposition. Usually, however, a partial 
decomposition has occurred during the conversion of the ordinary 
phosphate into the pyrophosphate of sodium by the prolonged heat, 
and a small quantity of the mercurous acetate is then decomposed 
into mercuric salt and metallic mercury, which, however, has no other 
effect upon the mercurous iodide except to somewhat lessen the yield. 

To the filtered solution an equal volume of distilled water is added, 
and afterwards in small quantities with continued agitation, a solution 
of 30 grams iodide of potassium in one litre of distilled water. The 
precipitate is at first brownish green, afterwards green, resembling 
the green oxide of chromium ; but after settling, it has a greenish 
yellow color, so that the salt is probably polychromatic. 

* Abstract of a paper read before the Pharmaceutical Society of Paris, and 
published in the Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie, 1873, April, p. 267 — 270. 
t Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie, 3 ser. xii, p. 218. 
X Bulletin de la Societe Chimique, xix, 1873, p. 115. 



* M M J ay U i,'iwa* M '} Formulas from Pharmacopcea Germanica. 219 

Neither iodine or mercury is set free during any stage of the pre- 
cipitation, as in the case of mercurous nitrate and iodide of potassium. 
If the solution of pyrophosphate of sodium and mercurous acetate 
contains some mercuric acetate, a pale red coloration of the liquid 
will be produced towards the close of the reaction by the separation of 
biniodide of mercury, which is easily removed by a slight excess of 
potassium iodide, the dilute solution of this salt not decomposing the 
protiodide of mercury while it readily dissolves the biniodide. It is 
well not to omit the precaution of testing the precipitate for this con- 
tamination, by washing a portion with hot alcohol. The precipitate 
Is washed with cold water by decantation, collected upon a filter and 
dried at a moderate temperature, protected from the light. 

It is true that this process is more costly than those described in 
standard works, but the quality of the product is such that these ob- 
jections amount to nothing. 



SELECTED FORMULAS FROM PHARMACOPCEA GERMANICA. 
By the Editor. 
(Continued from page 163 of last number.) 

Mixtura gummosa. Finely powdered gum arabic and sugar, each 
15 p.; distilled water 170 parts. 

Mixtura oleoso-balsarnica, s. Balsamum vitce Hoffmanni. 3 parts 
of balsam of Peru, 1 part of each of the volatile oils of lavender, 
cloves, Chinese cinnamon, thyme, lemon, mace and orange-flowers, 
240 parts of 90 per cent, alcohol. 

Mixtura sulfurica acida, s. Elixir acidum Halleri. Add gradually 
sulphuric acid, 1 part, to 90 per cent, alcohol, 3 parts. 

Mixtura (Aqua) vuhieraria acida s. Thedenii. Vinegar. 6 p.; 68 
per cent, alcohol, 3 p.; dilute sulphuric acid (sp. gr. 1*113 — 1-117), 
1 p.; purified honey, 2 parts. Mix and filter. 

Mucilago Cydonice. Quince seed, 1 p.; rose water, 50 p. Mace- 
rate for half an hour, with frequent agitation, and strain. 

Mucilago (Decoctum) Salep. Put 1 part of powdered salep into a 
flask containing 10 parts of cold water, and mix well by agitation ; 
then add 90 parts of boiling water, and shake the mixture continu- 
ously until cool. 

Oxymel Colchici. Mix vinegar of colchicum, 1 part, with clarified 
honey, 2 parts. Evaporate to 2 parts, and strain. 



220 Formulas from Pharrnacopoea Germanica. \ A \ J a 7i, is^* 

Oxymel Scillce is prepared in the same manner from vinegar o£ 
squill. 

Oxymel simplex. Acetic acid, No. 8, 1 p.; clarified honey, 40 p.. 
Mix. 

Pasta gummosa s. Althcece is the well-known so-called marsh-mallow 
paste, and 

Pasta Liquiritio?. s. Glycyrrhizce is sold here under the name of 
jujube paste. 

Pilulcv aloeticai ferratce s. Pil. Italicce nigral. Equal parts of 
exsiccated sulphate of iron and powdered aloes are mixed, and witk 
alcohol formed into pills, each weighing 10 centigrams. 

Pilulai jalapai. Jalap soap, 3 p.; powdered jalap, 1 part. The? 
pills to weigh 10 centigrams. 

Sapo jalapinus, Jalap soap, is made by dissolving 4 parts each of 
resin of jalap and of medicated soap (made of olive oil and soda) in 
8 parts of 68 per cent, alcohol, and evaporating to 9 parts. 

Pilulce odontalgics, tooth-ache pills. 5 grams each of powdered 
opium, belladonna root and pellitory, 7 grams yellow wax, 2 grams 
expressed oil of almond and 15 drops each of cil of cajeput and 
cloves, are mixed in a warm mortar until a pill mass is obtained,, 
which is divided into pills, each weighing 5 centigrams. 

Plumbum taunicum multiforme s. Cataplasma ad decubitum. 8 p. 
of cut oak bark are boiled with sufficient water, for half an hour, to 
obtain a decoction weighing, after straining, 40 parts ; this is mixed 
with 4 parts of solution of subacetate of lead, the precipitate collected 
upon a filter, and when weighing about twelve parts transferred into 
a suitable vessel and mixed with one part 90 per cent, alcohol. 

Potto Riveri, an effervescing neutral mixture, prepared of 4 parts 
citric acid, 190 p. distilled water, and 9 p. pure carbonate of sodium. 

Pulvis aerophorus. Bicarbonate of sodium, 10 p.; tartaric acid, & 
parts; sugar, 19 parts. The articles are separately reduced to a very 
fine powder, thoroughly dried, and then mixed. 

Pulvis aerophorus Anglicus = Soda powders. 

Pulvis aerophorus laxans = Seidlitz powders. 

Pulvis arsenicalis Cosmi. Cinnabar, 120 parts ; animal charcoal, 
8 p.; dragon's blood, 12 p.; arsenious acid 40 parts. Mix thoroughly 
to a fine powder. 



AM ifay c i,'m3! lM '} Gleanings from the European Journals, 221 

Pulvis gummosus. Powdered gum arabic, 8 parts ; liquorice root, 
2 p.; sugar, 1 part. Mix. 

Pulvis ad Limonadam s. P. refrigerans Ph. Bad. Powdered 
sugar, 120 grams ; citric acid, 10 grams ; oil of lemon, 1 drop. Mix. 

Pulvis Magnesice cum Mheo, s. P. infantum s. antacidus. Carbon- 
ate of magnesium, 60 p.; fennel oil sugar, 40 p.;* rhubarb, 15 parts. 
Mix thoroughly. 

Pulvis temperans s. refrigerans Ph. Germ. Nitrate of potassium, 
1 p.; cream of tartar, 3 p.; sugar, 6 parts. Mix. 

(To be continued.) 



GLEANINGS FROM THE EUROPEAN JOURNALS. 
By the Editor. 

Carbazotate (Picrate) of Ammonium is again recommended in in- 
termittent fevers by Dr. Dujardin-Beaumetz, who from his observa- 
tions arrives at the following conclusions : 

1. Carbazotate of ammonium is very efficacious in intermittent 
fevers. 

2. The disease may be suppressed by the use of from 2 to 4 centi- 
grams (J to j T grains) of carbazotate in 24 hours. 

3. In such a dose the medicine produces no ill effects, and appears 
even to be better borne than sulphate of quinia. 

4. The preparation of carbazotate of ammonium is not connected 
with any danger. f 

5. The physiological action of carbazotate of ammonium is very 
analogous to that of sulphate of quinia. 

6. It deserves to be generally used, and appears to replace quinia 
in a great number of cases. — Repertoire de Pharm., 1873, 12. 

Syrup of lacto-phosphate of calcium is prepared by Ch. Meniere by 
dissolving 1 gram white lactate of sodium and 4 grams soluble acid 
phosphate of calcium in a small quantity of water, and adding the 
solution to 395 grams of simple syrup. The preparation is flavored 
with some essence of lemon. — Ibid., 37. . 

*The oil sugars, elaeosacchara, contain 1 drop of volatile oil to 2 grams of 
powdered sugar. 

t The potassium and many other salts of picric acid are very explosive ; the 
ammonium salt, when rapidly heated, burns without explosion. — Editor Amke. 
Journ. Pharmacy. 



222 Gleanings from the European Journals. { Am m^i873?** 

^Decomposition of Hydrate of Chloral. Hydrate of chloral contain- 
ing the elements for formic acid and chloroform (C 4 HC1 3 2 ,H 2 2 =C 2 
HCl 3 -rC 2 H 2 4 ) is split into these two bodies by the action of alkalies. 
H. Byasson has observed a similar decomposition under the combined 
influence of glycerin and heat. On heating a solution of 1 part of 
chloral hydrate in 5 parts of syrupy glycerin, a reaction commences 
at about 110° C. (230° F.), and continues regularly to about 230° C. 
(446° F.), when the glycerin is much colored and thick. The decom- 
position products have distilled over, and the liquid separates into* 
two layers, the lower of which consists of chloroform, while the upper 
layer contains formic acid, hydrochloric acid, formiate of allyl and 
chloral hydrate dissolved in water. As a mean of three operations, 
100 chloral hydrate yielded 31 chloroform. The other products are 
in small proportions and the result of secondary decomposition ; hy- 
drochloric acid results from the decomposition of some chloroform, 
and formiate of allyl from the decomposition of glycerin under the- 
combined action of heat and nascent formic acid. To obtain the re- 
sults as described, it is important that the glycerin should be syrupy; 
if water had been previously added, the 'greater part of the chloral 
will distil over undecomposed. — Journ. de Pliarm. et de Chim., 1813, 
April, 288—290. 

Composition of some Nostrums. "Apotheker Zeitung," 1873, No~ 
9, gives the following composition of two American patent medicines, 
copied from " Industrie-Blatter" : 

Five-minute fragrant Pain-curer of the so-called New York Med- 
ical University : Ether 6 grams, glycerin 21, table-salt 3-4 and water 
170 grams. 

Dr. Pierce's favorite prescription for the cure of those chronic 
weaknesses and complaints peculiar to females : From savin 10, aga- 
ric 5, cinnamon 5, pale cinchona 10 grams, a decoction of 220 grams- 
is obtained, to which are added 10 gm. gum arabic, 5 gm. sugar, 2 gm.. 
tincture of digitalis, 2 gm. tincture of opium, and 8 drops oil of star 
anise dissolved in 45 grams of alcohol. 

Pure Grallotannie Acid. Julius Lcewe has endeavored, by a series 
of elaborate experiments, to determine the composition of pure gallo- 
tannic acid and its relation to gallic acid. Commercial tannin was 
purified, 1, by dialyzing its alcoholic solution through a porous clay 1 



A \i°y^',i873 RM } Gleanings from the European Journals. 22% 

vessel, evaporating the dialyzed portion and taking up by ether ; 2, by 
drying it for several months over sulphuric acid, taking up with anhy- 
drous ether, agitating the solution with water and evaporating the 
lower stratum ; 3, by dissolving it in a mixture of equal volumes of 
water and saturated table-salt solution, saturating the liquid with 
pure table-salt, treating the precipitate in the same mariner, then dis- 
solving it in dilute solution of table-salt, and extracting the pure tan- 
nin by acetic ether. 

The resulting dense white or yellowish powder, which had been 
dried at 120° C. (248° F.), yielded, by ultimate analysis, results 
which closely agreed with the composition of gallic acid (C 28 H 12 O 20 ) y 
minus 20. Gallotannic acid may, however, be converted into gallic 
acid in an atmosphere entirely devoid of oxygen ; the latter cannot, 
therefore, be a product of oxidation of the former. On exposing 
pure tannin for several hours in an air-bath to a temperature of 140 
—145° C. (284—293° F.), a loss in weight, due to expelled water, 
was observed, and the residue agreed better with the formula given 
by Mulder, C^H^O^. This appears to be the correct empirical for- 
mula ; the tannin, however, even when dried at 120° C, persistently 
retains a little water. 

That tannin is not merely the anhydride of gallic acid, but that on 
conversion into the latter the grouping of the elements must be 
changed, is proven by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid upon 
the two compounds at the temperature of the water-bath. Gallic acid 
yields under these conditions rufigallic acid, while gallotannic acid 
gives, under the evolution of much sulphurous acid, a brown amorphous 
product which is not related to rufigallic acid. 

An aqueous solution of pure tannin is not affected by exposure to 
the light, if the atmosphere be excluded. — Zeitschr. f AnaL Chemie*. 
1872, xi, 365—381. 

Estimation of Alcohol in Chloroform. Dr. A. C. Oudemans, Jr., 
recommends to agitate in a flask 7 to 10 c.c. of the chloroform at & 
temperature of 17° C. (62*G° F.) with an excess of dry cinchonia. 
After an hour the liquid is filtered, the funnel being kept covered 
with glass, and 5 c.c. of the filtrate are evaporated in a tared capsule. 
From the weight of the dissolved cinchonia the alcohol may be esti- 
mated by the following table, in which the alcohol is given in per cent,, 
by weight, and the solution (5 c.c.) measured at 17° C. : 



224 



Minutes of the College. 



J Am. Jour, Phaem. 
I May 1, 1873. 



Leaves 




Leaves 


"Chloroform containing milligrams 


Chloroform containing 


milligrams 


per ct. alcohol 21 


5 per ct. alcohol 






u 




2 " 111 


7 


290 


3 " 152 


8 


318 


4 " 190 


9 


343 




10 


366 


The following table shows the amount of cinchonia soluble in 100 


parts of chloroform containing the 


percentage of alcohol stated : 


"Containing per ct. alcohol. 0-28 cinch. 


Containing 5 per ct. alcohol, 2-96 cinch. 


" 1 " " 0-90 » 


" 6 » " 


3-39 £t 


" 2 " " 1-46 " 


7 u . « 


3-79 " 


u 3 « u j.gg u 


" 8 " " 


4-15 " 


u 4 (; a 2-49 " 


u 9 ci u 


4-48 " 




" 10 " " 


4-76 " 


The cinchonia is best prepared for the above purpose by precipi- 


tating with ammonia a solution of 


a pure cinchonia salt in 


weak alco- 


hoi ; the alkaloid is then obtained 


in microscopic crystals, which are 



readily soluble.— Ibid., 409, 410. 



3protts at IfeilaMjp tfolUjt of Ifearntatg. 

The annual meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held at the 
College buildiDg March 31st, 1873. 35 members present. Dillwyn Parrish, 
President, in the chair. In the absence of the Secretary, Charles Bullock, Jo- 
seph P. Remington read the minntes of the last meeting, which were adopted. 

The minutes of the Board of Trustees were read by the Secretary of the 
Board, Wm. C. Bakes, and approved. The minutes inform that at the 52d an- 
nual Commencement of the College, held at the Academy of Music, on the 18th 
inst., the diploma of the College was conferred upon 94 graduates, the valedic- 
tory address being delivered by Prof. Robert Bridges. 

Wm. C. Bakes, on behalf of the Committee on Honorary Membership, re- 
ported that acknowledgments of receipt of certificates had been received from 
several honorary and corresponding members. 

The Committee on Sinking Fund reported a balance in favor of the College, 
deposited in the Western Saving Fund, of $2677 96. 

After some discussion, the following resolution, presented by Robert Shoe- 
maker, was adopted : 

Resolved, That the Chairman of the Sinking Fund, and the Treasurer of the 
College, be directed to pay off scrip of the College to the amount of twenty- 
five hundred dollars. 

The report of the Publication Committee was read by Professor Procter. It 
is as follows : 



Am. Jour. Phirm. 1 
May 1, 1873. J' 



Minutes of the College. 



225 



"The Publishing Committee respectfully report that the several branches 
under the supervision of the Committee have been successfully carried on, as 
will be seen by the annexed reports. The Editor in his report says: ' The Jour- 
nal has been regularly issued during the past year. The arrangements with our 
foreign exchanges to send the Journals reciprocally by mail have been perfect- 
ed with most, and the Journals have been duly received, no loss having ac- 
crued. This has enabled the editor to select the latest papers for publication.' 

" The circulation of the Journal is continually on the increase, and the print- 
ing of a larger number than heretofore has become necessary. 

" The Committee have printed nearly the whole of the General Index to the 
-Journal, and hope before many weeks to be able to announce its completion. 
The excellence of this index becomes more apparent as it appears in print, and 
its usefulness to those who possess the Journal, or who may have access to it, 
will be very great, as it enables the reader who has any clue to his subject, or 
to the author's name to promptly find what he seeks. The editor, Mr. Hans M. 
Wilder, deserves great credit tor his perseverance and accuracy in carrying on 
the work. 

"The College is congratulated on the favorable condition of the finances of 

the Journal, as exhibited by the reports of the Treasurer and Business Editor. 

Signed, Will am Procter, Jr., "] 

John M. Maisch, ! n ... 
„ o f Committee. 

Charles Bullock, j 

James T. Shinn, J 
The report was accepted and approved. 

Professor Procter then read the following memoir of Professor Edward Par- 
rish, on behalf of the committee on deceased members, which was attentively 
listened to. After a number of expressions of the deep and affectionate regard 
in which he was held, the memoir was directed to be published in the Journal : 
EDWARD PARRISH. 

Edward Parrish, the subject of this memorial, was born in Philadelphia on 
the 31st of May, 1822, at the old homestead in Arch street below Fourth, and 
was the seventh son of his parents, the late eminent physician and surgeon, Dr. 
Joseph Parrish, and Susanna, daughter of John Cox, of Burlington, N. J., 
all members of the Society of Friends. 

He was educated in the Friends' School in Philadelphia, at that time among 
the best attainable, where he is said to have been well instructed in the elemen- 
tary studies, and to have acquired a fair knowledge of the higher branches and 
the classics. 

He early manifested an aptitude for scientific pursuits, aud in the year 1838 
was entered as an apprentice in the pharmaceutical store of his brother 
Dillwyn, at the south-west corner of Eighth and Arch streets. He is reported 
to have been attentive and faithful in the discharge of his shop duties and re- 
sponsibilities, and, availing himself of the favorable opportunities afforded in the 
store and at the College of Pharmacy, nearby, he acquired an excellent know- 
ledge of his business, for which his taste and inclination were well adapted. 
His first course was under the instruction of Professors Franklin Bache and 
Joseph Carson, and his last under Profs. Carson and William R. Fisher, in the 
session 1841-42, Prof. Fisher occupying the chair of chemistry. In tme Spring of 
1842 Edward Parrish took his degree in pharmacy in the Philadelphia College, 
having written his thesis on Statice Caroliniaua, which was published in VoL 
XIV American Journal of Pharmacy. 

15 



226 



Minutes of the College. 



J Am. Jouh. Pharm. 
1 May 1, 1873. 



In 1843 he purchased the drug store at the north-west corner of Ninth and 
Chestnut streets, previously conducted by George W. Ridgway, and which, 
was contiguous to the University of Pennsylvania. Here he continued to 
practice his business until 1850. During this period he contributed several 
papers to the "Journal," and in 1848, in connection with his assistant, W. W. 
D. Livermore, a paper on Collodion, which was the first notice of that prepa- 
ration occurring in our Journal, the discoverers at Boston not having published 
their process. During the same period two events, important in their influence 
on his life, transpired — one, his marriage with Margaret, the daughter of Uriah 
Hunt, of Philadelphia, who continued his closest friend and companion until 
her death, a few months before his own ; the other, the inception, if not the 
establishment of his " School of Practical Pharmacy." 

His proximity to the University brought him in constant contact with medi- 
cal students and their wants, and was the origin of that favorite branch of his 
business which consisted in supplying the outfits of country practitioners. 

Undoubtedly this intercourse with students, exhibiting to him as it did the 
serious disadvantages experienced by young physicians in entering on their 
practice, in rural districts and even in cities, without a more practical acquaint- 
ance with pharmacy, gave him the initial idea of his " Practical School," where 
young men could be taught to prepare the medicines of the Pharmacopoeia by 
actual manipulation, accompanied by lectures on pharmacy and examinations 
by questions. 

Accordingly, in the Autumn of 1849 he issued a prospectus addressed to- 
medical students, was encouraged to proceed by the Professors of the Univer- 
sity, and gave his first course of instruction to 14 students in the rear of the 
building at Ninth and Chestnut. 

Soon after this time he removed from this locality and entered into business 
with his brother Dillwyn, at Eighth and Arch streets, where his "Practical 
School" was better accommodated and gradually increased in importance, being 
addressed to pharmaceutists as well as to medical students. In furtherance of 
his school he determined about this time to take a course of practical instruc- 
tion in analysis in the laboratory of Prof. Booth, and afterwards a medical, 
coursein the University of Pennsylvania. 

Feeling the need of a text-book for his class, the wants of which were not 
met by the treatises in use, he decided to write a book addressed to medical 
and pharmaceutical students, and in the year 1855 he published the first edition, 
under the title of " Introduction to Practical Pharmacy," followed in 1859 and 
in 1864 by other more extended editions. In preparing the last, the author 
aimed to make it not only a treatise on practical pharmacy, but to include as 
well a formulary and a chapter on organic chemicals, useful in the shop, which 
caused a change in its title. The peculiar tendency of his mind to group and 
generalize had full sway during his preparation of this book, leading him to 
tabulate and classify the officinal formulae, considering them together rather 
than impressing his individual experience on each. 

Whatever place this work may take in science, there is no doubt that it met 
admirably the wants of the classes for whom it was prepared, and must be set 
down as a successful one, both as regards the good it has done and the profits* 
that have accrued from its sale. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
May 1, 1873. J 



Minutes of the College. 



227 



In 1857 his lecture on "Summer Medical Teaching in Philadelphia," given 
introductory to his course on pharmacy to medical students, was published. In 
this, after speaking of his earlier efforts in establishing his " School," he says : 
''Twenty-three courses of lectures and practical exercises (since 1849) have 
since been given to an aggregate of 299 medical students, drawn from nearly 
every State in the Union, and from British America. After near eight years' 
experience as teacher of this speciality, I need offer no apology for giving 
some general conclusions I have arrived at in regard to its utility as a branch 
of medical education, and the best means of imparting it." Again he says : 
" In claiming the position of a pioneer in this sort of teaching [iu the U. S.], 
I do so with the confident belief that the time is approaching when its impor- 
tance will be fully recognized, and when the education of the physician will be 
universally regarded as quite incomplete uuless he has enjoyed the advantages 
of a more or less thorough practical teaching in pharmacy." 

After describing the arrangement of his lectures, examinations and practical 
lessons, in which classes of 12 students in three sub-classes worked together 
and profited by each others labors, he says : "Classification in this, as in every 
other branch, gives great facility to the teacher and the learner, and by the aid 
of a text-book I have prepared with special reference to the course, I can 
promise you, in the 12 weeks which follow, the opportunity to obtain a sufficient 
knowledge of pharmacy to give you a fair start on the road to proficiency in 
the art of prescribing, preparing and dispensing medicines." 

These few extracts will show that Edward Parrish had made considerable 
advancement as a teacher in imparting instruction to medical students before 
subsequently entering our faculty, and had carried on his school with an enthusi- 
astic belief in its usefulness and efficiency. 

The pharmaceutical meetings of the College (which were an offshoot from 
the interest awakened by the Pharmacoposia Committee of Revision of 1840) 
were frequently attended by Edward Parrish after he graduated ; and, although 
his written communications to their proceedings were not numerous, he often 
gave interest to them by his practical remarks and by the Inhibition of attract- 
ive objects. Being a ready speaker, he delighted on these occasions to bring 
forward subjects for discussion, and often without preparation added greatly 
to their interest. His genial manners, and earnest desire to render these meet- 
ings open to all who would come — members, students or strangers — assisted in 
prolonging their existence after they decreased in importance, from the cessa- 
tion in great measure for several years of the experimental essays, which in the 
beginning had given character and importance to their transactions. 

Edward Parrish early determined to pursue a scientific career, aspired to a 
position in the schools, and was deeply impressed with a belief in his ability to 
teach. When the chair of Materia Medica was vacated in 1850 by the retire- 
ment of Dr. Carson, he was a candidate for the vacancy, but the traditional 
influence of the idea that that chair was best filled by a physician, led to the 
election of Dr. R. P. Thomas. In the Spring of 1864, however, on the death 
of Dr Thomas, he was elected to fill the vacancy, as Professor of Materia 
Medica, and continued in that office till 1867, when he exchanged chairs 
with Prof. Maisch, and, assuming the duties of the Professorship of Practical 



228 



Minutes of the College. 



f Am. Jocr. Pharm. 
t May 1,1873. 



Pharmacy, more in accordance with his inclination and habits, continued until 
his decease to lecture annually to increasingly large classes. 

Professor Parrish was always popular with the students; his free and open 
manner, the interest he took in the class individually and collectively, and, 
above all, his good delivery as a speaker, rendered him a favorite and gave him 
influence. For several years prior to his death other engagements had trenched 
greatly on the time required by his professorial duties, but in 1871 he was 
relieved from these, and, had his life been spared to continue the increased 
devotion to his science which this relief had promised, there is no doubt that 
his career would have been increasingly useful as a teacher of practical phar- 
macy. 

Edward Parrish was elected a member of this College in 1843. became a 
member of the Board of Trustees in March, 1845, and was its Secretary from 
1845 to 1852. In 1854 he was elected to the Secretaryship of the College, and 
continued in that office until he entered the Faculty, in 1864. In 1847 he was 
one of a committee of fifteen members to report on the Pharmacopoeia previous 
to the convention of 1850, and in 1859 and 1869 he acted on similar committees 
previous to the conventions of 1860 and 1870. He was also a delegate to the 
Pharmacopoeia Convention of 1860 for Revising the Pharmacopoeia, and in 
1869 was one of three delegates appointed by our College to the International 
Pharmaceutical Congress of Paris, but was not able to attend. In 1850 be 
was elected a member of the Publishing Committee of the College and con- 
tinued in it until 1870. His contributions to the Journal during this period 
were about forty in number, and embraced, besides papers on materia medica 
and pharmaceutical preparations, essays of a biographical and historical char- 
acter, notes of travel, ethical criticism, and reports on various subjects. Du- 
ring a part of this time he also wrote editorial notes and criticisms for the Drug- 
gists* Circular, N. Y. 

Prof. Parrish became a member of the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion at its first meeting in Philadelphia, in 1852, was elected Recording Secre- 
tary at the Boston meeting, in 1853, First Vice-President in 1866, and Presi- 
dent of the Association at the meeting of 1868. He acted on many of its 
committees, assisted in the revisions of the Constitution and other labor, and, 
when present, always took an active part in the discussions, as the published 
minutes give evidence. Quite a number of papers and reports, scattered 
over the twenty volumes of Proceedings, mark the interest he manifested in 
this way in the advancement of pharmacy. 

The tendency of his mind may be seen by a glance^at the papers— but few 
are on physical or chemical investigation, the greater part being such as could 
be written by reflection and study, without experiment. His ready pen was 
always at command to bring together in order the results of reflection and 
inquiry, whether these related to the ethics of pharmacy, the by-laws of the 
Association, or the advantages of education, general or special. Moreover, 
though not himself possessed of an inventive genius, he delighted in new inven- 
tions or improvements in pharmacy, and was always ready to encourage their 
authors, and to be the means of spreading a knowledge of them by tongue or 
pen. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ^ 
May 1, 1S73. J 



Minutes of the College. 



229 



In 1858 Prof. Parrish made a hurried trip to Europe, but limited his travels 
to England and Scotland, with a brief tour to Paris, Strasburg and the Rhine, 
availing himself of the opportunity to make acquaintance with pharmaceutists 
and their institutions. In a series of letters published in 1859, in the "Ameri- 
can Journal of Pharmacy," he gave some of the results of this voyage. 

About this period he published a little book entitled "The Phantom Bou- 
quet," which treated of the art of skeletonizing leaves and other parts of 
plants. 

In the year 1864 the project of establishing a collegiate institution under the 
direction of the Society of Friends, which had long been entertained by some 
of its members, culminated in obtaining the Act of incorporation of Swarth- 
more College, and the purchase of a farm site of 93 acres in Delaware Co., Pa. 
Deeply impressed with the importance of more thoroughness in education and 
with the newer views in regard to the manner and means of educating the youth 
of both sexes, he gave the subject deep attention, and, entering the field in 
1862, became one of the most successful pioneers in the work of advocating 
the claims of Swarthmore to those who held the means for its completion ; 
serving as Secretary to the Board of Managers from December, 1864, until the 
completion of the building in 1868. 

When finally the massive structure was completed, and the corps of profess- 
ors and teachers with the pupils were gathered within its walls, Prof. Parrish 
was officially declared the first President of Swarthmore College, and continued 
in office during nearly two years. 

We cannot do better than give the following extract from the last report of 
the managers of that institution in alluding to the decease of our friend : " One 
of the pioneers engaged in enlisting the minds of Friends in the great work of 
founding a college, he was a most earnest and indefatigable laborer in the cause, 
and it was largely owing to his personal exertions that success so early crowned 
our efforts. Very many of the stockholders will remember that their interest 
in Swarthmore was first awakened by his voice and pen. By conversation in 
that wide circle of Friends in which he moved, and where he was so much 
beloved; by extensive correspondence; by public addresses, and by his work 
entitled "Education in the Society of Friends," he did much to arouse atten- 
tion to the importance of establishing among us an institution for higher cul- 
ture — culture not of the mind alone, but of the heart as well ; and thus, in con- 
nection with his untiring efforts to secure the means necessary to carry out this 
design, he performed a labor destined to have a lasting influence for good upon 
our religious Society and upon the community at large." 

On the several occasions when legislative encroachment on the best interests 
of pharmacy needed resistance, or when legislative aid and protection were to 
be sought, our friend took an active and efficient part; and on the passage of 
the Pharmacy Act of 1872 he was one of the five commissioners appointed by 
the Mayor of Philadelphia to carry the law into effect. The labor incident to 
the organization of the Board, and the subsequent service required in the 
examination of numerous assistants seeking registration under this law, pro- 
tracted till late in July, doubtless had some influence in undermining his health. 



230 Minutes of the College, { k "u™iXm" m 

not yet recovered from the severe shock it had received by the sudden death 
of his wife, and probably contributed to his approaching end. 

In the following month (August, 1872), the Government of the United States, 
desiring to settle some difficulties with certain Indian tribes, in the direction of 
peace, appointed Prof. Parrish and Captain Alvord as Commissioners. In 
entering upon this last act of his life he was advised by his family, who believed 
his health, then below its ordinary status, would be benefitted by the journey. 
But the unforeseen exposure incident to a long and rough stage ride through 
the wilderness proving too heavy a tax on his impaired vitality, offered him a 
prey to the malarial fever of the country, and before he could fully accomplish 
his mission of peace he fell a victim to the climate, in the 51st year of his age. 

Edward Parrish possessed social qualities of a high order : his conversational 
powers were good, his information on ordinary subjects general, his interest in 
modern progressive ideas considerable, and h© was never happier than when 
his friends were around him in the family circle interchanging ideas. 

His home instincts were strong : his wife and children ever occupied a prom- 
inent place in his plans and arrangements ; for them no sacrifice was too great, 
no pleasure too rich, no necessity too expensive, and whether fortune smiled on 
him or frowned he was the same kind and liberal husband and father, the same 
sympathetic brother and friend. There was nothing mean or contracted in his 
nature, and in business his competition was unmarked by bitterness or person- 
ality. 

Prof. Parrish was by nature ambitious of distinction among his fellows, yet 
his yearnings after power or place were influenced by a spirit at once mild, 
benevolent and lovable. His intellect, which was clear and forcible, he had 
cultivated by reading and conversation. Had it been steadily concentrated in 
the line of his profession, it would have led him to honors far higher than those 
to which he attained ; but, by directing his attention to too many objects, his 
efforts lost in power and thoroughness what they gained in variety and popu- 
larity. 

Although originality was not a prominent trait among his mental character- 
istics, his mind was active and ready ; he was quick to catch ideas when pre- 
sented, manifested much excellence of judgment in adapting them to his pur- 
poses, and it was generally with graceful acknowledgments that he rendered 
tribute to others when occasion required. It was in his manner of grouping 
and classifying facts, and of lucidly presenting subjects to his readers, that his 
personality was most deeply impressed on his literary labors in pharmacy. 

Nature had endowed him with a gift of speech well adapted to the platform, 
and some of his ablest efforts have been introductory and valedictory addresses. 
As a teacher of pharmacy in the lecture-room, he loved to array the leading 
facts in generic groupings on the blackboard, using the more prominent individ- 
ual substances for special comment on the table, often bringing in anecdote to 
enliven his subject. Less happy as a manipulator than as a speaker, Professor 
Parrish trusted more to his ability to convey his meaning by figures of speech 
than to annoying and often troublesome demonstrations by practical expe- 
riments; nevertheless he was conscious of the important and valuable aid 
derived from object-teaching and the exhibition of actual processes, and in his 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
May 1, 1873. j 



Minutes of the College. 



231 



last course introduced several important improvements in his methods of illus- 
tration. 

Asa business man, his mind was too much given to outside matters to push 
his interests by close personal attention, during a large portion of his business 
life, and they not unfrequently suffered from too much devotion to other objects 
and interests wholly disconnected with his own personal advantage. 

Prof. Parrish was known among pharmaceutists abroad, but more especially 
in England, chiefly through his writings, which are held in much esteem, and 
the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain and the British Pharmaceutical 
Conference have each shown their appreciation of him by honorary member- 
ships ; whilst at home, besides being in membership with various societies, his 
name is as a household word among the members of the pharmaceutical and 
medical professions. 

He was a consistent member of the Society of Friends, took much interest 
in various labors connected with it, and was engaged in carrying out one of its 
testimonies when the grim messenger came to him unexpectedly, far away from 
home and kindred, in the western wilderness. But our friend had so lived that 
he was able to accept the grave summons with equanimity, and, bidding a men- 
tal adieu to his distant loved ones, he calmly drew his mantle of religious faith 
around him, and resigned himself to the will of Providence without a murmur. 

Prof. Parrish leaves four sons and a daughter to keep green his remembrance 
and to imitate his virtues. 

Caleb A. Needles called the attention of the College to the fact that " An 
Act relating to the licensing of Druggists was before the Legislature at Harris- 
burg," and that it contained some provisions which were infamous. Professor 
Maisch read a copy of the Act, and it was decided that immediate action on 
the part of the College was necessary, at.d the chairman appointed Charles Bul- 
lock, John M. Maisch, James T. Shinn, Win. C. Bakes and Caleb R. Keeney, 
a committee to use every exertion to prevent its passage, although a doubt was 
expressed on the part of many that an act so unjust and absurd in many par- 
ticulars, could receive the Governor's signature * 

Professor Procter presented to the College, from Dr. W. Kent Gilbert, a 
valuable botanical work, entitled " Hortus Elthamensis, Auctore J. J. Dillenia, 
Londini 1732," which was received with thanks, and the Secretary directed to 
present the thanks of the College to him for the gift. 

The following letter from Charles Bullock, Secretary of the College, was read : 

*' To the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy: — 

"The undersigned, having served the College in the capacity of Secretary 
for a number of years, feels that the time has arrived for him to request to be 
relieved from that service, and respectfully requests that his fellow-members 
will accept this his resignation from that post. 

" With unabated interest in the College, your fellow member, 

March 3lst, 1873. Charles Bullock." 

The Secretary's resignation was accepted, and the thanks of the College are 
<3ue him for his disinterested efforts on her behalf. 

The annual election being ordered, the following members were elected to 
■serve the ensuing year : 

*The act was defeated in the House of Representatives. 



232 Minutes of Pharmaceutical Meetings. { k *£y\ 

President, Dillwyn Parrish. 
1st Vice-President, William Procter, Jr. 
Id Vice-President, Robert Shoemaker. 
Treasuier, Samuel S. Bunting. 
Recording Secretary, William J. Jenks. 
Corresponding Secretary, Alfred B. Taylor. 

Trustees, Robert Bridges, M. D., Joseph P. Remington, T.Morris Perot„ 
William B. Webb, James T, Shinn, Daniel S. Jones, John M. Maisch, Thomas 
S. Wiegand. 

Publishing Committee, Thomas S. Wiegand, John M. Maisch, William 
Procter, Jr., James T. Shinn, Charles Bullock. 

Committee on Sinking Fund, Thomas S. Weigand, T. Morris Perot, James. 
T. Shinn. 

Editor, John M. Maisch. 

Librarian, Thomas S. Wiegand. 

Curator, Joseph P. Remington. 

Charles Bullock was unanimously elected a trustee in place of William J. 
Jenks, appointed Secretary. 

The Librarian and Curator each made a verbal report, in which they stated 
that some progress was being made in re-arransiug the Library, and refitting 
and enlarging the Cabinet. On motion, then adjourned. 

Joseph P. Remington, Secretary pro tern. 



llinutfs of % f Iinrmamttkal lleetinp. 

Minutes of the Pharmaceutical Meeting held April 15th, 1873. 

Meeting called to order, Wm. Mclntyre in the chair. The reading of the 
minutes of the last meeting was dispensed with. 

The following books and pamphlets were presented to the College: "Pro- 
ceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association," vol. 20th, containing- 
an account of the meeting held in Cleveland, Ohio; "The Year Book of Phar- 
macy," and the "Transactions of the British Pharmaceutical Conference Ninth 
Annual Meeting;" "Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Meeting of the Cali- 
fornia Pharmaceutical Society ;" " Proceedings of the Third Annual Meeting 
of the Vermont Pharmaceutical Society," and " Des Aconits et de l'Aconi- 
tine," par Charles Patrouillard. 

Prof. Maisch, on behalf of Messrs. G. Mallinckrodt & Co., of St. Louis, pre- 
sented a sample of carbazotate of ammonia. This carbazotate of ammonia 
has been recommended by Dr. Dujardin-Beaumetz, of Paris, *as a substi- 
tute for quinia in the treatment of fevers. The donors write that it has 
been used by a number of physicians in St. Louis, and with marked success in 
some severe cases where quinia and arsenic had failed. These physicians, 
have promised to report their experience through the Journals, and it is be- 
lieved, from the statements made thus far, that if this preparation does not 
prove a substitute for, it will at least become a valuable adjuvant to quinia in 



*See page 221 of the present number. 



AlS M&yi, i873 ARM } Minutes of Pharmaceutical Meetings. 233 

the treatment of intermittent fever. The dose is from one to two-thiids grains 
per day, given in the form of pills, made with any simple excipient. 

Prof. Maisch showed specimens of the bark of Eucalyptus globulus, which ap- 
pears to be used in Europe for similar purposes as the leaves. Attention was, 
also drawn to the variation in the siiapo of the latter. 

A specimen of the oleate of mercury and morphia made by the process of Mr, 
Charles Rice,* was shown, which was at first nearly transparent, but probably 
through its exposure to the light and air, had separated a heavy precipitate* 
It is perhaps necessary to protect this preparation against the influence of the- 
agents mentioned. 

From a large collection of drugs and plants, received from M. J. Donde, of 
Merida, Yucatan, Professor Maisch exhibited to the meeting preserved speci- 
mens of Okra, the green fruit of Hibiscus escnlentus, which is cultivated to 
some extent in the United States, and used for its mucilaginous properties. 

Preserved and dried specimens of Semillis marannon, the Cachou nut... 
Anacardium occidentale, were also shown. After fructification, the peduncle 
enlarges considerably, forming an edible spurious fruit, bearing upon its apex 
the true fruit, a kidney-shaped nut, having a seed-like appearance, which con- 
tains, under the pericarp, a very acrid and poisonous oil, containing cardol ; the- 
kernel is edible, of a pleasant nut-like flavor, and may be obtained by roasting* 
the fruit, whereby the acrid oil is destroyed. Of a similar nature and similar 
properties are the so-called Malacca nuts, the fruit of Semecarpus anacardium,. 
which is almost heart-shaped. The acrid oil of the latter has a black color, is 
used in the East Indies like ink, and was lately recommended for imparting a 
black color to wax caudles. 

Mr. Boring stated that he had been unable to find more than one sample of 
yellow mustard which had not been colored with turmeric ; with all, except the 
one, known as Fruhaufs Russian mustard, the characteristic brown red color is. 
produced on the addition of solution of boracic acid ; while many of the samples 
were not affected by iodine solution, several of the most popular brands show 
by this test a considerable quantity of starch; in these cases an artificial 
strength appears to be imparted by capsicum. Yellow mustard, the color o'i 
which is heightened by turmeric, deserves to be regarded with suspicion until 
its freedom from other adulterations has been established. 

Prof. Maisch exhibited a piece of soap which had been made from fresh palm 
oil in Liberia, at the suggestion of Edward S. Morris, Esq. Although of a dark 
color, the soap has a delightful violet odor, being vastly superior in this respect 
to the soap made here from imported palm oil, which, in consequence of long 
keeping and exposure, is always rancid. 

Oil of valerian and several compounds of valerianic acid were exhibited^, 
which were made from valerian root, eight or nine years ago. These valerian- 
ates are greatly superior in odor to those obtained by the oxidation of amylie. 
alcohol. In connection with this subject it was stated that the valerian root 
of our commerce, that known as English valerian as well as the German, is fre- 
quently very unclean, containing sometimes perhaps 25 to 30 p. ct. of dirt en- 
closed between the rootlets. It appears that this is more frequently the case 

* See American Journal of Pharmacy, January, 1873. 



234 



Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 



f Am. Jobb, Pharm. 
\ May 1, 1873. 



with valerian grown in damp localities, while the shorter and lighter colored 
roots of the plant, growing in dry situations, do not favor such intentional care- 
lessness. 

Professor Maisch exhibited a number of plates from the imperial printing 
office at Vienna, obtained by what is known as the nature printing process. Au 
impression in lead is obtained by placing leaves or similar thin objects, between 
plates of lead and steel, and subjecting them to powerful pressure ; from a cast 
made of this impression, an electrotype is subsequently obtained, which is used 
for printing in the ordinary way. The prints exhibit the shape and the vena- 
tion of the leaves perfectly. 

Mr. Brown stated that he experimented in making syrup of lactophosphate 
of lime with the substitution of glucose for sugar; in his experience, this obvi- 
ated the precipitation frequently met with. The dilute lactic acid of our com- 
merce was described as being the concentrated or the officinal acid reduced to 
4° Beaume, by the addition of distilled water. 

Then adjourned. Clemmons Parrish, Registrar. 



fdarmaerotital Colleges anir Jtssociatos. 

The New York College of Pharmacy. — At the commencement, held March 
31st, the following gentlemen received their diplomas, conferring the degree of 
Graduate in Pharmacy : 

Starr H. Ambler, Chester D. Ayres, Alanson T. Briggs, William Falke, Vic- 
tor E. Forbes, John Gannon. Benjamin W. Goode, John B. Hasslocher, Wil- 
liam F. Henes, Charles Holzhauer, Julius Kalish, Warren S. Kissara, Albert 
F. G. Kuehn, David Master, Jr., Emil Mayer, Wilhelm Meschenmoser, Joseph 
Meyer, Benjamin Morje, Domingo Peraza, John F. Pelerman, Charles A. Rob- 
bins, William G. Rothe, Edward W. Runyon, Charles F. Schleussner, C. Al- 
bert Schreck, Gustavus Seelbach, B. Y. Shearer, Nicholas Slipner, Henry Sy- 
varth, John Vanderbeugle, Eugene C. Van Namee, Jewett W. Watson, Chas. 
H. Wiberly. 

The Valedictory Address was delivered by Prof. W. De F. Day, M.D. 

A special meeting of the Board of Trustees was held Thursday evening, the 
17th, at 7 P.M., in order to ratify the arrangement made by the Lecture Com- 
mittee for the 44th course, and receive report of Curators and Secretary in regard 
to engaging a suitable person as Clerk of the College. 

The Lecture Committee had engaged Prof. Chas. F. Chandler, Ph. D., as 
Professor of Chemistry, W. De F. Day, M.D., as Professor of Materia Medica 
and Botany, P. W. Bedford, Esq., as Lecturer on Pharmacy, and Chas. Froe- 
bel, Esq., as Adjunct Instructor for Analytical and Pharmaceutical Chemistry 
and Practical Botany. 

The Curators and Secretary uuited in recommending Mr. Chas. Froebel as 
Clerk of the College, Assistant Curator and Registrar. 

The reports were accepted and both committees empowered to complete 
their arrangements. 

A conversational meeting of the members of the New York College was 
held on the same evening, at 8 P.M. 



ku mTimT'} Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 235 

Notwithstanding 1 the rainy and stormy night, the new lecture-hall of the Col- 
lege was comfortably filled by members and their friends, to hear the very inter- 
esting lecture of Prof. C. F. Chandler, Ph. D , on Modern Chemistry. The 
lecture was listened to with great attention, and was delivered in a clear and 
instructive manner. 



The Alumni Association of the College of Pharmacy of the City of New 
York held its annual meeting on Thursday evening, April 3d, when twenty- 
five new members were elected. 

President Robbing read his annual address. Papers were read by iMr. Jules 
L. A. Creuse on "A New Series of Tasteless Iron Combinations," and by Mr. 
B. F. Mclntyre on "The Fluid Extract of Ipecac of the New Pharmacopoeia." 
Both papers are published in the present number of this Journal. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year: President — D. C. 
Robbins ; Yice Presidents — G. C. Close, 0. C. Weinmann, Hampden Osborne ; 
Treasurer — Theobald Frohwein ; Secretary — J. F. Main; Executive Board — 
B. F. Mclntyre, G. W. C. Phillips, J. Vanderbeugle, J. L. A. Creuse, L. M. 
Rice, P. W. Bedford ; Delegates to the Meeting of the Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation — L. M. Rice, H. C. Porter, Ed. Henes, P. W. Bedford, H. Osborne. 

Several amendments to the Constitution were proposed and referred to the 
next annual meeting. It was resolved to hold quarterly meetings for the pur- 
pose of friendly intercourse and exchange of ideas on pharmacy, the meetings 
to be held on the same evenings as those of the Executive Board, and a Com- 
mittee of three was appointed to secure papers to be read at these meetings. 

The Association then adjourned. 



The Maryland College of Pharmacy held a stated meeting April 10th, 
the President, J. F. Moore, in the chair. 

The minutes of the last annual meeting were read and approved. A resolu- 
tion of thanks to Prof. I. J. Grahame, for his excellent and very edifying 
Annual Address, was adopted, and the Secretary was instructed to have the 
address published in pamphlet form. 

The following gentlemen have been elected Professors for the ensuing year, 
viz.: Dr. J. F. Moore, Professor of Pharmacy; Dr. Claude Baxley, Professor 
of Botany and Materia Medica, and Dr. Wm. Simon, Professor of Chemistry 
and of Analytical Chemistry. 

Letters were received from the two gentlemen upon whom the degree of Doc- 
tor of Pharmacy had been conferred, acknowledging the honors. 

Three special committees reported progress and were continued. 

Mr. John P. Pignett presented an interesting essayon "Tincture of Chloride 
of Iron," detailing a process by which it can be made in less than twenty-four 
hours. 



The St. Louis College of Pharmacy. — After the lectures had been sus- 
pended for several years, on account of the departure of some of the professors 
from St. Louis, this College became reorganized in the Fall of 1871, and com- 
menced its lectures, during the latter part of October, with about one dozen 
students. The number had increased during the last season to 23, of whom 



236 



Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 



f Am Jour. Pha.rm„ 
t May 1, 1873. 



seven graduated ; the examination was conducted by written and oral ques- 
tions. For the next Summer, a class in chemistry has been organized by the 
Professor of Chemistry, Dr. Theo. Fay, who has also provided himself with 
abundant apparatus and utensils to illustrate his lectures by experiments. 

It is to be regretted that the lower house of the Legislature of Missouri has 
not yet passed the "Act to regulate the practice of Pharmacy in the City of St. 
Louis," which has been adopted by the Senate ; but in all probability the law* 
will be taken up again and passed at the adjourned session during next Winter 
— especially since several flagrant cases of ignorance by drug-store keepers 
have been recorded of late, which have aroused the public to demand legisla- 
tion in favor of the protection of their lives against ignorance. 

Tennessee College of Pharmacy. — At the meeting of the Tennessee Medi- 
cal Society, held at Nashville April 2d, the following communication was read r 

Nashville, April 2, "1873. 

To the President and Members of the Tennessee State Medical Society: 

Gentlemen, — Knowing that the advancement of pharmacy is of equal interest 
and importance to the physician and pharmacist, and feeling that the medical 
profession will now, as heretofore, lend its aid to the advancement of all true 
progress in either science, I desire to call your attention to the fact that a. 
"College of Pharmacy'' has been organized in this city, with fair prospect of 
success; and that the druggists of this State are expected to assemble here 
next mcnth to organize a "State Pharmaceutical Society," and take such other 
steps as may be necessary to "encourage proper relations between druggists, 
physicians and the people at large, to improve the science and art of pharmacy* 
suppress empiricism, and secure the enactment of laws regulating the drug 
business in our State." 

Hoping these enterprises may meet with encouragement and support from 
your honorable body, 1 remain, Yery truly, yours, &c, 

Benj. Lillard, Phar. D., 
President Tennessee College of Pharmacy 

The Tennessee Medical Society, of which Dr. Lillard was elected an honor- 
ary member, pledged the encouragement and support of its members, individ- 
ually and collectively, to the Tennessee College of Pharmacy and the proposed 
State Pharmaceutical Association. 

The Mississippi State Pharmaceutical Association held its annual meet- 
ing in Yicksburg, April 9th, the President, M. F. Ash, in the chair; J. T. 
Buck, Secretary. A large delegation from all parts of the State was present. 

In his address the President urged upon the members, as their professional 
duty, integrity of character and a proper appreciation of their responsible 
duties. Attention was directed to the code of ethics, to the progress of phar- 
macy, the growth of the Association, the need of reform in the practice of phar- 
macy, and the benefit to be derived from unity of action. 

The question of legislation affecting the practice of pharmacy was discussed 
at length, and finally referred back to the committee. 

After the election of new members, the following officers were elected for 
the ensuing year : 

President — Hampden Osborne, Columbus; Vice President — J. S. Caire» 
Okolona; Recording Secretary — P. Keefe, Vicksburg; Corresponding Secre- 
tary — J. S. Mosely, West Point; Treasurer — M. F. Ash, Jackson. 



* M J a°y U M P 87.f M -} Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 237 

The new officers being duly installed, a motion prevailed to adjourn, to meet 
in the City of Columbus on the second Wednesday in April, 1874. 

Jno. T. Buck, Secretary. 



Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. — At the pharmaceutical meet- 
ing held April 2d, Mr. A. F. Haselden presiding, Mr. Martindale read a paper 
on a " New Basis for Suppositories and Pessaries," and exhibited specimens 
made with the proposed base, which consists of equal parts by weight of oleic 
-and stearic acids. The author considers such a mixture very superior to those 
in general use. for the following reasons : 1. It has a very low fusing point, and 
readily melts at the temperature of the body. 2. The suppositories leave the 
mould without difficulty, owing to the considerable expansion when heated, and 
the consequent contraction on solidifying, estimated by the author at more than 
il per cent. 3. The basis is a solvent of alkaloids (morphia, atropia, &c.j, and 
is readily absorbed by the epidermis and mucous membrane, at least so far as 
the oleic acid is concerned. 4. On account of the partial crystallization of 
some of the stearic acid, the suppositories are firm, and can be placed in their 
position without difficulty, not being elastic, brittle or yielding in any way. 5. 
The proportions of stearic and oleic acids can be varied to suit the tempera- 
ture of Summer or Winter and also the other ingredients prescribed with them. 

A lengthy and very interesting discussion then took place on the proposed 
appendix to the British Pharmacopoeia, after which Mr. Thomas Greenish read 
a paper on the "Mustard of the Pharmacopoeia," reviewing the officinal for- 
mulas, since 1788, for Cataplasma sinapis, and suggesting an alteration in the 
fnanipulation directed in the British Pharmacopoeia, so as to avoid the coagu- 
lation of the myrosin, and consequently develop the full virtues of the mustard 
cataplasm. Mustard flour is made in England by crushing black and white 
mustard seeds separately, and then mixing them in definite proportions. 

Professor Bentley paid that all the mustard he had examined contained a 
notable quantity of black mustard seed. White mustard seed alone would not 
■at all meet the desire of those who use mustard. Black mustard is too power- 
ful, too pungent; but, if mixed with white mustard, an agreeable flavor is ob- 
tained. 

Mr. Bland believed that exaggerated notions prevailed with regard to the 
adulteration of mustard, and that the principal obstacle in the way of getting 
the genuine article had been the unwillingness to pay a decent price for it. 
With regard to the fixed oil that had been recommended as a remedy for rheu- 
matism, he was not inclined to attribute to it any great value. 

Pharmaceutical Society of Paris. — Mr. Bussy presided at the meeting of 
March 5th. Mr. Mehu claimed for Professor G. Dragendorff, of Dorpat, and 
his co-laborers, Bluhm and B. Masing, the discovery of the alkaline canthari- 
dates, their preparation, analysis, &c. As early as 1866, and again in 1869, 
these chemists have described the application of alcohol in preparing cantha- 
ridate of potassium, but considered the use of water as far preferable. 

A complaint was made that at Caen the brothers and sisters of a deceased 
pharmacist carried on the business with the aid of an examined assistance ; it 
was stated that in the neighborhood of Paris it is customary to accord to all 
heirs, children brothers and sisters, as well as to widows, the same delay under 



238 Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. {^yijm^ 

the same conditions ; the authorization is usually granted by the prefect of 
police upon a favorable recommendation of the Ecole de Pharmacie. 

Mr. Fr. Wurtz read a report on commercial propylamina, which has lately 
been experimented with 'by Dr. Dujardiu-Beaumetz. This so-called propyla- 
mina had been obtained from herring pickle, and has long since been proven, 
by Winckler, to consist mainly of trimethylaraina, identical with that obtained 
by him by synthesis. In 1869 Sylva prepared propylamina from propylic alco- 
hol, and found its chemical properties to be analogous to those of trimethyla- 
mina and of Gautier's isopropylamina ; the three bases, however, differ in their 
boiling point and in the crystalline form of their salts. Trimethylaraina boils 
between 4 and 5°, propylamina between 49 and 50°, and isopropylamina between 
31 and 32° C. The three bases are isomeric, consisting of Cg H9 N. The 
reporter concludes that the commercial so-called propylamina is merely a more 
or less pure aqueous solution of trimethvlamina, without definite strength, 
which should be replaced by a standard solution of the pure alkaloid, or by its 
crystallized muriate, if the salt should possess the same medicinal properties 
as the former. For medicinal purposes it is recommended to convert methylic 
alcohol into methyl iodide, to heat the latter under pressure with ammonia, to 
wash the crystals of iodide of tetramethyl-ammonium with cold distilled water, 
in which they are nearly insoluble, to remove ammonium iodide, and finally to 
decompose by lime, collecting the gas in water; this solution should then be 
brought to a definite strength. The muriate is easily prepared from it by satu- 
rating with hydrochloric acid ; the salt recently used with success by Dr. Du- 
jardiu-Beaumetz was made by the process described. 

Air. Petit remarked that he has frequently found commercial propylamina to 
be richer in ammonia than in other bases. The alkaline strength was observed 
to vary between 2 aud 52 centigrams in the cubic centimeter; the equivalent 
weight of ammonia and propylamina being 17 and 59 respectively, the amount 
of the former may be ascertained by neutralizing a given quantity with hydro- 
chloric acid aud weighing the residue left on evaporation. 

Mr. Lefort remarked that muriate of propylamina is very soluble in absolute 
alcohol, while muriate of ammonia does not dissolve therein to an appreciable 
extent. 

Mr. Lefort read an essay on protiodide of mercury, an abstract of which is 
published on page 218 of this number. 

Mr. Bussy stated that he had found several samples of sulphovinate of so- 
dium to contain sometimes large quantities of bisulphate of sodium, which salt 
was pi esent not perhaps in consequence of intended fraud, but rather on account 
of a prolonged exposure to a high temperature in the presence of water. 

Mr. Limousin said that sulphovinate of sodium is very hygroscopic, and that 
if the absorbed water is expelled at a temperature of 100 to 120° C, the salt 
is partially decomposed into bisulphate of sodium and alcohol. 

Mr. Jungfleisch added, that on evaporating large quantities of solutions of 
this salt, the water favors the decomposition spoken of, the solution sometimes 
becoming strongly acid. The decomposition can be prevented ouly by using a 
large excess of alcohol, whereby Mr. Limousin said an excellent product is 
obtained, but at too high a price. 

Prolonged contact with water alone favors this decomposition, and Mr. 
Bowdet called attention to the danger of the occurrence of decomposition, 
if the sulphovinate is prescribed in large quantities. 



A ml™; i P 8?3 RM } Obituary. 239 

(Sbitorial Department 

An Explosion of a Mixture of Chlorate of Potassium and Tannin, 
we are informed, occurred again in this city on the sixth of April last, and the 
dispenser was severely injured thereby in the face and on the hands. On page 
470 of the American Journal of Pharmacy for 18€9, a similar case is recorded, 
and others have been noticed by medical, pharmaceutical and chemical journals 
of this country and elsewhere. 

The explosive nature of mixtures of chlorate of potassium with combustible 
and oxidizable materials is well known to chemists, and chemical works usually 
draw attention to the danger attending the mixing of such articles in a dry 
state in a mortar or with pressure. Chemical students are familiar with the 
lecture experiment of producing detonations by triturating the chlorate with 
some sulphur; such detonations unaccompanied by danger, are liable to occur 
even on rubbing, with some pressure, chlorate of potassium in a dusty mortar. 
The experiment, however, becomes at once dangerous, as soon as a sufficient 
quantity of a combustible article has been incorporated with the powdered 
chlorate, and the explosiveness of such mixtures increases with the combusti- 
bility of their ingredients. 

The blasting and so called white gun-powders which were recommended some 
twenty years ago, are such mixtures. The former contain red sulphuret of arsenic 
or ferrocyanide of potassium, or both, and their danger was made manifest by 
an accident which happened to the inventor and patentee, Mr. Callow, who 
was rendered a cripple for life. Such explosions are not only liable to take 
place by rubbing or by a blow, but also on the addition of acids sufficiently con- 
centrated to decompose a portion of the chlorate and locally heat the mixture. 
Strong sulphuric acid is especially dangerous from the last named causes. 

Whenever chlorate of potassium is prescribed in the form of powder mixed 
with any organic or with an oxidizable inorganic compound, the only safe way 
to dispense such a prescription is to triturate the materials separately until 
they are reduced to a fine powder, and then mix the powders intimately upon 
paper without friction. In preparing gargles and other liquid medicines con- 
taining such ingredients, the latter should never be mixed in a mortar until 
after a sufficient quantity of water has been added. 

But even though such dry mixtures may be prepared by the pharmacist with- 
out danger to himself, we question whether the physician is justified to pre- 
scribe them, considering the danger to which he exposes his patient. Several 
years ago, we remember that such a mixture exploded, from some cause or other 
in the house of the patient, happily, however, without doing any injury, except 
setting fire to a few contiguous articles. 



OBITUARY. 

John Torrey, M. D., LL. D., was born in New York in the year 1798, and 
died there March 2d, aged 75 years. He received his degree of M. D. at the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York, and served from 1827 to 
1854 as Professor of Chemistry and Botany in the same College, after having 
previously held for three years the position of Professor of Chemistry in the 
military academy at West Point. Since 1853 to the time of his death he was 
the Chief Assayer in the United States Assay Office in New York. 

Dr Torrey was an indefatigable laborer and attained more than ordinary 
success in various branches of science ; but his most important labors were in 
the field of botany. As early as 1817 he published a catalogue of the plants 
growing within 30 miles of New York, subsequently a " Flora of the Northern 
United States," and the botanical part of the natural history survey of the 
State of New York. In connection with his former pupil, Professor Asa Gray,, 



240 



Obituary. 



( Am Jouk. Phaum. 
t Mar. 1, 1873. 



he elaborated the botanical collections of the exploring expeditions of the 
National Government and published, since 1838, the " Flora of the United 
•States," which work we believe, has not been completed yet. 

He was kind and genial in his intercourse with others, and always Teady to 
•cheer and aid the student with his valuable counsel. 



Justus von Liebiox died at Munich on the 18th day of April, at the age of 
70 years. He was born May 8th, 1803, at Darmstadt, where his father carried 
on a business in paints and druggists' materials, and by experiments for prepar- 
ing paints and chemicals incited at an early period his son's inclination and fond- 
ness of experimental chemistry and his study of chemical literature, of which he 
found a good supply at the Court Library at Darmstadt. Determined to be- 
come a chemist, Liebig was apprenticed in 1818 to an apothecary in Heppen- 
faeim, but soon left him (in 1819) to go to the university of Bonn, and afterwards 
to Erlangen, to study the natural sciences and particularly chemistry. But his 
favorite science \vas at that time little cultivated at the German Universities; 
in 1822 he went to Paris to receive the instructions of masters like Gay-Lussac, 
Thenard, Dulong, etc., and soon after presented to the Paris Academy of 
Sciences his researches ©n fulminic acid, which directed Alexander von Hum- 
boldt's attention towards him, through whom Gay-Lussac was more especially 
interested in the young chemist, so that he took the latter into his private 
laboratory. 

In 1824, Liebig received the appointment as professor extraordinary of 
chemistry at the University of Giessen, and two years later as ordinary pro- 
fessor. Here he established a model chemical laboratory and reorganized the 
practical instruction so that the little University soon became celebrated, at- 
tracting a large number of students. In 1845 he was made a Baron, and having 
declined all previous offers to other Universities, he accepted in 1852 a call to 
Munich, where he became professor of chemistry and conservator of the 
laboratory, and subsequently President of the Academy of Sciences and Con- 
servator General of all the scientific cabinets belonging to the State of Bavaria. 

Under Gay-Lussac's guidance already, he commenced his labors for perfect- 
ing the methods of element ary analysis, in which he subsequently succeeded so 
well that for more than 40 years nearly all ultimate analyses have been made 
according to his plans or by slight modifications of the same. 

Liebig's researches are by far too numerous to be mentioned even in the 
limited space of this sketch ; but there is hardly a section of organic chemistry 
which has not been enriched by his own personal labors, or by the investigations 
of his pupil* performed under his supervision. His researches were undertaken 
not solely for the purpose of establishing or combatting a theory, but he was 
always inclined to point out the practical utility of the results obtained towards 
their technical application or to the vital affairs of man; his researches in agri- 
cultural and animal chemistry, his soup for infants, extract of meat, etc., afford 
abundant proofs of the latter, while many of the industrial processes now in 
use were either elaborated by him or are but slightly modified from his sug- 
gestions. Many of his investigations were made in conjunction with other 
chemists, seme of the earlier with Pelouze; but particularly fruitful were his 
joint labors with Wohler, who, his senior by three years, i9 still active at 
Gottingen. 

Liebig's researches were published in Comptes Rendus of the Paris Academy, 
in the Journal de Chimie et de Physique, in the Jonrnal de Chimie Medicale, 
in Poggen'iorf's Annalen, etc , but particularly in Annalen der Pharmacie, the 
title of which was in 1840 changed to Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie and 
which has been edited by Liebig and Wohler since 1838, of late years assisted 
by younger chemists. 

Such fruitful and important results of his scientific labors were universally 
recognized, resulting in his election as honorary member of most learned 
societies, among them also of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 



THE 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY, 



JUNE, 1873. 



ON INFUSION OF WILD CHERRY BARK. 
By J. B. Moore. 

The formula of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia for the infusion of wild 
cherry bark affords an unsatisfactory preparation. 

The infusion, to be an efficient remedy, should be carefully made* 
and should represent the tonic as well as the sedative properties of 
the bark ; and, since water extracts but a meagre portion of the bitter 
tonic principle of the drug, the infusion as made by the officinal pro- 
cess can be said to faithfully represent only the sedative properties. 
Moreover, when made with water alone as the menstruum, the infu- 
sion is a very unstable preparation, liable to spoil, in warm weather 
especially, in a very short time. 

Glycerin is one of the best solvents for the bitter principle of wild 
cherry bark that we have, and when associated with water forms a 
menstruum perfectly adapted for extracting the entire medicinal vir- 
tues of the bark ; and it is with such a menstruum that I propose 
making the infusion, and would offer the following formula and pro- 
cess, which after repeated trials has proved perfectly satisfactory : 

fy. Powd. Wild Cherry Bark, No. 60, *ss, troy, 
Glycerin, fifij, 
Water, temp. 86°, 

Water, each a sufficient quantity,, 

Moisten the bark with six fluid-drachms of water, at the tempera- 
ture of 86°. Allow the mixture to stand for two hours in an air- 
tight vegsel, at about the same temperature. Then pack it firmly in 

16 ~ • 



242 Infusion of Wild Cherry Bark. { kM jJTi,w™ 

a glass percolator. Mix the glycerin with ten fluidounces of water 
at the temperature of 86°, and gradually pour the mixture upon the 
bark, and when it has all passed from the surface continue the perco- 
lation with water until one pint of infusion is obtained. 

In the above formula I have refrained from mixing glycerin with 
that portion of the water with which the bark is moistened, lest it 
might possibly interfere with or retard its reaction upon the bark. 

As prepared by the above formula, the infusion is much darker in 
color than that as made by the officinal process, and much more bitter ; 
the taste of which, however, is modified and rendered more agreeable 
by the glycerin it contains. The hydrocyanic acid odor is also strongly 
marked in it. 

I think that the formula for this infusion might be still further 
improved by doubling the strength of the infusion, that is, using one 
troyounce of bark to the pint of infusion instead of half a troyounce 
as is now employed. I can see no possible objection to such a change, 
but can see many reasons why it should be made. It would greatly 
lessen the bulk of the dose, which is a large draught for a delicate 
person to swallow. The dose may then be reduced from two or three 
fluidounces to two or three tablespoonfuls. 

In the course of my experiments to test the relative merits of the 
above formula and process with those of the officinal, I made upon 
several occasions a sample of the infusion as directed in the above 
formula, also one by the same process, but doubling the quantity of 
the bark, and another strictly in accordance with the officinal for- 
mula. 

The sample on each occasion made by the above formula kept, 
without apparent change in sensible properties, for about ten days, 
with the exception of very slight turbidity and a little deposit of resin- 
ous or other insoluble matter, which was of no consequence. The 
characteristic hydrocyanic acid odor, however, remained apparently 
undiminished for that period, after which I could perceive a gradual 
loss of this odor, with an increased cloudiness and deposit ; while 
the sample made by the same formula, with double the proportion 
of the bark (one troyounce instead of half a troyounce to the pint), 
kept without visible change, beyond a slight cloudiness and a little 
deposit, for about sixteen days, retaining its characteristic odor 
and taste but very slightly diminished for that time. But the sample 
on each occasion, which was made in strict conformity to the officinal 



!4 jut ra i;m3 RM '} Infusion of Wild Cherry Bark. 243 

formula, with water alone as the menstruum, exhibited in a very short 
time a cloudiness, which rapidly increased, and the hydrocyanic odor 
was entirely lost in four or five days, while the infusion became en- 
tirely spoiled and unfit for use in less than a week. 

These samples were all kept in the same situation in my store room, 
at a temperature ranging from 60° to 70°. These results show that 
there can be no question about the advantages in the use of glycerin 
in the preparation of this infusion, and also illustrate the advantages 
•of increasing the strength of the infusion, as it seems to give in- 
creased stability to the preparation. 

The glycerin not only contributes to its preservation, but also forms 
a better and more potent menstruum for the solution of the virtues of 
the bark, and affords a much more active and efficient preparation. 
The sweet taste of the glycerin also serves to conceal in a measure the 
bitterness of the infusion, and renders it more agreeable to the taste. 
Grlycerin itself, possessing alterative, nutrient and demulcent properties, 
is useful in almost all cases in which the infusion of wild cherry bark 
would be employed; while in no case can there be any possible objec- 
tion to its use. 

It is a fact well known to all observing pharmacists that the pro- 
portion of hydrocyanic acid in all preparations of wild cherry bark 
gradually diminishes with time, and sooner or later entirely disap- 
pears, especially if the medicine is exposed to the light. 

This fact alone gives, I think, additional importance to the infusion 
as a therapeutic agent, which, when carefully and properly made, fur- 
nishes a preparation embodying all the medicinal virtues of the bark 
in a fresh or nascent state, and in an eligible form for administration ; 
and, as the proportion of the menstruum to the bark is so large, it 
will always, with ordinary care, insure its perfect exhaustion of all 
that is medicinally desirable. 

I am surprised that physicians do not more frequently avail them- 
selves of the use of this preparation ; I presume the cause of its 
being so seldom prescribed is owing to the liability of the officinal 
infusion to spoil quickly, and the prevailing impression of its ineffi- 
cacy. If, however, physicians can have this preparation made so 
that it will keep, and retain its medicinal properties unimpaired for 
two or three weeks, and prepared in such a manner that it will fully 
represent the entire active properties of the bark, I have no doubt 
•that it would become a more popular remedy. 



244 Infusion of Wild Cherry Bark. {^StSS* 

I have directed in the above process a two hours' preliminary ma- 
ceration, instead of an hour as in the officinal. This may, even with 
advantage, be prolonged to five or six hours, when circumstances will 
permit, so time will be given for the necessary reactions which develop 
the sedative properties of the bark to become more complete. 

The temperature of the water with which the bark is moistened 
preparatory to maceration should never be below 86° to 90°, and the 
maceration should be conducted at about the same temperature, as 
this temperature serves to promote the reactions referred to above. 
Yet care must be exercised not to allow the temperature to much ex- 
ceed that point, otherwise there will be more or less loss of hydrocy- 
anic acid. Attention to this point is of like importance, also, in the- 
manufacture of all preparations of wild cherry bark where it is desir- 
able to secure its full sedative power. 

Especially is this necessary in cold weather. In summer the water 
is usually warm enough, and the temperature of the atmosphere suck 
as to render the resort to artificial warmth unnecessary. 

Some pharmacists, when making the syrup of wild cherry bark a . 
after moistening the bark with water place it in the cellar to mace- 
rate ; but this should not be done, as most cellars are too cold at any 
season for this purpose. It is also necessary that the maceration be 
conducted in an air-tight vessel, otherwise the hydrocyanic acid will 
escape almost as fast as it is generated. There is another precaution^ 
also, that it is well to observe in this matter, and that is to pack the 
bark rather firmly in the vessel in which it is macerated, as this will 
tend to confine the acid and prevent its waste. 

There are many cases of disease in the treatment of which the 
physician may wish to combine the properties of tar with those of 
wild cherry bark ; if so, an elegant and valuable combination of this 
kind may be formed in the following manner : 

iy. Tar, pure, ..... one pint, 
Infusion Wild Cherry Bark, . . four pints. 
To the infusion, in a suitable bottle, or other air-tight vessel, add 
the tar. Set it aside to macerate for two or three days. Stir the 
mixture well with a stick, and shake it vigorously frequently during 
the maceration. Then filter through paper. 



The stirring directed in the preparation of this compound infusion 
is an important part of the process, as it breaks up the tar and thus. 



-Sim. Jour. Pharm. > 
June 1, 1873. j" 



Infusion of Wild Cherry Bark. 



245 



presents a larger surface of it to the action of the solvent, which 
-enables the liquid to more thoroughly and more quickly exhaust the 
tar of all that is soluble in it : whereas, if the mixture is simply 
-shaken the tar will often remain in an impermeable mass, the interior 
•of which is entirely inaccessible to the menstruum. This same treat- 
ment could, I think, be adopted with advantage in making the offici- 
nal "lnfusum Picis Liquidae." 

When prepared as above directed and filtered, this infusion is quite 
31 handsome preparation, and to those who have not an aversion to 
the taste of tar it is not an unpleasant one. 

Glycerin being a good solvent of the medicinal virtues of tar, this 
compound infusion possesses the properties of the latter in a high 
degree, and in my opinion it is superior medicinally to the " Wine 
of Tar," and may be substituted for it with advantage in almost all 
pectoral diseases. 

It will be found an excellent remedy in chronic pectoral and bron- 
chial affections, and may often be used also with good effects in the 
treatment of certain diseases of the kidneys and bladder. The phy- 
sician may at pleasure combine with it any of the usual expecto- 
rant, diuretic, anodyne or diaphoretic medicines. 

It may be administered in the dose of from one to two table- 
■spoonfuls every two or three hours, as required. 

This infusion is not so liable to spoil as the simple infusion of 
wild cherry bark. Being impregnated with the antiseptic properties 
<of tar, it will keep for a long time unchanged, if kept in a cool, 
dark place. 

In the late revised edition of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, I observe 
that the Committee of Revision have given some attention to the 
infusion of wild cherry bark, and have substituted a " fine powder" 
for the "moderately coarse" one employed in the edition of 1860. 
This was a judicious change, and I regret that they did not make 
the same alteration in the formula for the syrup of wild cherry 
t)ark. In fact, a "very fine" powder for that preparation would 
not be at all too fine ; while a coarser powder than No. 60 will not 
yield a satisfactory syrup ; for, no matter how firmly packed, the 
percolation, when a coarser powder than "No. 60" is used, proceeds 
too rapidly, and the bark is in consequence but imperfectly ex- 
hausted. 

Philadetyhia, March, 1873. 




246 Extractum Pruni Virginiance Fluidum. { A juS;1|^ 

EXTRACTUM PRUNI VIRGINIANS FLUIDUM. 
By Harry W. Porter. 
Abstract from an Inaugural Essay. 

The fluid extract of wild cherry made in accordance with the new 
Pharmacopoeia, does not, I believe, represent the bark as fully as 
that made by the old plan. Percolation and evaporation being 
necessary in all cases, the objection to the old formula seems to*, 
apply to that part — a very essential one — where emulsion of almonds 
is directed to be added, and then strained and filtered out. 

This objection I have attempted to overcome by eliminating an un- 
necessary ingredient which serves as an impediment, and by reducing 
the bulk of material in the operation for developing the latent hydro- 
cyanic acid. This is accomplished by depriving the almonds of their 
fixed oil, which amounts to more than one-half their weight (54 per 
cent.), and of other matters insoluble in water, amounting in all to> 
nearly three-fourths the weight of the almonds ; or, in other words,, 
by extracting from the almonds all that is requisite for developing 
the hydrocyanic acid represented by the amygdalin of the bark ? , 
namely, a nearly pure emulsin. 

I prepare a smooth paste of almonds, not necessarily blanched, and' 
mix with it, in the mortar in which it has been beaten, sufficient ben- 
zin to make a fluid mass, transfer to a long cylindrical percolator anal 
treat with benzin until the drops falling from the percolator contain^ 
no fixed oil. 

The powder remaining in the percolator is then turned out, and? 
laid by to dry in a warm place, where the temperature does not ex- 
ceed 100°, until the odor of benzin has entirely disappeared. One 
troy-ounce of almonds, when treated in this manner, yielded 160 
grains. 

I next treat the powder with water by percolation. It is soon ex- 
hausted, as the drops from the percolator soon fail to give a precipi- 
tate when added to alcohol. A dense solution results, which consists, 
largely of emulsin, and contains small proportions of gum and sugar*. 
This dense aqueous solution is then added to some properly concen- 
trated fluid extract of wild cherry, and put aside for twenty-four 
hours. It is then filtered, and finally sugar or glycerin added. 

This process may seem more troublesome or difficult than the one* 
of the old Pharmacopoeia, but such has not been my experience. 

The preparation of the emulsin solution can be effected while the^ 



AM ju«e B i',i87 A 3 RM '} Hydrastis Canadensis, etc. 2i7 

percolation of the bark and the evaporation of the tincture is going 
on, and the solution can be added as soon as the reduction of the 
tincture is accomplished. The preparation of the emulsin is an easy 
one, the greatest care to be observed is in the reduction of the al- 
monds to a smooth paste, so that there may be no large pieces left 
to retain any oil, which might interfere with the subsequent aqueous 
solution. 

The final filtration is easily made, the small portions of emulsin 
and the gum which are precipitated by the tannin of the fluid extract 
do not clog the filter in the least appreciable degree. The use of ben- 
zin instead of ether is simply a matter of economy. It serves the 
purpose as well if of good quality, and is invariably kept in the shops. 

The formula I have worked by is as follows : 

Take of wild cherry bark, in fine powder, sixteen troy-ounces ; gly- 
cerin, eight fluid-ounces ; stronger alcohol and water, of each, a suf- 
ficient quantity ; sweet almonds, two troy-ounces ; benzin, a sufficient 
quantity ; moisten the bark with eight fluid-ounces of alcohol, and 
pack carefully in a percolator ; add alcohol until three pints of tinc- 
ture is obtained, from this distil two pints and a half of alcohol, mix 
the residue with twenty fluid-ounces of water, evaporate to twenty- 
two fluid-ounces, pour into a bottle, and add the solution of emulsin 
prepared from two troy-ounces of almonds by the process above de- 
scribed. Allow the mixture to stand for twenty-four hours, filter 
through paper, and add the glycerin. 



IS THERE A THIRD ALKALOID IN HYDRASTIS CANADENSIS? 
By A. K. Hale. 

After removing the berberina from the watery percolate as a hy- 
drochlorate, and precipitating hydrastia by careful neutralization with 
ammonia, I find that excess of ammonia throws down another pre- 
cipitate, more resembling berberina than hydrastia, but decidedly dif- 
ferent from the former. My investigation upon this question has 
been as follows, and I should be very glad to receive further informa- 
tion or explanation of the results. 

I treated the powdered root of Hydrastis Canadensis in a percola- 
tor with distilled water until the strength seemed to be exhausted, 
then I proceeded to remove the berberina as a hydrochlorate by the 
addition of hydrochloric acid. Removing this precipitate of hydro- 
chlorate of berberina by filtration, I then proceeded to obtain the 



248 Hydrastis Canadensis, etc, { A M Ju J n ° e u *; 

hydrastia by adding water of ammonia (10 per cent.), until a precipi- 
tate ceased to be thrown down. This precipitate I separated by fil- 
tration, and dissolved in, and crystallized from, alcohol, when, in- 
stead of hydrastia, as the books described it, I found that the char- 
acteristic prisms of hydrastia were colored by and intimately mixed 
with a yellow powder, which I supposed to be berberina that had not 
been thrown down as a hydrochlorate. 

Being thus a little disconcerted at not obtaining the result I hoped 
for, I made another percolate of the drug, and to the mother liquor 
of berberina I carefully added water of ammonia (10 per cent.) to the 
neutral point. The precipitate thus obtained I dissolved in and crys- 
tallized from alcohol, which furnished beautiful and well defined 
prismatic crystals of hydrastia, free from yellow coloring matter at 
all resembling berberina. 

To the neutral mother liquor of hydrastia I now added water o^ 
ammonia (10 per cent.) to a strong alkaline reaction. This gave me 
a yellow precipitate, which I separated, and found to correspond with 
the yellow powder above mentioned, as accompanying the first attempt 
to obtain hydrastia, and to be darker in color than berberina and to 
possess the following reactions. When dissolved in alcohol it has a 
neutral reaction with a solution of litmus. 

Taking corresponding proportions of berberina (designated by "a") 
and the new substance resembling berberina (designated by "6"), and 
applying a few reagents, the following results were obtained: 

In cold nitric acid is the least soluble, and both form red solu- 
tions when the acid is heated. In water, at 60° F., a b" is the least 
soluble ; both dissolve in hot vvater. In hot sulphuric acid, "a" 
gives a yellow solution ; "6," a reddish-brown solution. Iu cold solu- 
tion of caustic potassa, "a" is the most soluble. When heated in 
hydrochloric acid, u a" furnishes the darker solution ; and when the 
hot hydrochloric acid solutions are allowed to cool, "a" crystallizes 
while the solution is still warm, giving an abundant crop of bright yel- 
low needles, while "5" remains in solution until nearly or quite cold, 
and then only crystallizes sparingly in darker and larger needles 
than "a." Dissolved in warm water and tested with iodohydrargy- 
rate of potassium, "a" gives an abundant yellow precipitate, while 
the precipitate furnished by "6" is less abundant and of a very light 
yellow, almost straw-color. 

Fearing "6" might be a modification of "a" by the action of am- 



AM june B i P mr ) Iodide and Bromide of Ammonium. 249 

monia, I subjected "a" to the influence of ammonia for several days, 
but observed no change. Obtained as above described, "6" exists in 
Hydrastis Canadensis in less quantity than hydrastia. 

The ultimate contents of "5" I have not yet had time to determine. 

Ann Arbor, Mich., May 10th, 1873. 



IODIDE AND BROMIDE OF AMMONIUM. 
By Charles Rice. 

The process adopted in the last Pharmacopoeia for the preparation 
of iodide of ammonium was published several years ago in the Pro- 
ceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association (1866), and in 
the American Journal of Pharmacy (1867), and no doubt yields an 
excellent product, although the latter is contaminated with a minute 
proportion of sulphate of potassa. But the quantities of iodide of 
potassium and of sulphate of ammonia, which the Pharmacopoeia 
directs to be used, are not correct. Four troy-ounces of iodide of 
potassium, combining in equivalent proportion with sulphate of am- 
monia — supposing the latter to contain no water of crystallization — 
require more than one troy-ounce of the latter, as the following dia- 
gram shows : 

KI (166) + NH 4 0,S0 3 (66) = KO,S0 3 (87) + NH 4 I (145), hence 
1920 grs. of iodide of potassium require for complete decomposition 
'764 grs. of sulphate of ammonia. Now, since it is safer to employ 
an excess of sulphate of ammonia than of iodide of potassium, the 
quantity of the former should not be less than 867 grains, which 
would make allowance for an additional equivalent of water in the 
sulphate, and any excess of the latter would be thrown down along 
with sulphate of potassa by alcohol. 

As regards the process for preparing bromide of ammonium, I al- 
most regret that the Committee did not adopt the same plan here as 
in the case of the iodide. It is true that the product will not con- 
tain any foreign salt, such as sulphate, and that the only drawback 
in this process is the not unfrequent elimination of bromine and hy- 
-drobromic acid ; but I am inclined to think the advantage is on the 
side of the other process, which yields a product, never exhibiting 
•any signs of decomposition, although containing a very small amount 
of sulphate of potassa, and being all that can be desired by the pho- 
tographer as well as by the pharmacist. I have prepared several 



250 Iodide and Bromide of Ammonium. { Al june R i,i873 BM ° 

hundred pounds during a number of years past by the sulphate of 
ammonia process, and have never found the least trace of decompo- 
sition, while the same salt prepared by the other (now officinal) pro- 
cess has not unfrequently liberated free bromine and turned acid. 
It is a curious fact that iodides and bromides, especially the former, 
prepared by the intervention of iron, are rather prone to develop in 
the course of time, free hydracids and halogens, unless the salt has 
been exposed to a high degree of temperature, which is, of course, 
inadmissible in the case of ammonium salts. One explanation of 
this fact is suggested by the results observed in following another 
well known process, formerly much used, and even yet practised, in 
the preparation of iodides and bromides, namely, to convert the I 
and Br into HI and HBr by means of HS, either in the presence of 
the base or its carbonate, or previous to coming in contact therewith. 
This process yields a product, in the case of I, of very feeble sta- 
bility, and obstinately retaining traces of sulphur, which it is next to 
impossible to get rid of. In the case of bromine, the durability is 
longer, but decomposition frequently ensues after some time. The 
presence of sulphur, even in most minute proportions, appears to lead 
to such a result, and traces of it, present in the iron employed, are, 
I believe, the cause of like effects in the first-mentioned process* 
Photographers can make no use whatever of such iodides and bro- 
mides ; the faint trace of sulphur still remaining produces at once a 
peculiar fogginess and spots upon the film, and there is scarcely a 
more sensitive test for the detection of minute traces of sulphur than 
the silvered collodion-film. 

I annex a working formula for bromide of ammonium. 

Dissolve 4 troy-ounces of bromide of potassium in 6 fluid-ounces of 
boiling water, and 3 troy-ounces of sulphate of ammonia in 4J fluid- 
ounces of boiling water. Mix the solutions while hot, and allow to 
cool. Then add H ounces of alcohol, and set it aside for twenty- 
four hours. Pour ofl" the clear liquid, wash the precipitate with a 
small quantity of a mixture of 1 part alcohol and 4 parts wafer, and. 
concentrate to the point of crystallization. In working upon a larger 
scale, it is advisable to redissolve the first crop of crystals of bromide 
of ammonium in a small quantity of very cold water, and allowing as 
short a time as possible for the solution. The greater part of the- 
accompanying sulphate of potassa, which has crystallized out at the 
same time, will remain undissolved at first, and may be removed,, 



Baric of Prinos Verticillata, etc. 251 

when the solution may be again concentrated, until a pellicle forms. 
The successive crops of crystals are first drained, then dried on blot- 
ting paper laid upon porous bricks with a very gentle heat. 
New York, May 13, 1873. 



ON THE YELLOW COLOR OF THE BARK OF PRINOS VERTI- 
CILL ATA. 
By William J. Lerch. 

From the author's inaugural essay we extract the following ex- 
periments, undertaken with the view of ascertaining whether the- 
yellow color of the bark is due to berberina ; the probability of which 
had been suggested by Professor Maisch. 

A decoction was made by boiling sixteen troy ounces of the bark, 
coarsely powdered, repeatedly with water ; on mixing the solutions 
and filtering I obtained a dark yellow colored liquid, with a strong 
odor and taste of the drug, and very prone to froth. This decoction 
I evaporated to the consistence of an extract, which I digested in hot 
alcohol in the proportion of half a pint to the pound of bark, and 
again filtered. To this I added one-fourth of its bulk of water and 
recovered most of the alcohol by distillation ; to the remaining liquid,, 
while still hot, I added sulphuric acid in slight excess and set it. 
aside for several days, hoping to obtain crystals of sulphate of ber- 
berina, but failed. 

I then repeated the above experiment twice, using muriatic acict 
and nitric successively, but with similar results. 

I then exhausted a portion of the bark by boiling it with hydrate 
of lime and water several times, mixed the decoctions filtered, pre- 
cipitated the lime with sulphate of zinc and again filtered, evaporated 
this to the consistence of an extract, treated it with alcohol, filtered, 
evaporated the alcoholic solution, treated this with boiling water ; on 
cooling I failed to get any crystals. I then added to this sulphuric 
acid, but with the same result. 

I then exhausted another portion of bark with alcohol, distilled off 
most of the alcohol, evaporated the residue to dryness, treated this, 
with boiling water, filtered, and added muriatic acid in slight excess, 
and set aside as before, but again failed to get any crystals. 

The above experiments were all repeated several times, with simi- 
lar results. The bark used was a very fine article, collected late in 
the fall, and of the fourth year's growth. 



252 Tasteless Iodide and Chloride of Iron. \^Sg$fl^ 

ON THE TASTELESS IODIDE AND CHLORIDE OF IRON * 

New York, April 18th, 1873. 

Editor American Journal of Pharmacy: 

Dear Sir: — If you ask me what kind of combination citrate of 
potassa can form with sesqui-iodide of iron, I will answer frankly 
that I cannot say with certitude ; it is probably a combination similar 
to the medicinal pyrophosphate of iron or the green scales of sesqui- 
phosphate of iron and citrate of potassa I sent you last year. That 
they form a combination does not admit of any doubt, for the physi- 
cal and chemical changes are such as would not be presented by a 
simple mixture. But, be the combination what it may, I believe the 
new salt represents exactly the results of what happens in the stomach 
when protoiodide of iron is administered. Protoiodide of iron cannot 
be absorbed as it is, for no protosalt of iron is ever found in the ani- 
mal system ; when ingested into the stomach it must change in whole 
•or in part into sesqui-iodide, which, combining with the citrates, tar- 
trates, oxalates, malates or lactates, etc., always present in human 
food, becomes ready for absorption. The balance of the iodide of 
dron is probably eliminated, like all unabsorbed substances (I leave 
acetates purposely out of the list, for acetic acid is monobasic, and 
this class of compounds seem to be limited to the salts of polybasic 
vegetable acids). This explains also why protoiodide of iron is best 
administered just before a meal ; for the food supplies the stomach 
with both the oxygen and the vegetable salts necessary for the diges- 
tion of the ferrous compound. 

The new iodide of iron, according to this theory, ought to be more 
•effective and more uniformly so than the protoiodide, for it comes all 
ready for absorption, while the old salt, being absorbed only with the 
help of other variable substances, will vary more or less in its effects, 
besides interfering with the natural functions of the stomach. 

Experiments made by Dr. Lalanne, of this city, have confirmed 
this view and have served to determine the medicinal dose of the new 
combination. This was necessary on account of the entirely different 
•character of the new and the old form of iodide of iron. It has been 
found that from one to three grains of the salt have the same medi- 
cinal effect as an average dose of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia syrup of 

*The above portion of a private letter touches upon several interesting and 
important points, and is published with the consent of the author upon the 
request of the Editor of the American Journal of Pharmacy. 



Am. Jour. Peiarm. > 
June 1, 1873. j 



Flowers of Solidago Bicolor. 



25a 



protoiodide. As the new salt contains about 42 per cent, of iodine 
and 9 per cent, of metallic iron, this shows that its effects are pro- 
portionally greater than those obtained from the same substances 
administered as protoiodide. 

Its medical properties are, otherwise, precisely the same as those- 
of the officinal iodide of iron, and its administration has always been 
followed by the most gratifying results ; but it is not my province to 
speak of this, except to mention that it has found great favor among 
children and female patients, on account of its relatively pleasant 
taste and because it never blackens their teeth. 

Much of this applies also to the tasteless tincture of muriate of 
iron. The officinal tincture is still more injurious to the teeth than 
the syrup of protoiodide of iron; it not merely blackens them, but 
destroys them when used long enough. I have heard some dentists 
speak very strongly on the subject. The tincture I send you con- 
tains the same proportion of iron as the tinct. ferri sesquichloridi^ 
U. S. P. I left the dose the same as that of the officinal prepara- 
tion, but I have no doubt that experiments now being made will war- 
rant a reduction in the dose. 



In regard to the quantity of citric acid needed for one fluid-ounce 
of tincture of muriate of iron, I have found from recent experiments 
that it requires from 90 to 95 grains of citric acid neutralized by 180 
to 190 grains of crystallized carbonate of soda to transform that 
quantity into the tasteless compound. It seems singular at first sight 
that the more acid is the solution of muriate of iron, the more citric 
acid it requires ; but it is easy to account for that apparent anomaly : 
for, any excess of muriatic acid decomposing a corresponding quan- 
tity of citrate of soda, more of that salt is needed in proportion to 
the free acid present. 

J. Creuse. 

New York, May 20, 1873. 



ON THE FLOWERS OF SOLIDAGO BICOLOR. 
By Adam Conrath. 
From an Inaugural Essay. 

The flowers which were used for the experiments hereafter to be 
noticed were collected in the vicinity of Germantown in the forepart 



254 



Flowers of SoUdago Bicolor. 



f Am. Joub. Phabm. 

t June 1, 1873. 



of September. After being carefully dried in the shade they pos- 
sessed an agreeable aromatic odor, and a slight bitterish taste. 

An infusion made with boiling water was destitute of any bitter- 
ness, and upon examination of the flowers so extracted, they were 
found to be still bitter. A small portion was next treated with di- 
luted alcohol, which proved to extract all its sensible properties. 

Three tinctures were next made ; one with ether, one with alcohol 
■and one with diluted alcohol. On evaporating the diluted alcohol 
tincture to the consistency of a solid extract, it was found to weigh 
17 per cent, of the weight of flowers. The alcoholic and ethereal 
tinctures yielded decidedly less extract, whereupon the flowers ex- 
tracted with these menstrua were subjected to percolation with cold 
water, which, upon evaporation to the consistency of a solid extract, 
yielded from flowers previously extracted with ether 13*8 per cent, 
of their original weight, while those previously extracted with alco- 
hol yielded 12 per cent. These aqueous extracts were very tena- 
cious, of a honey-like odor and peculiar malt-like taste. Solutions 
of the aqueous extracts gave precipitates with gelatin, basic and neu- 
tral acetate of lead, a black coloration with ferric salts, and reduced 
the cupric oxide in Trommer's test, indicating the presence of glucose 
and tannin. 

I endeavored to purify the grape sugar as much as possible by re- 
peatedly dissolving in alcohol and precipitating with ether, and after 
this boiling with animal charcoal ; it, however, retained a light brown 
color. 

The extract obtained from the diluted alcohol tincture had a bitter 
and somewhat acrid taste. It was treated with hot water acidulated 
with muriatic acid and filtered, leaving a resinous residue. The fil- 
trate was supersaturated with magnesia, boiled and set aside for twenty- 
four hours. It was then filtered, the undissolved residue washed with 
cold water and dried. The dry residue, digested in hot alcohol, 
brought on a filter and washed with the same menstruum, yielded a 
clear filtrate having no marked taste. After standing several days 
no change occurred. It was now evaporated to a small bulk, when 
it assumed a yellowish tint, and upon standing became turbid. Lastly, 
it was carefully evaporated to dryness on a water-bath, leaving a 
resin-like film on the bottom of the beaker. Cold water partially 
dissolved this, while acidulated water had but little effect upon the 
residue. 



4M june R i,m3 RM '} Boot °f Euphorbia Ipecacuanha. 255 

Both these solutions were tested with iodohydrargyrate of potassium, 
after being duly acidulated with HC1, without any immediate effect ; 
on standing, however, a resinous precipitate occurred, the liquid at 
the same time being decolorized. Judging from this behavior, I came 
to the conclusion that there was no alkaloid present, and the sub- 
stance precipitated by the magnesia and subsequently dissolved by 
<the alcohol was merely resin. 

The alcoholic tincture was next evaporated to a small bulk after 
liaving recovered most of the alcohol by distillation. On cooling, the 
resinous portion separated from the aqueous liquid. More water was 
dow added, and the whole brought on a filter and washed. The 
residue consisted of a resin partially soluble in ether ; the greater 
part was little affected by carbon bisulphide, but was readily soluble 
in alcohol. This latter portion amounted to 2-13 per cent, of flowers 
employed. The portion soluble in ether was only one-fifth of this, 
•making the amount of resin contained in the flowers and soluble in 
<ether and alcohol 2*56 per cent. 

To this resin is due what bitterness the flowers possess. When 
isolated it has a sharp, bitter and acrid taste, and a peculiar disagree- 
able odor. The ethereal tincture yielded on evaporation mostly chlo- 
rophyll. 

The flowers yielded on distillation a milky distillate, which, on 
standing, separated globules of oil, the quantity, however, being very 
small. The distillate was successively treated with ether in order to 
dissolve out the oil, and the solution so obtained left to spontaneous 
evaporation. A minute portion of oil was thus obtained. 

It was of a yellow color, lighter than water, and had a pleasant 
aromatic odor. The quantity was so small that further experiments 
could not be made with it. In regard to its odor, I would state that 
it had no resemblance to any of the volatile oils known to me and 
generally kept in drug stores. 



ON THE ROOT OF EUPHORBIA IPECACUANHA. 
By Christopher Petzelt. 
Abstract from an Inaugural Essay. 

The root, which is the officinal portion, is, according to Dr. Barton, 
equally efficacious at whatever period collected. 



256 



Root of Euphorbia Ipecacuanha. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 June 1, 1873. 



The root used in the following experiments was gathered by me on 
the third of August, in the vicinity of Camden, N. J. 

It was first reduced to powder, this macerated with ether for six 
days, then transferred to a percolator and completely exhausted with 
ether; this percolate was set aside for future experiments. The resi- 
due was transferred to a capsule, and set in a warm place to facilitate 
the evaporation of the remaining ether. 

This residue was macerated with 95 per cent, alcohol for four days,, 
then in a percolator exhausted with alcohol, the percolate set aside,, 
the residue placed in an evaporating-dish, and by means of a sand- 
bath the remaining alcohol driven off. 

The powdered root which had been completely extracted by ether 
and alcohol was digested in water, acidulated with hydrochloric acid s , 
at a temperature of eighty degrees, for eight days. It was then, 
strained, filtered, and the filtrate set aside for future investigation. 

Experiment 1. The clear ethereal tincture was allowed to evaporate 
spontaneously. A soft yellow mass was left behind, which was dis- 
solved in benzin, allowed to evaporate spontaneously, and found to 
consist of wax and fixed oil. 

Experiment 2. The clear alcoholic tincture was evaporated by a 
water-bath to a small bulk, set aside for three days, but no change 
taking place in its appearance, it was evaporated by a steam bath. 
A dark-brown soft resinous mass resulted, the taste of which is at 
first feeble, but when kept on the tongue for a short time, or brought 
in contact with the palate, has a nauseous and very pungent taste. 
When a half grain of this resinous matter was swallowed it acted as 
a cathartic, producing watery stools ; in doses of 1 J or 2 grains it 
produced nausea and vomiting. 

It appears, according to a statement of the late Dr. Hewson, of 
Philadelphia, that this emetic was the subject of an inaugural essay 
by Dr. Royal, and that experiments conducted with it among the con- 
victs in the Walnut Street Prison proved it to be advantageously 
available for all the purposes of an emetic. 

Experiment 3. This resinous matter is insoluble in ether and ben- 
zin. When treated with acidulated water until completely exhausted, 
the solution gave no precipitate with iodohydrargyrate of potassium 
or tannin. When redissolved in alcohol it is copiously precipitated 
on addition of a solution of subacetate of lead. 



Ax. Jocb. Pharm. ) 
June 1, 1873. S 



Suppositories. 



257 



Experiment 4. The acidulated aqueous extract of the root, previ- 
ously exhausted by ether and alcohol, contained salts, among them 
sulphate of calcium. 

Experiment 5. A portion of the root was boiled in water, and the 
decoction strained, being too thick and gummy to filter through paper. 
It afforded no precipitate with gelatin, was colored intensely blue by 
iodine, was not affected by sesquichloride of iron, but copiously pre- 
cipitated by subacetate of lead. 

Experiment 6. A decoction of the root contains glucose, as it 
readily reduces oxide of copper in Trommer's test. 

My experiments indicate that the emetic and cathartic properties 
of the root of Euphorbia ipecacuanha are solely due to its resin. 

This resin may be prepared by reducing a given quantity of the 
root to a moderately fine powder, and exhausting it in the usual man- 
ner with alcohol, distilling off this menstruum, adding the residue to 
water, washing and drying the precipitate, which is soft and of a yel- 
lowish color, partly soluble in ether ; and the residue, when dissolved 
In the officinal solution of potassa, is, like the resin of jalap, not pre- 
cipitated on the addition of dilute muriatic acid in excess. 

The constituents found in the root of Euphorbia ipecacuanha are 
resin, fixed oil, wax, starch, glucose and inorganic salts. 



SUPPOSITORIES. 
By Wm. B. Addington, Norfolk, Va. 

As summer is now approaching, and suppositories seem to be more 
used then, I will give the public the benefit of my manipulation, 
which I think will set at rest this vexing subject, and save the break- 
ing of knuckles and the third commandment in future. My improve- 
ment consists simply in lining each half of the moulds with tinfoil. 
€ret the full impression of the mould in the foil by means of a smooth 
stick the shape of the mould, then close the moulds ; this will line 
the moulds smoothly. The materials are then prepared and melted 
in the manner directed by the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, and poured into 
the tinfoil-lined moulds. In a few minutes the suppositories are solid, 
and the foil is removed without the least trouble. I do not think tin- 
foil is incompatible with the substances generally prescribed in sup- 
pository form. I think those who try this process will admit its 
advantage over those in use. 

14 



258 An Adulteration of Cream of Tartar. \ A ^ u J n ™; fljg^ 

SOLUTION OF ISINGLASS IN WATER. 
By C. Carroll Meter. 
From an Inaugural Essay. 
One hundred grains each of the following kinds, American ribbon^, 
American sheet, Russian and Prussian(?) isinglass were treated separ- 
ately, first with f^viii of water to soften, then fjviii more of water 
were added and boiled until all soluble matter was extracted, then 
filtered, and the following table will show the solubility of the dif- 
ferent kinds experimented with : 



Isinglass. 


Quantity used. 


Soluble. 


Insoluble. 


American strip, 


100 grs. 


70 grs. 


30 grs. 


" sheet, 


100 " 


82 " 


18 " 


Russian, 


100 " 


88 " 


12 « 


Prussian, 


100 " 


80 " 


20 " 



From the foregoing experiments it will be seen that the Russian is 
the most soluble and the American strip the least soluble. 

The bladder of a hake fish, weighing gxv, was washed with water 
to remove salt, and boiled with sufficient water until all soluble matter 
was obtained, then filtered, and found to contain %i of insoluble 
matter. 

As aqueous solutions are prone to decompose, experiments were 
made to see if anything would arrest decomposition, and glycerin was 
found to answer very well in the proportion of one part glycerin 
to fifteen parts solution of isinglass. Solutions to which glycerin 
was added kept sweet and were quite palatable, while those to which 
no glycerin had been added soon decomposed, and became quite of- 
fensive to both taste and smell. 



AN ADULTERATION OF OREAM OF TARTAR. 
By George W. Kennedy. 
A sample of cream of tartar was handed me by a merchant of our 
town, with the request that I should examine it and give my opinion 
as to its purity. I tasted it and at once discovered that it was an 
adulterated article. The taste was decidedly acid and astringent ; in 
appearance it was rather lumpy, resembling cream of tartar that had 



AM j U nTi, S M } An Adulteration of Cream of Tartar. 259 

been wet and dried, and in color yellowish white. I treated it with 
ammonia, and found a large per cent, was insoluble. This ammoni- 
acal solution was treated with chloride of barium, whereby a precipi- 
tate was obtained which was not entirely soluble in boiling nitric acid ; 
the insoluble portion contained sulphuric acid, which no doubt had 
been united with aluminum, in the form of common alum. 

The insoluble portion of treatment No. 1 was next treated with 
acetic acid, which dissolved part of the deposit. Hydrochloric acid 
was then added to the acetic solution, which made a clear solution. 
Acetate of sodium was added to get rid of the hydrochloric acid and 
replace it by free acetic acid. This acetic solution was treated with 
oxalate of ammonium, yielding a precipitate of oxalate of calcium, 
which was insoluble in acetic acid, but readily soluble in hydro- 
chloric acid ; a second portion of the acetic acid solution was 
acted on with ammonia, which caused a gelatinous white precipi- 
tate, proving the presence of aluminum. The residue left after 
treatment with ammonia and acetic acid, was treated with hydrochlo- 
ric acid, results in solution of chloride of aluminum and tartrate of 
calcium, with a small residue. This residue was treated with tincture 
of iodine, which instantly produced a blue color characteristic of 
iodide of amylum, and by drying and burning, a mere trace of ash 
was left, 

I might state here that the original cream of tartar, when treated 
with carbonate of potassium, evolved ammonia, recognized by its odor, 
also by browning turmeric proper, and giving white clouds with acetic 
acid. From the above process adopted, the following is the result : — 

I. Treatment with ammonia : — 

1. Bitartrate of potassium is dissolved ; also sulphuric acid (of 

alum), removed as sulphate of ammonium. 

2. Precipitate contains starch, tartrate of calcium, and hydrate 

of aluminum. 

II. Treatment of 2 with acetic acid : — 

3. Solution containing aluminum and tartrate of calcium. 

4. Residue : starch, tart, of calcium and hydrate of aluminum. 

III. Treatment of 4 with HOL, results — 

5. In solution all chloride of aluminum and tartrate of calcium. 

6. Residue : starch. 

IV. Addition of acetate of sodium to 5 : — 

7. The solution remains clear, but is precipitated by ammonia, 



260 Formulas from Pharrnacopcea Germanica. { A i™ 

and by oxalate of ammonium — this proving it to be identi- 
cal with No. 3. 

The cream of tartar was adulterated with about five to six per cent, 
of tartrate of calcium, eight per cent, sulphate of aluminum and 
ammonium, and two per cent, of starch. 

Pottsville, Pa., April, 1873. 



ON NON-GELATINIZING TINCTURE OF KINO. 
Editor American Journal of Pharmacy : 

The gelatinization of tincture of kino is a universal annoyance 
among pharmacists, and to make this tincture so that it would not 
lose its astringent properties, or, on long standing, gelatinize, is 
quite a desideratum. I here supply you with a formula that has 
been well tried and has proven good. 

Take of 

Kino in moderately coarse powder, 

Pry sand, . . . . aa ^iss. 

Carbonate magnesia, .... sj. 
Rub in a mortar and saturate with diluted alcohol for one hour ; then 
percolate by pouring one and a half pints diluted alcohol on the mass ; 
when one pint of tincture is obtained, filter and cork tightly. 

L. Myers Connor. 

Dallas, Texas, May, 1873. 

[Note by the Editor. — It is possible that the pectinacious matter 
is entirely removed by using carbonate of magnesium, as suggested 
by our correspondent ; but is the kinotannic acid not likewise re- 
moved by the same agent, cither wholly or in part ? At a boiling 
temperature, at least, according to Gerding, the whole of this tannin 
is precipitated by carbonate of magnesium, while the liquid still retains 
a deep red color.] 



SELECTED FORMULAS FROM PHARMACOPCEA GERMANICA. 
By the Editor. 
(Continued from page 221 of last number.) 
£(^6 terebinthinatus, s. Balsamum vita? externum. Powdered Cas- 
tile soap, oil of turpentine, of each 6 p. ; purified carbonate of potas- 
sium, 1 part. Beat them together into a uniform mass of the consist- 
ence of an ointment. 



AM jun°e U i,'m3 RM } Formulas from Pharmacopoea Germanica. 261 

Serum Lactis (dulce). The whey obtained by warming a mixture 
of 200 parts of fresh milk and 1 p. liquid rennet to 35° or 40° C, 
and straining. 

Serum Lactis acidum. 100 parts milk and 1 part cream of tartar 
heated to boiling, and strained. 

Serum Lactis aluminatum and tamarindinatum are made in the 
same manner, substituting for the cream of tartar 1 part of alum, or 
4 parts of tamarinds. 

Sinapismus. Equal parts of water and ground black mustard seed. 

Species aromaticw. Two parts each of peppermint, rosemary, wild 
thyme, marjoram and lavender flowers, and one part each of cloves 
and cubebs are separately cut or bruised, freed from the fine powder, 
and mixed. 

Species ad decoetum Lignorum. Guaiacum, 4 parts ; burdock, 
thorny rest harrow root [Ononis sp'mosa) of each 2 parts ; Russian 
liquorice root, sassafras root, of each 1 part. 

Species emollientes. Marshmallow leaves, common mallow leaves, 
melilot, German chamomile flowers, flaxseed, all in coarse powder, 
equal parts. 

Species ad gargarisma. Marshmallow leaves, common mallow 
leaves, elder flowers, equal parts. 

Species laxantes St. Qermain. 16 parts of Alexandria senna, pre- 
viously exhausted with four times their weight of alcohol ; 10 parts 
of elder flowers ; 5 parts each of fennel and anise ; when dispensing, 
add to this 3 parts of cream of tartar. 

Species pectorales s. Spec, ad infusum pectorale. Pectoral tea ? 
breast tea. Marshmallow root. 8 p. ; Russian liquorice root, 3 p. ; 
orris root, 1 p. ; coltsfoot leaves, 4 p. ; mullein flowers, 2 p. ; star- 
anise, 2 p. 

Species 'pectorales cum fructibus. 16 parts of breast tea ; 6 p. St. 
John's bread ; 4 p. pearl barley and 3 parts of figs. 

Spiritus o?thereus. Hoffmann's anodyne differs from that of the 
U. S. Pharmacopoeia mainly in leaving out the heavy oil of wine ; it 
is simply a mixture of 1 part of ether and 3 parts of alcohol. 

Spiritus JEtheris chlorati, s. Salis dulcis y s. muriatico- wilier eus. 6 



262 Formulas from Pharmacopcea Germanica. { A j u i ^fli^ 

parts of crude muriatic acid and 24 parts of alcohol are mixed in a 
. large retort with sufficient black oxide of manganese in small pieces, 
and 25 parts obtained by distillation. The distillate is rectified over 
burned lime until 21 parts have been obtained. Spec. grav. 0*888 to 
0-842. 

Spiritus Angelica compositus, s. Spir. theriacalis. 16 parts an- 
gelica root ; 4 p. valerian and 4 p. juniper berries are macerated for 
twenty-four hours in 75 p. alcohol and 125 p. water ; then distil 100 
parts and dissolve in the distillate 2 parts of camphor. 

Spiritus camphoratus is weaker in alcohol and camphor than the 
corresponding preparation of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia ; the propor- 
tions are camphor, 1 p. ; alcohol, 7 p. ; distilled water, 2 parts. 

Spiritus Cochlearice. 8 p. fresh flowering scurvy grass ; 3 p. alco- 
hol and 3 p. water ; distil 4 parts. 

Spiritus Formicarum. 10 p. recently collected ants ; 15 p. each 
of alcohol and water ; macerate for two days and distil 20 parts. 

Spiritus Juniperi. 5 parts bruised juniper berries ; 15 p. each of 
alcohol and water ; macerate for twenty-four hours and distil 20 parts. 

By the same proportions and process are piepared Spiritus Lavan- 
dula, Spir. Rosmarini (s. Anthos) and Spir. Serpylli. 

Spiritus Melissa compositus. Lemon balm, 14 p.; lemon peel, 12 
p. ; coriander and nutmeg, of each, 6 p. ; cinnamon and cloves, each 
3 p. ; alcohol, 150 p. ; water, 250 p. ; distil 200 parts. 

Spiritus Mentha crispa (and M. piperita) Anglicus. 1 p. of the 
volatile oil dissolved in 9 parts of alcohol. These are of the same 
strength as the spirit of peppermint of the Brit. Pharm., 1864 ; that 
of the Brit. Pharm. of 1867 is one-fifth, and that of the U. S. Phar- 
macopoeia about two-thirds the strength. 

Spiritus saponatus. Castile soap, 1 p. ; alcohol, 3 p. ; rose water, 
2 parts. Dissolve. 

Succus liquiritia depuratus, s. Extr. Glycyrrhiza depuratum. Liq- 
uorice and washed straw are packed in alternate layers into a suita- 
ble vessel, cold water is added, and after thirty-six hours drawn off. 
The maceration is repeated, and the clear liquid evaporated to the 
consistence of an extract. 



^5uS; mas**'} Gleanings from the European Journals. 263 

Syrupus Althcece. Macerate 1 part of washed marshmallow root 
in 20 parts of distilled water for two hours ; strain without expres- 
sion and dissolve in 15 parts of the colature 24 p. of sugar. 

Syrupus Croei. 1 p. saffron is macerated in 24 p. white wine 
for thirty-six hours, strained, and 36 p. sugar added to the liquid. 

Syrupus Ferri oxydati solubilis. The moist mass obtained in pre- 
paring the soluble saccharated oxide of iron (see page 161) is digested 
with the sugar in a water-bath for two hours, and the loss from evapo- 
ration made up by the addition of water ; when cold, enough simple 
syrup is added to make the whole weigh 300 parts. The syrup con- 
tains one per cent, of iron, has a slightly ferruginous taste and is not 
precipitated on the addition of five times its quantity of water. 

Syrupus Liquiritice s. Grlycyrrhizce. 4 p. Russian liquorice root 
are macerated over night in 18 p. water. The expressed and strained 
liquid is boiled up once and evaporated until, after cooling and filter- 
ing, 7 parts of liquid are obtained, in which 12 parts each of white 
sugar and honey are dissolved. 

Syrupus Rhei. 12 p. cut rhubarb ; 3 p. cinnamon ; 1 p. carbonate 
<of potassium ; 100 p. distilled water. Macerate over night, strain 
and filter. In 80 parts of the filtrate dissolve 144 parts of sugar. 

Syrupus Sarsaparillce compositus. Cut sarsaparilla, 24 p.; guaia- 
<cum wood, sassafras root, China root, of each 16 p. ; brown cinchona, 
8 p. ; anise, 3 p. ; hot water, 250 parts. Digest for several hours, 
express, filter, evaporate to 80 parts and dissolve therein 130 parts 
of sugar. 

Syrupus opiatus. Extract of opium, 1 p.. Dissolve in a little 
white wine and add to 1000 parts of simple syrup. 



GLEANINGS FROM THE EUROPEAN JOURNALS. 
By the Editor. 

The detection of atropia by Pfeiffer and Herbst's test (agreeable 
odor of flowers developed on adding atropia to a heated mixture of 
bichromate of potassium or molybdate of ammonium and sulphuric 
•acid, adding some water), requires dexterous manipulation. H. 
Brunner succeeds without difficulty by placing a little atropia upon 
u few crystals of chromic acid in a porcelain dish and heating slightly 
tuntil the beginning reduction to chromic oxide is shown by the green 
color.— Ber. d. d. Chem. Ges., 1873, 98. 



264 Gleanings from the European Journals. { 

Specific gravities of mixtures of glycerin and water. — 



Specific 


Water, 


Specific 


Water, 


Specific 


Water, 


gravity. 


per cent. 


gravity. 


per cent. 


gravity. 


per cent. 


1-267 





1-212 


17 


1-161 


34 


1-264 


1 


1-209 


18 


1-159 


35 


1-260 


2 


1-206 


19 


1-156 


36 


1-257 


3 


1-203 


20 


1-153 


37 


1-254 


4 


1-200 


21 


1-150 


38 


1-250 


5 


1-197 


22 


1-147 


39 


1-247 


6 


1-194 


23 


1-145 


40 


1-244 


7 


1-191 


24 


1-142 


41 


1-240 


8 


1-188 


25 


1-139 


42 


1-237 


9 


1-185 


26 


1-136 


4a 


1-234 


10 


1-182 


27 


1-134 


44 


1-231 


11 


1-179 


28 


1-131 


45. 


1-228 


12 


1-176 


29 


1-128 


46 


1-224 


13 


1-173 


30 


1-126 


47 


1-221 


14 


1-170 


31 


1-123 


48 


1-218 


15 


1-167 


32 


1-120 


49 


1-215 


16 


1-164 


33 


1-118 


50 ' 



— Schweikert, in Zeitschr. Oesterr. Apoth. Ver., 1873, No. 13. 

Tobias Venetian liniment consists, according to the " Industrie* 
Blsetter," of 5 parts ammonia water, 2 parts camphor, 5 parts tinc- 
ture of capsicum, 30 parts alcohol and 10 parts of water. 

The detection of digitalin in forensic analysis is connected with 
great difficulties. By the method of Stas and Otto the acid ethereal 
solution yields the digitalin as a resinous mass, and a small portion 
enters into the alkaline solution. Obtained from the latter it cannot 
be distinguished from delphinia by the reactions with phosphoric acid 
or with sulphuric acid and bromine water. Obtained from the for- 
mer solution it will, in rare cases only, yield the red coloration with 
H 2 S0 4 and bromine water. H. Brunner, therefore, suggests to dis- 
solve the residue in water, add some dilute solution of bile, and thei* 
concentrated H 2 S0 4 until the liquid assumes the beautiful red color 
of Pettenkofer's test for sugar, the latter compound being separated 
from the digitalin by the acid. Other glucosides have the same be- 
havior, but the author thinks this reaction, in connection with th& 
physiological action, sufficient proof of its presence. — Ber. d. 
Chem. Ges., 1873, 96. 



^unTi.i™'} Gleanings from the European Journals. 265 

Action of sulphuric acid upon chloral. — X Grabowski observes that 
chloral in contact with fuming sulphuric acid is, after a while, but 
with strongly fuming acid, instantly converted into a white crystal- 
line mass, of the composition C 8 H 6 Cl 12 O n S 2 , which may be obtained 
in needles by crystallizing from ether. Alcohol dissolves the com- 
pound readily, splitting it into sulphuric acid and chloral alcoholate. 
Warm water, particularly in the presence of potassa, yields sulphuric 
acid, chloral and decomposition products. 

The product obtained by conducting the vapors of fusing sulphuric 
acid into chloral has a different composition, crystallizes from alcohoL 
but decomposes with warm water and potassa. — Ibid., 225. 

The alkaloids of the Cinchona barks. — An important paper review- 
ing the entire literature on this subject, and containing the investiga- 
tions of the author, is published by 0. Hesse, in Annalen der Chemie 
und jPharmacie, clxvi, 217-278. He comes to the conclusion that 
the existence of the following cinchona alkaloids may be considered 
as having been definitely established : quinia, cinchonidia, cinchonia } . 
paricina, quinamina, paytina and conchinia. The first three of these 
alkaloids are met with in commerce ; conchinia (Pasteur's quinidia)^ 
however, is rarely found in commerce, except by its name merely- 
Owing to the confusion existing in consequence of different alkaloids 
and mixtures of alkaloids having received this name, the author ad- 
heres to the name conchinia, first proposed by him, although he fully 
agrees with Howard that it is closely related to cinchonia, and ought 
to have been named cinchonidia, while the present cinchonidia, being 
naturally related to quinia, ought to have received the name of qui- 
nidia. Quinamina, paytina and conchinia appear to form a group* 
and to pass into each other under the influence of cellular vitality. 
Paricina is distinct from bebeerina, the former being readily soluble 
in petroleum ether, and fusing at 116° C, while bebeerina is nearly 
insoluble in that menstruum, and fuses at about 200° C. 

The author has never met with aricina, discovered in 1829 by Pel- 
letier and Coriol and by Leverkohn, and which was by Bouchardat 
and Winckler, in 1839, declared to be identical with cusconina and 
with Manzini's cinchovatina. Delondre, however, and Howard have 
found in the bark examined by the former chemists, merely quinia 
and cinchonia; and Kerner observed a commercial aricina to be cin- 
chonidia and his quinidia. 



266 Gleanings from the European Journals. { A j u J u ° e t ^;i87^ M * 

Origin of frankincense. — J. B. Batka stated at the last meeting of 
German naturalists and physicians, that the commercial olibanum is 
not obtained from Boswellia glabra, serrata or papyrifera, but, ac- 
cording to Birdwood, from B. Oarteri, which, in Soumali, is called 
mohr madow, and from B. Bhau (dajana mohr add), and B. Freriana 
(yegaar), all growing upon lime rocks in Soumali, the first one also 
in Hadramout. These statements have been corroborated from Aden 
by Baron Maltzahn. — Buchners N. BeperL, 175-177. 

Origin of China root. — Dr. 0. T. Sandahl endeavors to prove that 
China root is in reality a tuber, although it is destitute of the so-called 
eyes. These tubers are not obtained from the uncertain species Smi~ 
lax China, Lin., but from Sm. glabra, Roxb., as was lately proven 
by Dr. Hance, who received a living plant, with the subterraneous 
parts attached, from Mr. Bowra, thus confirming the supposition of 
Roxburgh, expressed in Vol. iii, 192, of his Flora indica. Dr. 
Hance also calls attention to the fact that in all countries the roots, 
&c, of various species of Smilax are held in high repute for their 
alterative, diuretic and diaphoretic virtues, and argues from this that 
sarsaparilla and other smilacene may not be as ineffective as many 
physicians suppose. — N. Jahrb. f. Pharm., 1872, Feb., from Nor- 
diskt Medic. Arkiv, IV. 

Extract of malt. — L. W. Jassoy gives the following directions for 
preparing a malt extract superior to that of the German Pharmaco- 
poeia : Coarsely ground malt is macerated for three hours with its 
own weight of cold water, and then digested for one hour at a tem- 
perature not exceeding 65° C. (150° F.) After straining the liquid 
through a sieve, the residue is boiled for fifteen minutes with triple 
its quantity of water, allowed to cool to about 70° C. (160° F.), 
strained, and the two liquids mixed. The first colature contains 
much active diastase, the second a large quantity of starch, which, 
after mixing at 50-56° C, is readily converted into sugar. On 
evaporating with slow boiling, the dirty scum separates albuminous 
matters, and the clear filtrate yields, on evaporation, an excellent 
extract, equal to from 75 to 85 per cent, of the malt. — N. Jahrb. f 
Pharm., 1873, March. 

Nitrate of potassium in Amarantus Blitum. — Boutin has obtained 
from the dry plant 8 per cent, carbonate, corresponding to 11*68 



^JiKS?"} Use of Dry-Powdered Blood. 267 

per cent, nitrate of potassium, the insoluble portion of the ashes 
consist of lime, iron, alumina and silica. If cultivated in good 
soil 8*100 to 10-000 kilograms of the plant might be obtained per 
hectare, corresponding to 400 to 500 kilograms of potassa. — Joum. 
de Pharm. et de Chim., 1873, May. 

Density of absolute alcohols. — Is. Pierre has determined the spe- 
cific gravities as follows : 

Ethylic alcohol, 0-815 at 0° O.j 0-80214 at 15° C. 
Butylic " 0-817 " 0-806 
Propylic " 0-8198 " 0-80825 
Amylic " 0-8253 " 0-8146 

—Ibid. 

Distilled orange floiver water.* — L. Malenfant observed that fresh 
-orange flowers, mixed with cold water, yield, on distillation over the 
naked fire, a milky water, possessing a somewhat empyreumatic odor 
and a strong, somewhat acrid taste. Kept for twelve or eighteen 
months in glass vessels covered with parchment, it loses its empy- 
reuma, and after filtering has an agreeable odor and taste. 

If the flowers are mixed with boiling water and immediately dis- 
tilled the water is limpid, and gradually separates some thick oil of a 
brownish color ; the water has odor and taste of the flowers, but com- 
plicated with a still smell {gout de feu), which it loses after long 
keeping ; it seems to alter less rapidly than that obtained by the 
former process. 

Distilled by steam a limpid water of a pure odor and taste is at 
once obtained, free from empyreuma ; it may be at once used, and 
keeps better in the light than when obtained by the two former pro- 
cesses. — L' Union Pharm., 1873, Feb. 



ON THE USE OF DRY-POWDERED BLOOD. 
By Dr. de Pascale, of Nice. 
Several years ago I published from my experience and medical 
practice, some observations on the very beneficial effect of warm blood 
taken the moment when extracted from the calf or ox, killed for gen- 
eral domestic use. 

I mentioned at that time the cases of three invalids, not English, 

* See also Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1872, 426 and 473. 



268 



Use of Dry-Powdered Blood. 



( Am. Jour. Pharos, 
\ June 1, 1873, 



suffering from haemoptysis, in whom tubercles were diagnosticated^ 
who derived great benefit from that treatment. The quantity of blood- 
lost by one of the above-mentioned invalids was enormous ; but his- 
perseverance for two years or more in drinking daily the blood, made 
him well and healthy. At this present time he is walking about Nice,, 
or attending to the business of his large establishment. 

I do not wish to dwell upon the great improvement in my own gen- 
eral health after drinking the warm blood for about a month. One of 
the English doctors practising in this place had the opportunity of 
verifying my improvement, and the experiment which I made, when 
in a state of general weakness and pallor, in consequence of suffering 
for many years from malarial fever, taken during the siege of Venice 
in 1848 and 1849. 

Every one knows the history of those barbarians, who were accus- 
tomed to drink the blood of their victims at a feast after their battles 
and also of those who were supported by the blood of their compan- 
ions, wrecked in the Medusa in 1807 ; and of others who have been 
nourished in the desert by the blood of animals. 

Dioscorides affirms in his De Medicinali Materia, that animal blood 
has been used for the purpose of curing diseases ; the old women 
adopted a similar system. 

Finding among the English and American patients in Nice an un- 
conquerable repugnance to such a remedy, the name only having the 
power of producing nausea, I was obliged to disuse it. But afterwards 
a dim reollection of the manner in which it was administered by old 
medical men in my youth, made me adopt the plan of giving it in the 
form of dry powder. 

History also relates that dry-powdered blood was used before the 
thirteenth century, when the quack, Jean de Gaddesden, brought it. 
into renown. 

It is easy to understand the comparative difference between the 
warm and the dry blood. In the first there is life with animal heat,, 
and volatile principles, which conduce to assimilation. Notwithstand- 
ing, in the dry blood, fibrin, albumin, haematozin, manganesic, and 
ferruginous salts remain. 

Between the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries the celebrated 
anatomist of that day (F. Buischio) found in the blood the necessary 
elements for the composition of every tissue of our body. At the- 
end of the seventeenth century also was discovered one of the most 



a juS; £ M ' \ Detection of Substitution of Garb. Acid, etc. 269 

important principles of the blood, that is iron, by M. Lamey, and 
afterwards by Berzelius. According to Berzelius, a distinguished 
professor of chemistry, the blood of the ox is most similar to that of 
man ; this, in fact, I have used in several cases of general weakness 
with anaemia, and in cases of chlorosis. 

The blood of the ox, after being dried in a water-bath, is reduced 
into a very fine powder, and grated through a sieve. Dry blood can 
be taken for any length of time, being almost tasteless, and no repug- 
nance is likely to be felt, as is often the case with raw meat. It can 
be taken as any common powder, mixed with soups, milk, marmalade, 
chocolate, or enclosed in a wafer. 

In two cases I have given the powdered blood under the name of 
nutritive powders, mixed with a small quantity of pepsin ; choosing 
that name lest ladies, startled by one more precise, might have diffi- 
culty in taking the medicine. 

The quantity to be taken may vary according to the age, sex, or 
the state of health and digestive power of the patient. In general, I 
begin with thirty grains, which is increased according to circum- 
stances ; but quantity must be left to the discretion of the physician 
who prescribes. — Med. Press and Cire., Lond., Jan. 29, 1873. 



DETECTION OF THE SUBSTITUTION OF CARBOLIC ACID FOR 
ORE ASOTE. 
By John A. Clark, Guelph. 

In the Can. Pharm. Journal, No. 12, Vol. 5,* there is a communi- 
cation from Mr. Morson, London, on the substitution of carbolic acid 
for creasote. He states that there is no good test for distinguishing 
between the two, but proposes the use of glycerin, in which carbolic 
acid is easily soluble, but creasote insoluble. A far better test is the 
alcoholic solution of perchloride iron (or Tr. Ferri Perchlor B. P.), 
which, when added to an alcoholic solution of -creasote, produces a 
" dark greenish-blue" color, but with an alcoholic solution of carbo- 
lic acid only a "light brown " coloration. By this test 1 part of cre- 
asote in 500 parts carbolic acid can be easily detected. But the adul- 
teration of creasote by carbolic acid is more difficult to detect, but 
can be ascertained in the following way : Boil a few drops of creasote 
with nitric acid (about 2 drs.) until red fumes are no longer evolved ; 
this yields a solution, which, when neutralized with solution of caus- 

* See American Journal of Pharmacy, pp. 310, 465 and 503. 



270 Characteristic Properties of Common Oils. { Am j\5Ji, wSJ*"" 

tic potash, gives no precipitate, the creasote forming oxalic acid. 
Carbolic acid, when treated in the same manner, is very violently 
acted on by nitric acid and forms picric aeid (trinitro-phenylic acid) 
which, when neutralized with solution of potassa, gives a " yellow 
crystalline " precipitate. 1 part of carbolic acid in 50 parts creasote 
can be readily detected in this way. — Can. Pharm. Journal, May % . 
1873. 



ON THE CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES OF THE COMMON 
OILS. 
By M. G. Glosssner. 

After having reviewed the characters of the various fatty non-dry- 
ing oils (olive, almond, rape, sesame, palm), and of the drying (lin- 
seed, poppy, castor), the author tabulates the properties by which 
they may be recognized. 

Action of Potassa in the Cold. — We agitate 5 volumes of the oil with 
1 volume of potassa of sp. gr. 1*34. The mixture is: — 
White — almond, rape (best), bleached olive. 
Yellowish — Poppy, olive, rape, sesame. 

Greenish — Linseed, hemp. Oils containing copper, or artificial- 
ly colored. 
Rose — Rape (refined). 
Brown and compact — Hemp. 
Yellow-brown and liquid — Linseed. 
Red— Whale. 

The oil is poured in a test-tube upon an equal measure of fuming 
nitric acid. There appears at the surface of separation a narrow 
transparent green zone — Almond. 

Deep green, with a rosy halo at top — Poppy. 

Clear blue-green — Olive. 

Reddish-brown — Linseed. After some time the coloration ex- 
tends to all the oil. 
Green and red at the upper part — Rape. 
Action of Concentrated Sulphuric Acid (10 drops of oil to 2 of acid). 
Color at the surface of separation : — 

Fine green, with brown stripes — Rape. 

Yellow, passing into olive-green when stirred — Poppy (Media- 
sativa). 

Red stripes, shading into black — Whale. 



Adulteration of White Lead. 



271 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
June 1, 1873. J 

Equal volumes of acid and of oil dissolved in bisulphide of carbon 

Fine violet coloration passing into brown — Whale. 
Same proportions, without sulphide of carbon : — 
Deep green coloration — Rape, linseed, hemp. 
Red coloration — Whale. 
Reaction of Elaidin. — The mass becomes solid, clotty and white — 
Olive, almond, rape (bleached). Ordinary rape oil gives a yellowish 
mass. 

Red solid mass — Sesame. 
Waxy white mass — Castor. 

The mass of elaidin traversed by oily stride — Mixture of drying 
oils. 

No action — Linseed, poppy, nut. 
Ebullition with Water and Litharge : — 
Solid plaister — Olive. 
Viscous plaister — Rape, almonds, sesame. 
Viscous plaister, growing hard in course of time — Drying oils* 
Solubility in Alcohol. 



Olive . 
Poppy 
Hemp 



Almond ( Brassica cam- 

pestris) . . 0.914 
Olive . . . 0.918 



1 : 1 Linseed 
1 : 25 Almonds 
1 : 30 

Specific Gravities. 

Sesame 
Sunflower 
Castor 
Linseed 



1 : 40 
1 : 60 



0.923 
0.926 
0.950- 
0.930 



Melting-points. 



Degrees. C 
Hemp . . — 27 

Castor . . — 18 

Linseed . . — 16 to — 20 
Sunflower . — 16 

Rape . — 6 

-Chem. News, 1873, May 2. 



Degrees C. 
Brassica campestris — 4 
Sesame . — 5 

Olive . . 2.5 
Almond . . — 20 to — 25 



ADULTERATION OF WHITE LEAD. 
By Rudolph Wagner. 

It has been, and is still, to some extent, the custom in the manufac- 
tories to add to white lead a certain quantity of sulphate of baryta, either 
native or artificially prepared. Lead is often mixed with sulphate of 
lead, chalk, carbonate of baryta, sulphate of baryta, and pipe clay ; but 
these adulterations are most common in the retail trade. Not any of 



272 Adulteration of White Lead. { k VTi V m™* 

these substances ought to be present ; they possess no covering power 
and needlessly absorb oil. Pure white lead ought to be perfectly soluble 
in*very dilute nitric acid, and in the resulting clear solution caustic 
potassa should not produce a precipitate, for if it does chalk is pre- 
sent. An insoluble residue in the dilute nitric acid indicates the 
presence of gypsum, heavy spar or sulphate of lead. The sulphate 
of lead may be recognized by reducing the lead with the blowpipe. 
Sulphate of baryta can be made evident by ignition with charcoal in 
the blowpipe flame, treating the residue with dilute hydrochloric acid, 
and adding a solution of gypsum, which again yields a precipitate of 
sulphate of baryta. Gypsum does not yield an insoluble precipitate 
with dilate nitric acid, but does so with a solution of oxalate of am- 
monia. According to Dr. Stein, the most simple method of estimat- 
ing quantitatively a mixture of white lead and sulphate of baryta is 
to heat the weighed sample in a piece of combustion tube, and to col- 
lect the carbonic acid in a Liebig's potassa bulb, a chloride of calcium 
tube being fastened by a perforated cork to the combustion tube to 
absorb the moisture. The quantity of carbonic acid given off stands 
in direct proportion to the quantity of carbonate of lead present. 
Pure white lead of good quality gives off about 14*5 per cent, of the 
gas, and, according to Dr. Stein's researches, the undermentioned 
series of mixture gave off the quantities of carbonic acid indicated : 
33*3 parts of white lead and 66*6 parts of heavy spar lost by ignition 
4-5 — 5 per cent. 

66*6 parts of white lead and 33*3 parts of heavy spar lost by ignition 
6*5 — 7 per cent. 

80*0 parts of white lead and 20*0 parts of heavy spar lost by ignition 
13*0 per cent. 

50*0 parts of white lead and 50*0 parts of heavy spar lost by ignition 
10 — 10 per cent. 

The extensive applications of this material as a constituent of 
paints, u to give body," as the term runs, and as putty, and for va- 
rious chemical operations, are well known. It has been experiment- 
ally proved by Dr. G. J. Mulder in his treatise " On the Chemis- 
try of Drying Oils and the Practical Applications to be Drawn There- 
from," that the quantity of white lead used in proportion to linseed 
oil for painting purposes is far too great, being on an average from 
250 to 280 parts of white lead to 100 parts of oil, while the author 
found that 52 parts of unadulterated white lead, or 44 parts of oxide 



4 ju J n°e U ?;i P 873 RM -} Adulteration of White Lead. 273 

•of lead to 100 parts of raw or boiled oil are amply sufficient quanti- 
ties. White lead, however useful, is very sensitive to the action of 
sulphuretted hydrogen, by which it is blackened and discolored, caus- 
ing not only all the white paint to be spoiled, but also all pigments 
•and paints of which white lead is a constituent, as may be seen to a 
very large extent every summer at Amsterdam, where from the stag- 
nant canals sulphuretted hydrogen is abundantly given off. The ac- 
tion, however, of the sea air in autumn has the effect of somewhat re- 
storing the blackened and discolored painted surfaces to their primi- 
tive hue. The late Professor Thenard suggested that pictures which 
had become blackened should be cleaned by means of peroxide of 
hydrogen, the oxygen of which present as ozone converts the black- 
ened lead colors into white sulphate of lead. 

In this country it has become an almost universal custom to sell 
white lead ready ground with linseed oil into a thick paste. This 
practice certainly saves painters a great deal of trouble, but is also 
pregnant with the difficulty of detecting adulteration, while there is a 
chance of inferior oil-^resin oil — being added. The oil almost en- 
tirely prevents the action of any acid upon the paste ; even if very 
strong nitric acid be taken, and heat applied, the decomposition and 
disintegration are very slow and incomplete, and, besides, owing to 
the insolubility of nitrate of lead in nitric acid, the action of strong 
nitric acid upon oil thus mixed gives rise to a variety of compounds, 
which interfere with the usual modes of testing the white lead. To 
remove the oil in order to test white lead, the best plan is to thor- 
oughly incorporate some of the sample with a mixture of chloroform 
and strong alcohol in equal parts, and to wash the mass by decanta- 
tion or on a filter with a fluid composed of alcohol.* The quantity 
of the oil may then be ascertained by the evaporation of this solvent. 
After washing once or twice with boiling alcohol and then drying, 
the white lead can be readily tested by any of the known methods. — 
Journ. Applied Chemistry, April, 1873. 

*In the examination of white lead ground in oil, we have successfully used 
t)oth petroleum benzin and ether, as suitable solvents for removing the linseed 
•oil. The white lead must be thoroughly incorporated with the solvent, of 
which, after decantation, fresh portions should be used, until the residue after 
-drying, becomes pulverulent, when the washing maybe completed upon a filter. 
On treating the lead now with dilute nitric acid, a little oxidized fat separates 
readily. — Ed. Am. Jour. Phar. 

15 



274 Glycerin as it Exists in Commerce. { A j U n°ei;Sra^ 



QUALITY OF GLYCERIN AS IT EXISTS IN COMMERCE. 
By Alfked Henry Mason, F. C. S. 

From a more extensive paper, treating of the chemical history, its 
various applications, &c, we extract the part relating to the quality 
of the commercial article. 

Many impurities are necessarily found in crude glycerin according 
to the process of manufacture, or the quality of water used in manu- 
facturing ; for industrial purposes these impurities are not objection- 
able or disadvantageous, if only present in moderate proportions.. 
For medicinal use, of course, it is absolutely necessary that pure gly- 
cerin should be used, and the glycerin purified by Wilson's process, 
manufactured by Price's Patent Candle Co., is undoubtedly superior 
to any other I have examined. The fact that Continental manufac- 
turers now offer medicinal glycerin, a la Price, inodorous, etc., would 
tend to substantiate this statement, and it occurred to me that it 
might be interesting to know how these various manufactures com- 
pare with Price's ; hence the ultimate object of this paper. 

I have selected nine samples to report upon, and these represent 
English and Continental manufactures. 

The various chemical re-agents, shown with the results in the tabu- 
lar form below, have been applied in the usual way, standard solutions 
being added to the specimen of glycerin (the glycerin previously di- 
luted with an equal bulk of water), excepting the argentic nitrate — - 
one part of solution was added to four parts of undiluted glycerin, 
and the mixture allowed to stand 24 hours. The specific gravity was 
taken at 60° Fahrenheit, withBeaume's hydrometer, and several were- 
taken by weight and found to correspond. The odor is easily ascer- 
tained by rubbing a little glycerin on the back of the hand ; the pe- 
culiar mousey smell with some samples is easily detected, and this 
becomes more intense by heating a little of the glycerin in a test 
tube. Glycerin mixed with an equal volume of rectified sulphuric 
acid should not produce effervescence, or coloration, if sufficiently 
pure for medicinal use. 

By adding absolute alcohol and concentrated sulphuric acid to 
glycerin on heating, a fruity smell is set free, more or less intense, 
owing to the presence of butyric acid and (or) formic acid ; the pe- 
culiar pine- apple odor is very strong in some samples, showing the 
formation of butyric ether. 



Glycerin as it Exists in Commerce. 



275 



< 



■apxqding 
•aoauuv 



•piim/COOJJe^ 



•pioy ounqding 



•Jo^uioap/CH 



■9ldureg 



S d ci^c 

* s » » *. « 3 , *gl 

_6J0 PL, © 05 +2 

as 

£9 s s 3 s 3 3 3 © 

a o 

525 « - - - - - ■ g, 

_J Q_ 

03 . ^ 

§ o 

■S ' 3 " ? ' 5 

1 SI* 





ly tinge* 


T3 




o 
a 
d o 


e tinge 


chang< 


] 

opal 


Slight 


Mor 


No 


inge 






•ation 



276 



Varieties. 



(Am. Jobr. Pharm. 
1 June 1, 1873. 



For the detection of sugar and glucose in glycerin. — To five drops 
of the glycerin to be tested, add 100 to 120 drops of water, one drop 
of pure nitric acid, and one grain of ammonium molybdate, boil the 
mixture, and in less than two minutes it will assume an intense bluish- 
green color if any sugar or glucose is present. 

In the foregoing table, A represents Price's patent glycerin ; B, 
C, D, E, F, were sold by Continental manufacturers as double dis- 
tilled white glycerin, a la Price, inodorous, guaranteed to stand the 
nitrate of silver test (sp. gr. 30° to 31° B.) ; G and H, as refined 
glycerin (28° B. sp. gr.) ; and I is a sample of concentrated crude 
glycerin from Hamburg, as exported for manufacturing purposes. 
A, B and H have been exposed to strong sunlight in closed vessels 
for two days. A was unchanged, but B and H had the mousey odor 
very fully developed, but without discoloration. 

It will bo observed that there are slight impurities in B, C, D, £, 
but I think none to prevent the majority of the samples being used 
in phaimacy and medicine when not intended for internal adminis- 
tration. 

I consider that pure medicinal glycerin should not be affected by 
nitrate of silver, sulphuric acid, oxalate ammonia, or exposure to 
sunlight, and should be perfectly free from smell after this treatment. 
— Chemist and Druggist, 1873, April. 



l)arictic0 # 

India Rubber Varnish. — There are many substances, among- them nitrate of 
silver, upon which pure india rubber has no deleterious effect. Now, as india 
rubber dissolves with readiness in chloroform, sulphuric ether, bisulphide of 
carbon, and caoutchoucin, and as these solvents, when evaporated, leave the 
rubber firm and unaltered, it is evident that we have in a varnish so composed 
a means of applying a coating of pure rubber of any degree of thickness to the 
inside of any vessel, such as a photo bath composed of either ebonite, gutta 
percha, wood, or any other material of a similar description. From experi- 
ments made in this direction, using bisulphide of carbon as the solvent, a coat- 
ing of rubber of a good quality has been obtained, which will answer most 
effectively for preventing all contact between the silver solution and the mate- 
rial of which the bath itself is formed. — Sci. Amer., March 15, 1873. 

Note on the Solvent Action of Glycerin on the Metallic and Calcareous Ole- 
ates, and on Sulphate of Lime. — E. Asselin.— Pure glycerin, free from lime, of 



AiM. Jour. Pharm. I 
June 1, 1873. j 



Varieties. 



277 



the sp. gr. 1-114, dissolved 71 per cent, of iron soap, 94 of magnesia soap, 
and 1*18 of lime soap. The metallic and earthy sub-soaps, which impregnate 
the fibre of wool in the process of combing, are easily emulsified by water 
mixed with glycerin. Sulphate of lime dissolves in glycerin to the extent of 
957 per cent., and the amount dissolved increases with the temperature. — 
Chem, News, Tjond., April 25 3 1873, from Compt. rend. 



An Application to Corns. — A correspondent in Illinois writes us: "I find in 
the 'Medical and Surgical Reporter' of Jan. 25, 1873, a cure for corns, and as 
that remedy (green peach tree leaves) could not be easily obtained at present 
in this climate, and as corns are most troublesome in winter, I would suggest a 
remedy equally effective and obtainable at any time. It is castor oil applied 
to the corn after paring closely each night before g'oing to bed. It softens the 
corn and it becomes as the other flesh. It will cure every time." — Med. and 
Surg. Reporter, Feb. 22, 1873. 



On the Value of Sulphate of Cinchonia. — M. Briquet, the well-known author 
of an exhaustive treatise on cinchonia, advocated the properties and uses of 
sulphate of cinchonia at a recent meeting of the Paris Academy of Medicine. 
His conclusions were based upon 893 authenticated cases of cure by the sulph- 
ate, from Magendie and Chomel to our days. Its success was especially great 
in cases of intermittent fever of middling intensity. Furthermore, it arrests 
the paroxysms of typhoid, amends the symptoms of intermittent neuralgia, and 
is of great benefit in acute articular rheumatism. Dr. Briquet lays great stress 
on the mode of administering the drug. It should be given in a watery solu- 
tion, in doses of from fifty centigrammes to one gramme (eight to fifteen grains], 
according to the intensity of the fever. The whole dose must not be given at 
once, but must be divided over five or six hours, and it is extremely important 
that the substance should be taken during the apyretic interval, and at least 
eight or ten hours before the return of the fit. — St. Louis Med. and Surg. 
Journ., March, 1873, from London Lancet. 



Improvement in Bending Glass Tubes. — A. H. Gallatin. — If the glass tube 
we desire to bend be filled with sand, and each end stopped to prevent its 
escape on heating over a Bunsen burner, it will be found that the tube may be 
quite doubled if desired, a perfect curve being produced. In this way we may 
promptly produce accurate bends of any desired size, in tubes of any bore, 
without any previous skill in glass-working. Obviously, the principle depends 
on a uniform distribution by the sand of the pressure exerted. A similar plan 
is resorted to by metal-workers in bending tubes of lead. — Journ. Franklin 
Inst., March, 1873. 

Gilding Iron. — The employment of sodium amalgam is recommended by 
Kirchmann as a simple and effective meaus of covering iron with a gilded sur- 
face. The process, in brief, consists in first spreading the amalgam upon the 
surface of the metal, which at once coats itself with a layer of quicksilver, even 



278 Minutes of Pharmaceutical Meetings, { A j U n°ei,w^ 

though it may^be somewhat rusted. Upon the surface thus prepared a concen- 
trated solution of chloride of gold is poured and the mercury volatilized by 
heating before the lamp or in a furnace. The result is that a gold surface 
remains behind which is susceptible of a bright polish. With silver and plati- 
num, it is said, similar results may be obtained.— Ibid. 



A New Solvent for Iodine. — Dr. I. Walz.— I find that glacial acetic acid is 
an excellent solvent for iodine, certainly not inferior to alcohol. On heating 
acetic acid with excess of iodine to boiling, and then allowing to cool slowly, 
beautiful, large, slender crystals of iodine will form (sometimes half an inch 
long). The crystals formed from supersaturated alcohol solution of iodine are 
short, of arrow-head shape, and by no means so abundant, for glacial acetic acid 
takes up far more iodine hot than cold. I hope you will make this easily exe- 
cuted experiment, and you will then see the finest iodine crystals yet produced. 

If saturated alcoholic and glacial acetic solutions of iodine are mixed in equal 
proportions, and allowed to' stand, acetic ether is formed. The presence of a 
little Mn02 and a drop of SCU H2 seems to promote the formation, but is quite 
unnecessary — Ibid., April, 1873. 



Ipfflta of % f jprmareulital luting. 

A pharmaceutical meeting was held May 20th, Mr. Joseph P. Bolton in the 
chair. In absence of the Registrar, William Mclntyre was elected to act in 
that position pro tern. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read and approved. 

The Chairman introduced Mr. John Butler, of Germantown. 

Prof. Maisch made the following presentations : Two volumes of the Swiss 
Weekly Journal of Pharmacy for the years 1870 — 71 ; Proceedings of the Mont- 
real College of Pharmacy, containing papers on the Eucalypts of Australia 
and on essential oils obtained from various Victorian plants ; from Mr. J. 
Creuse, preparations of iron, free from ferruginous taste, made by his new 
method with alkaline citrates, sesqui-iodide of iron, syrup of ferric iodide, 
elixir of the same and tincture of chloride of iron. 

Salts of the sesqui oxide of iron are now preferred for medical use ; this 
being the state in which iron is always found in animal and vegetable sub* 
stances used for food. 

Granular effervescent Vichy salts, very handsome in appearance, made by 
Keasby & Mattison, of Philadelphia, was exhibited. 

The new General Index of the American Journal of Pharmacy was shown 
and its arrangement explained. Mr. Wilder has produced a very creditable 
work, consisting of two parts — an alphabetical index of the contents of the 
papers published in forty-two volumes of the Journal and one of the authors. 

Pi of. Maisch exhibited a plant, Asclepias curassavica, L., the root of which 
is used in the West Indies in place of ipecacuanha. 



Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 279 

This being the last meeting of the season, it was suggested that the members 
■of the College should, during the coming months, carefully note down their ex- 
perience with the preparations of the new pharmacopoeia, with the view of 
bringing their observations, if not published before in the Journal, to the no- 
tice of the pharmaceutical meetings next fall, and thus contribute at once in- 
teresting and important subjects for discussion. 

The meeting then adjourned. 

William McIntyre, Registrar pro tern. 



Vermont Pharmaceutical Association. — President Dutcher has appointed 
the following delegates to the next meeting of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association : Messrs. M. K. Paine, Windsor ; A. W. Higgins, Rutland ; C. B. 
Wilson, Montpelier; E. W. Burritt, Burlington, and Chas. H. Warren, Spring- 
field. 



Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. — The annual commencement of the 
seventh session was held in Horticultural Hall JV) aj 7th. The Vice-President, 
Dr. C. A. Tufts, conferred the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy upon six gen- 
tlemen : Wm. W. Bartlett, L. C. Flanagan, F. M. Loring, Chas. P. Orne, 
Saml. C. Tozzer and Jos. S. Whall. Professor C. M. Tracy delivered the 
valedictory, and Hon. G. S. Hillard the annual address. The last class num- 
bered eighty five students. 



Alumni Association of the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. — This 
society, which had its nucleus in the little class which graduated from the Mas- 
sachusetts College of Pharmacy in 1869, held its annual meeting at the rooms 
of the College, No. 8 Boylston street, on the 8th of May. There were present 
about twenty gentlemen. After disposing of reports from various committees, 
the following officers were elected for the ensuing year: President, Thos. Doli- 
$>er ; Vice Presidents, J. C. Loud, E. L. Patch; Secretary, C. E Tappan ; 
Treasurer, C. H. Bassett ; Auditor, C. A. Tufts ; Executive Board : G. F. 
33. Markoe, J. S. Talbot, E. S. Kelley and L. D. Drury. 

The. President gave an interesting account of the labors and progress of the 
past year, and made some valuable suggestions concerning their efforts in the 
future. After a congratulatory address by Prof. Babcock, an interesting dis- 
cussion took place upon the late revision of the United States Pharmacopoeia. 
The establishment of a journal of pharmacy in Boston was considered, and a 
good deal of enthusiasm evinced on the subject. The Association has held 
meetings every month during the past year, which have been attended with 
great interest. A large number of valuable papers have been read, and elabo- 
rate reports of experiments and studies made ; among the number an inter- 
esting paper on the adulterations of milk. Reports of experiments in the 
manufacture of hydro-bromate of quinia and mono-bromated camphor, detec- 



280 Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc, { k ^lim^ 

tion of impurities in phosphate of iron, while much valuable discussion ha& 
taken place. 

The annual supper, at the American House, was attended by members and 
invited guests of the Association, and addresses were made by a number of the* 
participants. 



Literary and Scientific Society of the German Apothecaries of New 
York. — Under this title the two German pharmaceutical organizations which 
had existed for a number of years in the city of New York, are now united 
into one chartered corporation, numbering about eighty pharmacists. They- 
hold quarterly stated meetings and weekly conversational meetings, and keep 
the best German pharmaceutical periodicals circulating among the members. 
Their library, which contains some very valuable works, is located in the^ 
library room of the College of Pharmacy. They will be represented by a dele- 
gation at the next meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 



New York College of Pharmacy. — The Board of Trustees, at their meeting 
held May 1st, authorized the expenditure of a sum of money to organize a. 
summer course in practical botany and analytical chemistry. A resolution,, 
offered by Mr. Rice, to have the arrangements for each course of lectures made 
in the month of January, to enable the lecture committee to issue the prospec- 
tus early in the spring, was referred to the next College meeting. On motion 
of Mr. Balluff, seconded by Mr. Peixotto, the Secretary was directed to send 
short extracts of the minutes to the " Druggists' Circular," the "American, 
Journal of Pharmacy," and to the " Pharmacist and Chemical Record." 

Drs. William Neergaard and W. Manlius Smith having resigned their posi- 
tion as members of the New York Board of Pharmacy, a special meeting of 
the College was held May 22d to fill these vacancies. 



Cincinnati College of Pharmacy. — At the monthly meeting held April 8tb, 
Professor Wayne presented to the College, among other specimens, some ex- 
pressed and essential oil of peach kernels, the former bland and sweet like the- 
expressed oil of almonds ; the latter having all the properties of essential oil of 
almonds, but the yield being only one and a half drachms from twenty-five? 
pounds of kernels. In the discussion on fluid extracts of the new pharmaco- 
poeia, the use of glycerin was favorably commented upon for those containing 
much tannin, like cinchona, as tending to prevent change and precipitation £ 
but the opinion was that it had been carried too far, and that it was, in many 
cases, an expensive addition without material benefit. 

Professor Wayne observed that the reduction of oxide of mercury by oleic 
acid did not occur, if the acid was obtained by saponification instead of by dis- 
tillation. A specimen of mercurial plaster was exhibited, made by decomposing 
soda soap by mercuric chloride ; it was of a pale yellow color, contained 32 per 
cent of mercury, dissolved freely in oils and is recommended as a substitute for- 
the oleate of mercury, having the same therapeutic value. 

Professor Judge presented specimens of Mylabris ctchoru and phaleratct,, 
and gave an account of their occurrence, uses and strength in cantharidin. 



A j^n°e U !;i P 873 RM } Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 281 

The Louisville College of Pharmacy has received a donation to its cabinet,, 
from Messrs. Grimault & Co., Paris, through Messrs. A. Peter & Co., of twenty 
specimens of pharmaceutical preparations; also a donation from Mr. Charles 
Mohr, Mobile, Ala., consisting of capsule of Hura crepitans, fruit of a palm, 
legume of a species of Hovea ; roots of Exogonium purga collected by the do- 
nator ; root of an Ipomcea brought into market by the Indians with true jalap ; 
fruit of an Aristolochia. 

The undersigned was directed, by the Board of Directors, to tender, through 
the "American Journal of Pharmacy," their cordial thanks for these much 
appreciated donations. 

William G. Schmidt, Corresponding Secretary, 

The Tennessee Pharmaceutical Association has been formed on the 14th. 
of May, at Nashville, the preliminary session having been held on the preceding 
day at the Council Chamber. The meeting, which was well attended by phar- 
macists from different parts of the State, was called to order by Dr. B. Lillard.. 
and Dr. Th. Black elected temporary chairman. After some discussion on 
pharmaceutical legislation and other important topics, the meeting adjourned, 
to constitute itself at the second session into a State Association. The fol- 
lowing temporary officers were elected to serve until the next meeting, to be 
held in the fall, when a permanent organization will be effected : President, J. 
C. Wharton ; Secretary, B. Lillard ; Treasurer, R. E. Page. A committee was 
appointed to prepare an address to the pharmacists and druggists of Tennes- 
see, urging them to become members ; also a committee on constitution an($ 
by-laws ; a committee of reception, and a committee of three to prepare a pe- 
tition to Congress asking the repeal of the stamp tax, and tax on alcohol when 
used in connection .with our business, and that the same be sent to all the 
druggists and physicians in the State for signature. This last committee con- 
sists of Messrs. W. D. Kline, B. Lillard and W. H. Lickhardt. 



California Pharmaceutical Society. — At the meeting held April 9th at 
their rooms, No. 728 Montgomery street, San Francisco, Mr. Calvert in the 
Chair, an informal report from the Trustees of the College of Pharmacy was 
made, exhibiting the arrangements made and describing those yet contem- 
plated for the lecture room. 

The College has lately received from the well-known house of Powers & 
Weightman, manufacturing chemists in Philadelphia, a magnificent donation 
of fine chemicals, comprising 112 varieties. 

The prospectus for the course of instruction will soon be issued and the Col- 
lege be in active operation. 



Montreal College of Pharmacy. — At the meeting held February 6th, Mr.. 
Christian Hoffmann, of the Geological Survey of Canada, who was formerly 
phytologic chemist to the State Gardens at Melbourne, Australia, read a paper 
on the Eucalypts of Australia, describing their products and the uses to which 
they are put, and reporting the results of many chemical experiments. The- 



282 



Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 



( Am Jouk. PHARKt. 
\ June 1,1873. 



timber of the Eucalypts when green is generally soft, but when cut into beams, 
planks, etc., it soon becomes very hard and difficult to work. ; The bark of Eu- 
calyptus leucoxylon, Fr. Mueller, contains much gum resin, and is remarkable 
for its hardness ; that of E. obliqua, L'Her, is used for roofing purposes, and 
will furnish printing and writing paper ; while the barks of many other species 
will yield packing paper and paste boards. Gum resins occur in the Eucalypts 
in flattened cavities in the otherwise solid wood as viscid liquids ultimately 
becoming hard and brittle. The liquid gum resins are obtained from incisions 
made in the wood, and lose about 65 per cent, at 212° F., when they are easily 
pulverized. They are usually of a dark red brown color and intensely astringent 
taste. Botany Bay kino is obtained from E. resinifera ; that from E. rostrata 
is even preferred to others as an astringent. 

In Victoria alone, about 71,500 square miles are estimated to be covered by 
various species of Eucalyptus, from which essential oils in almost unlimited 
quantity might be obtained. These oils are useful in perfumery as solvents for 
various resins, among them kourie, and for illuminating purposes, their illumin- 
ating power being almost equal or superior to the best American petroleum. 

Saccharine substances, called manna, arc obtained from E. viminalis and 
E. dumosa, the former secreted by the leaves and slender twigs from punctures 
or injuries, the latter being the secretion upon the leaves of the pupa of an 
insect of the Psylla family. 



The General Austrian Apothecaries' Society has received from the De- 
partment of Culture and Education of Austria, a subvention of five thousand 
guilders, to be expended for building their hall and school, and an additional 
two thousand guilders towards their cabinet of natural philosophy. 



The Pharmaceutical Society of Paris held a meeting April 2d, M. Grassi 
presiding. M. Petit stated that from 25 litres of herring pickle he had ob- 
tained 30 grams muriate of trimethylamina and 45 grams chloride of ammonium. 

M. Guichard showed some large crystals of benzoic acid, obtained by the slow 
action of sulphide of carbon upon benzoin, and said that this menstruum ap- 
pears to present certain advantages as an agent for purifying resins. M. De 
Vrij observed that some resins, like that of Podocarpus cupressina, are not 
dissohed by sulphide of carbon. 

M. De Yrij communicated the results obtained by Prof. Oudemans, of the 
Netherlands Polytechnic School, on the variations of the rotary power of 
active substances which is influenced by the vehicles in which they are dis- 
solved, instancing cinchonidia with a left rotation varying in degree with the 
strength of alcohol used as a solvent, aud cinchonia, whose right rotation is in- 
fluenced by the use of alcohol or chloroform ; hence the necessity of always 
employing the same solvent when making comparative experiments. M. Carles' 
quinimetric process* has not furnished him with reliable results, which M. 
Vigier accounted for by some neglect or fault in the operation. For determin- 
ing the value of cinchona bark by the rotatory power of the alkaloids, the total 



*See American Journal of Pharmacy, 1873, p. 27. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
June 1, 1873. j 



Editorial, 



283 



quantity of the latter should be tested ; if the rotation is powerfully to the left, 
the bark is valuable for the manufacture of quinia ; a slight left or a right rota- 
tion, however, shows the bark to be unsuitable. 



tSiritortai Department. 



The General Index to the American Journal of Pharmacy. — In another 
place we publish a review of this work, which has been compiled by Mr. Hans 
M. Wilder, and is now ready for distribution. The value of such a work is 
readily seen by those who frequently, or even occasionally, have to consult the 
"Journal" in search of information on new and old medicinal substances, on 
scientific facts, practical details, formulas, historical and other notices refer- 
ring to pharmaceutical matters, either directly or indirectly. Scattered through 
43 volumes (including the preliminary volume), which have been published 
during a period of 45 years, the information is now made available to its full 
extent by consulting this General Index, which will prove to be of great value 
not only to those possessing complete sets of the "Journal," but to all seeking 
information on pharmaceutical subjects, and particularly on American phar- 
macy. The readiness with which the " Journal " can now be consulted will 
•doubtless induce some of our readers to complete their sets as far as possible ; 
while those who are interested in special subjects may procure single numbers, 
at 50 cents each, or complete volumes, as far as the stock on hand will permit. 
Information on this point can be obtained from the notices of the Kusiness 
Editor and the Publishing Committee contained in the back part of the 
volume. 

The price of the General Index has been fixed by the Publishing Committee 
at $3 per volume in paper cover, and at $3*50 per volume bound in cloth ; to 
be obtained on remittance of the amount to the Business Editor, H. H. Wolle, 
145 N. 10th street. Great care has been bestowed upon the preparation of the 
manuscript and the proof-reading, to render the work as nearly free from errors 
as possible; and a portion of the labor having been performed gratuitously, 
the Committee was enabled to put the price as low as stated above, at which 
figures by far the largest portion of the edition will have to be sold to reimburse 
the College merely for the cash expenses incurred in getting out this useful and 
much needed Index. 



The Dangerous Properties of Mixtures of Chlorate of Potassium and 
Tannin, to which we referred in our last number, are further illustrated by the 
following communication from Mr. G. Macdonald, now of Kalamazoo, Mich., 
whose suggestion to dispense the dry articles not mixed, but in separate papers, 
we heartily commend to the notice of both physicians and pharmacists : 

Chlorate of potassium and tannin came very near having another victim in 
Oairo, 111., about three months ago. The explosion was so violent as not merely 
to break the mortar (a strong wedgewood one), but to shiver it into innumerable 
fragments; in fact, the bottom of the mortar was ground almost into fine pow- 
der. The materials had been loosely mixed some time before, and had become 
very dry. A small quantity — perhaps 20 grains — were put into the mortar, 



284 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 

and rubbed with considerable pressure. The truth is, the young man was 
showing off to a customer with a little fulminating powder that he had made; 
Fortunately, no one was injured. 

I not long ago received from a physician a prescription ordering 6 oz. potass,, 
chlor. and 6 drachms tannin, to be mixed together, and divided into 12 parts, 
to be used as a nasal douche. I did not choose to take the risk of even mixing 
them loosely with a spatula, but divided each ingredient into 12 parts, anci 
folded them up separately, directing the customer to add one of each of the 
powders to the specified quantity of water. This, it appears to me, is the onlj 
safe way of dispensing such prescriptions. 



Oleate of Mercury and Morphia. — One pound (7000 grs.) of this prepara- 
tion, of 2 per ct. morphia strength, contains 140 grains of basic morphia. The 
figure 170 on page 160, line 8 from top, should be corrected to 140. The word 
combined on page 159, line 8 from bottom, should read uncombined. 



The "Polaris" Polar Expedition. — Our readers are aware that a portion 
of the crew of the " Polaris " have recently been rescued from the ice upon; 
which they had been drifting for six months. Among them is Joseph Mauchv 
a brother of the celebrated African traveller Carl Mauch. Joseph Mauch,. 
we have been informed, is a graduate of the New York College of Pharmacy,, 
and was formerly with Mr. Th. Frohwein. He is described as a highly edu- 
cated and scientifically trained young man, who sought to join Captain Hall's- 
expedition in a scientific capacity, but, finding it impossible, joined as sailor. 
Although small in stature, Mr. Mauch is strongly built, and, like his brother, 
imbued with a passionate desire for travel and exploration. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



Index to the American Journal of Pharmacy, from its commencement, Decem - 
ber, 1825, to November, 1870, inclusive. Compiled by Hans M. Wilder. 
Philadelphia : Merrihevv & Son, Printers. 1873. 8vo, pp. 318. Double column 

This work, to which we have repeatedly referred during the last two years, i& 
at last ready for distribution, its pages being of the same size as those of the- 
"American Journal of Pharmacy/' and printed with the same clear type. It 
is prefaced by a historical notice of the " American Journal of Pharmacy/' 
and a note by the author, from which latter we learn that the following rules 
have been always kept in mind in preparing the Index : 1, completeness ; 2,. 
systematic arrangement (to put together what belongs together) ; 3, synonyms- 
(such as are likely to occur to the American pharmacist), and, 4, accuracy as 
to volume and page. 

Having had occasion to examine the proof-sheets, we can testify to the strict 
adherence to these rules by the author. The book contains about 30,000* 
references in all, containing not merely an alphabetical enumeration of the- 
titles of the papers and abstracts published, but mentioning every scientific 
term, about which some notice is contained, or every general scientific fact 
noticed in the "Journal." Hence we find occasionally fifty and more refer- 
ences made to one essay. The importance of this will be readily noticed on 



^uneiSraf*"} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 285 

consulting the Index, as it enables us not only to find the volume and page 
containing a notice of a certain article, but likewise the substance of such 
notice as far as it can be expressed in a few words. 

The arrangement adopted will greatly facilitate the use of the book, dupli- 
cations being avoided, if possible, without losing sight of the synonyms, while 
the system chosen is strictly adhered to. Thus we find under Acacia, the 
references to the botanical species of this genus, and the information to seek 
for the references concerning Gum arabic, Catechu, &c, under the letters G 
and C. As a synonym of Acacia, Mimosa is likewise noticed. Under the 
head of Mercury are contained only the facts relating to the metal and to the 
.general properties of its compounds; while all special references to the chem- 
ical compounds, and particularly to the salts, are found under Hydrargyrum, 
and the pharmaceutical preparations, like Mercurial and Citrine ointments, only 
under Unguentum, the heading of their class. It follows from this statement 
that notices to the same preparation are not scattered in different places, but 
are found together in one place, no matter which term or synonym may have 
'been used by the author of the paper. . 

To further increase the usefulness of this Index to the American pharmacist, 
copious references have been made to Wood and Bache's Dispensatory of 1869 
and to Parrish's Pharmacy, 1867, two books readily accessible to all. 

The references under each heading are again systematically grouped together 
-and alphabetically arranged, the chief information contained in the papers 
being indicated by italics ; thus we have under Elemi the following subheadings 
in italics : account — analysis — artificial — behavior— from Bengal — oil — resin 
— solubility. 

The second part, covering 68 pages, is an index of authors, their papers or 
mere notices of their observations as published in the " Journal " being grouped 
together under the name of the authors. Though of less importance than the 
first part, it is nearly as complete as the latter, the credits to American authors 
being, perhaps, fullest ; while no paper has been omitted which had been printed 
in the usual type among the original and selected matter, also the more impor- 
tant references contained under the headings of Miscellany, Varieties, &c. ? 
have been enumerated in this part. 

The work as a whole is creditable alike to its author, the printer, and the 
College which ordered its publication, though by the advance subscriptions 
less than one-tenth of the final cost had been secured. 

•Grundlagen der Pharmaceutischen Waarenkunde. Einleitung in das Studi- 
um der Pharmacognosies Von Dr. F. A. Fliickiger, Professor an der Uni- 
versitat Strassburg. Berlin, 1873: Julius Springer. 8vo, pp. 138. 

Principles of Pharmaceutical Materia Medica. Introduction into the Study 
of Pharmacognosy. 

The microscope has exerted an important influence upon the study of phar- 
maceutical materia medica, so that during the last two or three decades the 
more or less vague descriptions of external appearances have gradually disap- 
peared to make room for the by far more important relations of internal struc- 



286 



Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { 



Am. Jour. Pharm 
June 1, 1873. 



ture; in fact, aside from the morphological relation of the drugs, the structure 
alone will in the future, probably, furnish the only true scientific basis for the 
correct classification of drugs. The cinchona barks alone are sufficient to 
demonstrate the necessity of such a system, afler the patient and important 
labors of Weddell, Delondre, Howard, Berg and others, which will doubtless 
be gradually perfected, since the cultivation of numerous species of cinchona 
in different parts of the world make it possible now to study the bark of each 
species during different periods of its growth, instead of the commercial bark, 
which was hitherto mostly of uncertain origin or an evident mixture of the 
barks of various species. 

Individuals of the same species resemble each other closely in their interna! 
structure, though they may differ widely in regard to their external properties, 
in consequence of locality of growth or cultivation, exposure to sunlight, 
moisture, &c, and of terrestrial and climatic conditions generally. This 
external variation and internal resemblance extend likewise to most morpho- 
logical parts of plants, under the same conditions which promote or retard the 
healthy development of the plants, and are further influenced by the treatment 
which such parts may undergo in their preparation for the market. On the 
other hand, similar parts of different allied species of plants frequently resem- 
ble each other in their physical properties, so that the surest method to distin- 
guish them is ultimately found in their structural differences. 

Such considerations determined the practical application of physiological 
botany to pharmaceutical materia medica, and out of the field of the former, 
it is particularly phytotomy or vegetable anatomy, and to a certain extent also 
vegetable physiology, which are of importance to the student of pharmacog- 
nosy ; and to make these disciplines more accessible to the latter, awaken his 
interest and induce him to individual researches, are among the nearer objects 
of the work before us, in its ultimate endeavor at collecting, sifting and mould- 
ing into a harmonious whole the investigations and results obtained in those 
collateral branches which really furnish the foundation upon which the claims 
of pharmacognosy as a science rest. 

The object in view has been attained by the author in a masterly manner, and 
prominent among the attractive features of his treatise are the simplicity and 
lucidness of his statements, the clearness of his logical deductions, the admir- 
ably executed illustrations, and the interest for his subject which he infuses 
into the reader. 

The scope of the work is shown by the headings of the chapters, which are 
as follow : Object of pharmacognosy, treatment of the material (mother-plants, 
geographical distribution, culture, collection, history, &c), aids of study (cabi~ 
nets, literature), morphological relations (roots, tubers, bulbs, &c), internal 
structure, tissues, intercellular spaces, chemical constitution of cell walls, solid 
contents, liquid contents of cells, microchemical reagents. 

Third and Fourth Annual Reports of the Geological Survey of Indiana, made 
during the Years 1871 and 1872. By B. T. Cox, State Geologist, assisted by 
Prof. John Collett, Prof. B. C. Hobbs, Prof. R. B. Warder and Dr. G. M. 
Levette. Indianapolis : R. J. Bright, State Printer, 1872. 8vo, pp. 488, 
with 4 maps in separate cover. 



A jun e U i;f873 RM '} Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 287 

Geological surveys of districts or entire States are invaluable aids for deve- 
loping their natural resources ; they should, in fact, form the basis of large 
industrial undertakings, which depend more or less upon a bountiful supply of 
the raw material, and if properly carried out must necessarily result in opening 
new fields of enterprise and new lines of communication. The vast coal fields 
underlying the soil of Indiana must yearly grow in importance, and with the 
increase of coal mines the mining and manufacturing interests generally will 
be stimulated. 

The combined reports for 1871 and 1872 contain the results of the geological 
surveys of about 15 counties, for about one-half of which number, however, 
the surveys are merely preliminary. The arrangement of the material is such 
as to give a clear picture of the topographical configuration, the geological 
relations, and the industrial pursuits and resources of the different counties ; 
the numerous analyses of coal and of some ores render the reports the more 
valuable. 

In a report on the Wyandotte cave of Crawford county (of whose galleries 
about 22 miles are said to have been explored) and its fauna, Prof. E. D. Cope 
says that it is as well worthy of popular favor as the Mammoth cave. It lacks 
the large bodies of water which diversify the scene in the latter, but is fully 
equal to it in the beauty of its stalactites and other ornaments of calcite and 
gypsum. The stalactites and stalagmites are more numerous than in the Mam- 
moth, and the former frequently have a worm or maccaroni-like form, which is 
very peculiar. They twist and wind in masses like the locks of Medusa, and 
often extend in slender runners to a remarkable length. The gypsum rosettes 
occur in the remote regions of the cave, and are very beautiful. There are 
also masses of amorphous gypsum of much purity. The floor in many places 
is covered with curved branches and, what is more beautiful, of perfectly trans- 
parent acicular crystals, sometimes mingled with imperfect twin crystals. The 
loose crystals in one place are in such quantity as to give the name of snow- 
banks to it. In other places it takes the form of japanning of the roof and 
wall rock. In one respect the cave is superior to the Mammoth — in its vast 
rooms, with step-like domes, and often huge stalagmites on central hills." 

The volume concludes with an essay on the manufacture of spiegeleisen, — • 
specular or glittering iron, — by Hugh Hartmann, Ph. D. 

The Sanitarian. A Monthly Journal. A. N. Bell, M.D., Editor. New York, 
and Chicago : A. Barnes & Co. 

The prospectus informs us that the purpose of this publication is to so pre- 
sent the results of the various inquiries which have been and which may here- 
after be made for the preservation of health and the expectations of human 
life, as to make them most advantageous to the public and to the medical pro- 
fession." 

The contents of the first number are as valuable as they are varied, and give 
promise that a real want will be supplied by the " Sanitarian," and that not only 
the physician, but all intelligent persons who value the preservation of health, 
will find its pages interesting and instructive. It is published in monthly num- 
bers, of 48 pages, at the subscription price of $3 per annum. 



288 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. {^jinTi, W3 RM * 

Hygiene. A Fortnightly Journal of Sanitary Science. New York: G. P. 
Putnam's Sons. 16 pages each. Price $2 per year. 

The various subjects are treated in a popular manner and in a pleasant style, 
giving a summary of hygienic news and observations, and discussing sanitary 
measures of local and general interest. 

'Ophthalmic Contributions. By George Strawbridge, M.D., Lecturer on Dis- 
eases of the Eye, in the University of Pennsylvania, &c. Philadelphia: 
Liudsay & Blakiston, 1873. 8vo, pp. 26, with 3 plates. 

A reprint, from different medical journals, of three papers by the author, 
-entitled: Dermoid tumor of the cornea; An additional method for the deter- 
mination of astigmatism; Cyst of the iris, removed by operation. 

American Association for the Cure of Inebriates. Proceedings of the Third 
Meeting, held in New York October 8th, 9th and 10th, 1872. Albany: 
Printing House of Yan Benthuysen & Sons, 1873. 8vo, pp. 127. 
Besides the minutes and several essays the volume before us contains reports 
of the reformatory homes and asylums for the cure of inebriates, located in the 
States of Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania and Maryland; also, a 
report of Drs. D. G. Dodge and Joseph Parrish, delegates appointed at the 
request of a special Committee of the British House of Commons to go t© Eng- 
land and give their evidence on the treatment of inebriates. 

The officers for the current year of this useful Association are: Joseph Par- 
rish, M.D., of Pennsylvania, President ; C. J. Hull, of Illinois, and Otis Clapp, 
of Massachusetts, Vice-Presidents; D. G. Dodge, M.D., of New York, Secre- 
tary, and T. L. Mason, M.D., of New York, Treasurer. 

The fourth meeting will be held, in the city of New York, on the first Tues- 
day in October next. 

New York State Inebriate Asylum, Binghamton, N. Y. Annual Report of the 
Superintendent and Physician for the Year 1872. Albany, 1873. 8vo, pp. 
62. 

The report was transmitted to the State Legislature in Feb., 1873. 

-Civil Malpractice. A Report presented to the Military Tract Medical Society 
at its 15th Semi-Annual Meeting, Jan. 14th, 1873. By M. A. McClelland, 
M.D. Chicago: W. B. Keen, Cook & Co., Publishers. 8vo, pp. 74. 
This little volume endeavors to give an account of the principles involved in 
a number of adjudicated suits for malpractice, and to carry out this object 
quotes largely from charges and decisions of the courts. A chapter on " neg- 
ligence and skill from a medical standpoint " concludes this report, which ap- 
pears to be well worthy the perusal of the physician and surgeon, and to de- 
serve the attention of the lawyer, who may be called upon to act as counsel in 
cases of so called malpractice. 

Proceedings of the Vermont Pharmaceutical Association at the Third Annual 
Meeting. Rutland, 1873. 8vo, 32 pages. 

The meeting, which was held at Montpelier in October last, seems to have 
"been an interesting and profitable one. Yarious subjects of interest to the 
profession were discussed, several essays were read, and the membership was 
-considerably augmented. 



THE 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



JULY, 1 87 3. 



EFFERVESCING SOLUTION OF TARTRATE OF SODIUM. 
By Adolph W. Miller, M. D. f Ph.D. 

This preparation is offered as an improvement on the popular solu- 
tion of citrate of magnesium. The formula for its manufacture was 
devised by Mr. Joseph Landschiitz, a veteran pharmacist of this city, 
who has been for some time dispensing it, and who states that his cus- 
tomers express a decided preference for it. 

The U. S. Dispensatory says of tartrate of sodium, that it is re- 
commended by M. Delioux as an agreeable purgative, almost without 
taste, and equal to sulphate of magnesium in its medicinal effects. 
The merits claimed for the solution of tartrate of sodium are that it 
is more pleasant to the taste than even citrate of magnesium, while it 
is more reliable and efficient in its action as a purgative, with less 
tendency to produce tenesmus. Another decided advantage is the 
fact of its forming a permanent solution, from which no precipitate 
settles down, and last, though not least, its much greater cheapness, 
costing only about one-fourth as much as the magnesium citrate. The 
present high price of citric acid seems to offer peculiar temptations to 
cheaper sophistications, such as sulphate of magnesium, as pointed 
out by Mr. Win. R. Warner in his essay on page 397, vol. 39 (1867), 
of this Journal. The retail price of 25 cents per bottle, which has 
been adopted in many pharmacies of this city, in reality yields an en- 
tirely inadequate profit to the vendor, while competition in many lo- 
calities makes it difficult to obtain a higher rate. It would therefore 
seem to be in the interest of both druggists and physicians to make 
a trial of the new aperient under consideration, which promises to 
eclipse the now renowned citrate of magnesium. 

19 



290 Carbolic Acid and Creasote. ( A ^"{ 0I ?-S?** 

( J 111 } I, 187o. 

Mr. Landschlitz's formula for filling 14 of the ordinary 12 ounce 
citrate bottles, is ay follows : 

Dissolve 9 oz. erystalLzed tartaric acid, and 17 oz. crystallized car- 
bonate of sodium, in about one quart of cold water. 

Provided the acid is not moist and the carbonate not effloresced, the 
above solution will be nearly neutral. In general, it is best to test 
it, and to neutralize it, if necessary. Then dissolve in it 28 scruples 
bicarbonate of sodium. Filter, and add sufficient water to make the 
entire quantity measure 147 fiuidounces. 
Make a syrup from 

21 oz. best crushed sugar, . , 

14 drachms crystallized tartaric acid, 
10 oz. water. After cooling, add 
1 drachm spirits of lemon and mix thoroughly. 
Measure 1-J fiuidounces of this syrup into each of the 14 bottles. 
Then pour in slowly the first solution, carefully avoiding an admix- 
ture with the syrup ; cork and tie each bottle as soon as filled. When 
this is carefully managed, but very little carbonic acid gas will 
escape. 

Each bottle so prepared will contain about seven drachms of dry 
tartrate of sodium, which is a fair adult dose. 

At present market rates the above ingredients will cost about five 
cents for the contents of each bottle, yielding a handsome and remu- 
nerative profit. The price in fact is so low, that it leaves no incen-' 
tive towards substitutions, or alteration of the formula. 



CARBOLIC ACID AND ITS RELATION TO CREASOTE. 
By A. M. Read. 

Thesis read before the National College of Pharmacy, at Washington, D. C. 

Carbolic acid was discovered in the year 1834, by Runge, who 
found it to be a constituent of coal-tar oil. Its chemical properties 
were more thoroughly investigated in the year 1841, by Laurent, who 
made it from the lighter oils of coal-tar, and who considered it to be 
an hydrated oxide of a peculiar compound radical, which he called 
Phenyl, and described it under the name of Hydrate of Phenyl. It 
has been variously named by different writers, phenic acid, phenyl 
alcohol, hydrate of phenyl, coal-tar creasote, carbolic acid, and phenol, 
the latter of which is the name under which it is generally treated of 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July 1, 1873. ) 



Carbolic Acid and Creasote. 



291 



in text- books, although carbolic acid is and probably ever will be its 
common name. 

Carbolic acid is produced by the action of nitrous acid on anilin, 
and by the dry distillation of gum benzoin, quinic acid, chromate of 
pelosina, salicylic acid, coal and the resin of Xanthorrhoea hastilis. It 
is found in the urine of the horse, cow and man, and in castor. It is 
ulso reported as having been obtained from a plant growing on the 
high lands of India (the Andromeda Leschenaultii), which is said to 
yield* a very pure quality, less deliquescent than that made from coal- 
tar oil, but at a much greater cost. It forms the chief constituent of 
the acid portion of coal-tar oil, from which it is generally obtained 
by the process given below. 

The coal-tar oil is subjected to distillation in a retort furnished 
with a thermometer, and the portion that passes over between the 
temperature of 150° and 200° C. (302° and 390° F.), is collected 
apart. This product is then mixed with a hot strong solution of caus- 
tic potash and left to stand, whereby a whitish, somewhat crystalline 
pasty mass is obtained, which, by the action of water, is resolved into 
a light oily liquid and a dense alkaline solution. The latter is with- 
drawn by a siphon, decomposed by hydrochloric acid, and the sepa- 
rated oil purified by contact with calcium chloride, and redistillation. 
It is then exposed to a low temperature, and the crystals formed are 
-drained from the mother-liquor and carefully preserved from the air. 

Pure carbolic acid forms long colorless prismatic crystals, which 
melt -at 35° C. (95 u F.), to an oily liquid, boiling at 180° G. (356° 
and greatly resembling creasote in many particulars. It is so- 
luble in about fourteen parts of water, freely soluble in alcohol, gly- 
cerin, ether, and strong acetic acid, and gives no acid reaction to test 
paper. It is very deliquescent, absorbing moisture from the atmo- 
sphere with avidity and liquefying. It coagulates albumen readily, 
and is therefore a powerful antiseptic. Sulphur and iodine dissolve 
in it. Nitric acid, bromine, and chlorine attack it with energy, form- 
ing substitution products, all of which are of an acid character. It 
also forms substitution-products with sulphuric acid, and is dissolved 
by alkalies, forming salts called phenates. It reduces mercuric oxide 
at the boiling point ; separates silver from the nitrate; reduces the 
peroxide of lead to the protoxide ; and upon heating it with arsenic 
acid forms a yellow substance called xanthophenic acid. One of the 



* From its volatile oil, of the composition of oleum gaultheriae.— Editor. 



292 



Carbolic Acid and Creasote. 



( Am. .Tour. Pharm. 
i July 1, 1873. 



most .common impurities found in carbolic acid is coal-tar oil. This 
can be easily detected by mixing the suspected acid with about twenty 
parts of water, when the aeid will be dissolved, leaving the insoluble 
oil floating on the surface. Pure carbolic acid gives a pure blue color 
to pine wood previously treated with hydrochloric acid; a green color- 
indicates anilin, and a brown pyrrhol. It ought not to turn brown in 
the air, even irr the presence of ammonia ; and should give, with sul- 
phate of iron, not a red but a pure lilac color. When emersed in an 
aqueous solution of chromic acid it is immediately turned black. 

There have been a greac many tests given to distinguish creasote 
from carbolic acid; but none of them have proved satisfactory. X 
give below some of the principal ones now used for that purpose. 

With three or four volumes of a saturated aqueous solution of ba- 
ryta, carbolic acid forms a clear solution, which, after standing, gives 
no deposit, or only a slight pulverulent one, while with creasote it 
forms an incomplete cloudy solution. 

With an alcoholic solution of chloride of iron, creasote gives a green 
color, carbolic acid a brown ; but with art* aqueous solution of the 
same, creasote gives no reaction, while carbolic acid gives a blue 
color. 

According to Mr. Morson, pure creasote is insoluble in glycerin,, 
while carbolic acid forms with it a perfectly clear solution. As this 
test has been the subject of some controversy which has attracted con- 
siderable attention, I have made a few experiments with it, the re- 
sults of which I give below. 

I first tried the common creasote of commerce with an equal vol- 
ume of glycerin, and found it to be readily soluble; Merck's gave the 
same result, but Morson's refused to dissolve in glycerin, spec. grav. 
1253, even after three or four volumes had been added. 

I then carefully added carbolic acid to a mixture of Morson's crea- 
sote and glycerin, and found that upon the addition of twenty- three 
per cent, of Calvert's No. 2 acid the creasote became soluble, forming 
a perfectly clear solution with the glycerin. 

Upon the addition of water to the three solutions of creasote, they 
each became cloudy, and the creasote soon separated ; while, upon a 
solution of carbolic acid in glycerin, water had no effect whatever. 

Some time ago, while preparing a catarrh mixture in which carbolic 
acid is used in conjunction with liquor ammoniae fortior, alcohol and 
"water, 1 found that upon the addition of the ammonia to the acid* 



Am. Jour. Pharm. i 
July 1, 1873. \ 



Carbolic Acid and Creasote. 



293 



the acid was readily dissolved, forming a clear solution, which did not 
change upon the addition of the other ingredients ; but which, after 
standing a few hours, became a beautiful violet blue color. Having 
been taught by text-books that carbolic acid was insoluble in ammo- 
nia, I was somewhat surprised at this result, and upon referring to 
Watt, Ginelin, and other authorities, and finding that they made the 
same statement,* my surprise was somewhat intensified. I immedi- 
ately instituted a series of experiments, and found that carbolic acid 
Was certainly soluble in ammonia, but whether owing to impurities 
present I could not say. I used Calvert's No. 2 acid, which was im- 
mediately dissolved by the ammonia, forming a clear solution, which, 
upon standing about six hours, gave the violet blue color spoken 
of above, the acid still remaining in solution, and giving no pre- 
cipitate. 

I then tried the ammonia upon common creasote, which I found to 
he insoluble in it, but which, after a short time, acquired a light blue 
<color. 

To carry these experiments to a successful issue, it became neces- 
sary to procure chemically pure carbolic acid and creasote. After a 
number of attempts I succeeded in getting Morson's and Merck's cre- 
osote, and having in the meantime found in the Druggists' Circular a 
process for purifying carbolic acid, which, with some modifications, I 
iiave used, 1 have succeeded, I think, in confirming my first experi- 
ments, 

I will give the process of purification as used by myself. 
I put into a pint flask one ounce of Calvert's No. 1 acid, crystal- 
lized, and gradually added ten ounces of distilled water, shaking t 

* Note by the Editor. — Gmelin's Handbook, edition of Cavendish Society, 
vol. xi, p. 150, contains the following : 

Caibolate of Ammonia. — Carbolic acids absorb ammoniacal gas abundantly 
and with evolution of heat, forming carbolate of ammonia (Laurent, Hoffman, 
Ann. Pharin., 47, 75). This salt, passed in the state of vapor through a glass 
tube at a low red heat, deposits a small quantity of charcoal, but does not form 
•any aniliu ; which, however, is formed at 300° C, in sealed tubes, and sparing- 
ly when an alcoholic solution of carbolate of ammonia is set aside for a month, 
(Laurent). Strong ammonia dissolves quickly in cold creasote, and the mix- 
ture turns red when exposed to the air, (Reichenbach). The salt obtained with 
•carbolic acid remains colorless, and, even when it contains but little ammonia, 
exhibits alkaline reaction, exhales ammonia and volatilizes, (Runge). Creasote 
■dissolves in ammonia, even in the cold ; and the solution gives off all its am- 
monia at 100°, (Gorup-Besanez.) 



294 



Levico Mineral Water. 



j Am. Jour. Pharm,. 
t July 1,1873. 



frequently, when I found that six and one half drachms of the acid! 
were dissolved, leaving one and one-half drachms undissolved to con- 
tain the impurities, which are less soluble than the acid. As soon as, 
the solution became clear, I carefully poured it off, placed it in a hy- 
drometer glass, and added, with constant agitation, finely powdered 
salt (previously purified by dissolving it in water, filtering the solu- 
tion, and evaporating to dryness), until the water was saturated, and 
the acid arose to the top. I then carefully removed the acid with a 
pipette. Upon the addition of ammonia to this product, it was very 
readily dissolved ; but it did not give the violet blue color until after- 
standing about twelve hours. Not being satisfied. Irepurified it in the- 
same way, being careful not to add as much water as I did at first. 

The addition of an equal volume of ammonia to this product of re- 
purification quickly dissolved it, forming a perfectly clear solution,, 
which did not acquire the violet blue color until after standing nearly 
thirty hours. 

For want of time I was not able to carry the purification by frac- 
tional distillation, as I should like to have done ; still, I consider the 
product of republication very nearly pure — much purer, at least, than 
any I could find in the market. 

Upon the addition of ammonia to this acid, as stated above, it was 
readily dissolved ; while, upon Morson's creasote, ammonia had no- 
effect whatever, neither dissolving it nor giving it the blue color that 
it gave to the common creasote. Merck's creasote gave the same re- 
sult ; it as well as other samples* that I have tried being perfectly 
insoluble in ammonia. 

The ammonia used in the experiments given above was the aqua, 
ammonite fortior of the U. S. P., sp. gr. 0*900. The aqua ammo- 
nise U. S. P., sp. gr. 0*960, would answer the same purpose, but a. 
much larger proportion would be required. 

After the successful termination of the experiments given above, I 
have no hesitation in suggesting aqua ammoniae fortior as a test ta 
distinguish between carbolic acid and creasote ; and of leaving its. 
value as compared to other tests now known to the judgment of the 
pharmacist and chemist. 



LEVICO MINERAL WATER. 
In a paper published in a recent number of the London Lance^ 
Levico water has been noticed, and the article having apparently at- 



A3 jiyi R ,'i8?3 RM *} Levico Mineral Water. 295 

tracted some attention in this country, inquiries have been directed 
to us in relation to the nature and composition of this water. The 
G-iomale Italiano delle malattie veneree e delle malettie delta pelle, 
edited by Dr. G. B. Soresina, and published at Milan, contains in the 
first volume for 1869, a paper by Dr. G. B. Soresina, entitled Le 
aeque minerali di Levico (nel Trentina) ferruginose, rameiche, arsen- 
icali, from which we take the following notes. • 

The bathing establishment of Levico was erected in 1860, though 
the mineral springs had been used for several centuries, and acquired 
much reputation in Italy for the cure of chronic eruptions of the skin, 
scabies, rheumatism, inveterate arthritis, &c- The spring of the bath- 
ing water is in the caverna del vetriolo, a short distance from Levico. 
A chemical analysis has been made of these mineral waters by Dr. 
Luigi Manetti, professor of chemistry at the technical school of Cre- 
mona. The following tables exhibit the composition in 1000 parts of 
these mineral waters, I being the bathing water taken at the caverna 
del vetriolo ; II the same water, taken at the establishment in Levico, 
and, III, the acidulous .drinking water from the caverna delUocra ; 
IV gives the composition of ten grams of the ochre deposited from 
the latter. 





I 


II 


III 


IV 


Oxide of copper, 


0-0234 


0-0234 






Ferric oxide, 


0-0190 


1-1210 




9-080 


Ferrous oxide, 


2-3210 


1-4700 


0-2881 




Oxide of manganese, 


trace 


trace 






" aluminum, 


0-2527 


0-2527 


0-0320 


0-088 


" magnesium, 


0-0512 


0-0512 


0-0451 




" calcium, 


0-4334 


0-4334 


0-1088 


0-052 


" sodium, 


0-0054 


0-0054 


0-0043 




" ammonium, 


0-0027 


0-0027 


0-0051 




Acid arsenious, 


0-0008 


0-0008 


0-00099 


0-004 


" sulphuric, 


3-9410 


3-9410 


0-5052 


0-096 


" silicic, 


0-0610 


0-0610 


0-0230 


0-038 


" carbonic, 


0-2720 


0-2720 


0-1990 




Organic matter, 


trace 


trace 


0-0190 




Total, . , 


7-3836 


7-6346 


1-23059 


9-358 



The ochreous sediment contains also traces of crenic and apocrenic 
acids, and 0*636 of water, with a loss amounting to 0*006. 



296 Examination of Chlor alky d rate. { L ^\mT' 

The results of the analysis No. I and III indicate that 1000 parts 
of the water contain the following (anhydrous) compounds. 





I 


III 


Sulphate of copper, 


0-0470 




Ferric sulphate, 


0-0295 




Ferrous sulphate, . 


4-9004 


0-4608 


Sulphate of manganese, 


trace 


trace 


44 aluminum, 


0-8428 




44 magnesium, 


0-1504 


0-1320 


44 calcium, 


1-0520 


0-2630 


44 sodium, 


0-0120 


0-0098 


44 ammonium, 


00105 


0-0198 


Acid arsenious, 


0-0008 


0-00099 


44 silicic, 


0-0(310 


0-0230 


44 carbonic, 


0-2720 


0-1790 


Ferrous oxide, } . , ~. r . 


{::::: 


0671 


Alumina, j 




0-0472 


Organic matter. 


trace 


0-0190 


Total, . 


7-3784 


1-22769 



J. M. M. 



EXAMINATION OF CHLOR A LH Y D R AT E. 
By Charles Rice. 

Dr. Hermann Hager, in one of the numbers of his j< mnal [Pliar- 
maceutiscJie Centrallialh, April 24, 1873), has drawn attention to the 
chloralhydrate manufactured by Saame & Co., *of Ludwigshafen, 
which had enjoyed a. high reputation for purity, but of which there 
were then some lots in the market which were far from being pure. 
Dr. Hager obtained several samples, and examined them with the 
following results ; 

Its solubility was normal, but the solution had an alkaline reac- 
tion. 

2. The solution, acidulated With HO, N0 5 , gave a white cloud with 
AgO, N0 5 . If not acidulated, it gave a white cloud, which speedily 
turned black. 

3. A ^sample, heated on platina foil, left a white residue, which 
turned brown at an incipient red heat. 



A juJ;i!m H 3* RM -} Examination of Chloralhydrate. 297 

4. The solution decomposed quite rapidly solution of permanga- 
nate of potassa. 

5. The solution gave a faint cloud with Bohlig's reagent for am- 
monia (addition to the liquid of about 5 drops of a solution of HgCl 2 
in 30 parts of HO, will give cloudiness if free ammonia be present; 
then addition of about 5 drops of a solution of KO, C0 2 in 60 parts 
HO, will give cloudiness if a salt of ammonia be present). 

6. A sample was subjected to heat, the residue ignited, dissolved 
in a few drops of dilute HO. S0 3 and mixed with alcohol. Crystals 
of KO, SO,, were deposited. Another portion of the residue gave 
the characteristic precipitate with PtCl 2 . 

These results indicate the presence of potassa, formic acid and 
traces of ammonia. Having myself obtained, by chance, a sample of 
Saame's chloralhydrate, I subjected it to a careful examination, and 
have found that my sample at least was not identical with Hager's ; 
for the reactions under 1, 3, 4, 5, 6 gave all negative results. At the 
same time I subjected a number of other samples to examination, the 
result of which will be found tabulated below : 

There were 9 samples altogether ; 2 Merck's, 2 Schering's, 1 
Gehe & Co.'s, 1 Saame & Co.'s, 1 Marquart's, 2 unknown. All gave 
a clear neutral colorless solution, except No. 7, which had a yellow 
tinge. None gave a fixed residue. 

All solutions were made of equal strength, and every reaction was 
performed under equal circumstances. 

Nitrate of silver solution was added both to an acidulated and to a 
neutral solution, and gave the same result for each sample in every 
case. 

To a layer of HO, S0 3 of 1 inch deep in a test tube was added 1 
grm. of the sample, and gentle heat applied to hasten dehydration. 

A portion of each solution was acidified with a sriiall quantity of 
dilute HO, S0 3 and solution of permanganate of potassa added. A 
safe conclusion from an affirmative reaction in this case can only be 
drawn if both solutions are cold, dilute and have not long (not over 
about 30 minutes) remained in contact. Otherwise the permanganate 
acts upon the chloralhydrate itself, and produces trichloracetate of 
potassa. 

A crystal of KI was dissolved in the solution and solution of starch 
added. 

None of the samples gave out any inflammable vapor. 



298 



Anemone Ludoviciana. 



f Am. Jour. Phaxw. 
t June 1, 1873. 



Samples. 


+AgO, N0 5 


+ HO, S0 3 


-f KO, Mn 2 O7 


+KI-4- starch 




Merck s 1. 


More cloudy than 3 


Acid colorless 


Fades instantly 


Faint blue 


2. 


« II. 


Faint cloud. 


'J 


Retains color. 


No reaction 




Schering's I. 


More cloudy than 4 








4. 


" IT. 


Faint cloud. 










Gehe & Co,s. 




Acid consider- 
ably colored 


« 




6. 


Saame & Co.'s 




Acid slightly 
colored 






?. 


Marquart's. 










8. 


Unknown I. 


Heavy cloud. 




fades quickly 


Blue. 


9. 


II. 


White precipitate 


Acid very dark 
colored 





It would not be surprising if some of the chloralhydrate, which Dr. 
Hager has examined, were to be shipped to this country. It be- 
hooves us, therefore, to be on our guard. 

New York, Jane 15, 1873. 



ANEMONE LUDOVICIANA. 

By Frank E. Miller. 
Extract from an Inaugural Essay. 
The above plant was made the subject of the thesis of A. W. Mil- 
ler, a .graduate of the class of 1861 — 62, who, on account of the 
small quantity obtained, found only slight traces of the active prin- 
ciple. 

About ten pounds of the leaves were obtained from St. Paul, Min- 
nesota, in the neighborhood of which the plant grows abundantly. 
Of this lot there were only five pounds of fresh leaves, the other five 
pounds being of the previous year's gathering. The two lots were 
mixed togethei\two pounds were placed in a steam still with suffi- 
cient water to cover them, and one quart of this distilled off. This 
was allowed to stand for a short time, and was then shaken up with 
about one-half fluid-ounce of chloroform, which was separated after 
remaining in the distillate for several hours, and allowed to evapor- 
ate in a current of dry .air. A number of feathery crystals were soon, 
formed, which were of a white color. The vessel in which they were 
crystallized had been closed by parchment paper, but this did not 
prevent them from becoming discolored after a few days, and chang- 
ing the color of blue litmus to red, which action was not found to take 
place while they were white. ^ 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July 1, 1873. / 



Anemone Ludoviciana. 



299 



About one pint of the expressed juice, to which had been added 
about three ounces of i*5° alcohol, was also treated in the same way, 
namely, by the addition of water and subsequent distillation. Chlo- 
roform was added to the distillate, and, after repeated agitation, the 
same was separated and allowed to evaporate spontaneously. In a 
very short time crystals were observed to form, but after a short time 
the liquid, which was perfectly colorless at first, became dark red, 
and when the chloroform was entirely evaporated the residue became 
of a dark brown color, although it retained its crystalline form in the 
centre. It was strongly acid to litmus, and of a peculiar penetrating 
odor, very irritating to the nostrils. Before the chloroform had evap- 
orated from this distillate of the expressed juice, a few drops were 
accidentally spilled on the writer's fingers, but nothing, except the 
coldness produced by the evaporation of the chloroform, was noticed 
at the time. A few hours afterwards the finger began to pain, and 
the skin to assume a red color. Shortly after this a number of blis- 
ters appeared, the sense of pain seeming to increase for some time 
afterwards. It was nearly six weeks before the finger was entirely 
healed, although it was well • protected. Whether this was caused by 
the poisonous action of the anemonic acid, or whether it penetrated 
deeper into the skin than other rubifacients, was not possible for the 
writer to determine. 

Some three months after the foregoing experiments had been made, 
the balance of the leaves (about eight pounds) were subjected to dis- 
tillation, and treated with chloroform in the same manner as pre- 
viously described. No crystalline body was formed after the evapor- 
ation of the chloroform, and only a dark amorphous residue of an 
acid character remained^. From this it was supposed that only from 
the fresh leaves or juice the anemonin could be obtained, as there was 
no trace of crystalline matter in the leaves that had been kept five or 
six months. 

The semi-crystalline matter left after distilling the expressed juice 
could not be redissolved in chloroform. There seemed to be a slight 
action (the chloroform becoming somewhat discolored), but the mass 
retained its shape and appearance. 

Particular attention was given to detect vegetable albumen, which, 
however, could not be found. About two ounces of the leaves were 
treated with one pint of cold water, and allowed to macerate for two 
-days ; a portion of this was heated to the boiling point with no per- 



. 300 Benzoin Odoriferum, Nees. { k ^Xi,mS^ 

ceptible results. Nitric acid and corrosive sublimate were each tried, 
but neither produced a precipitate, nor was any effect produced by 
the addition of tannin. 

Liquor potassoe and sulphate of copper gave proof of grape sugar, 
both in the expressed juice and in the aqueous extract. A green 
color was produced by the addition of sesquichloride of iron to both 
the aqueous and alcoholic extracts. 

The alcoholic preparation, which was made of the strength of four 
ounces to the pint, was found to contain, after evaporation, two 
resins, one soluble in ether, of an oily character, leaving no stain on 
heated paper, and the other soluble in water, giving a precipitate 
with acetate of lead and also with subacetate of lead, but not with 
the latter after the action of neutral acetate. 

Pectin, was indicated by the addition of a hot solution of carbonate 
of soda to two ounces of the leaves, allowing this to digest, and, after 
straining, adding some dilute sulphuric acid, by which a yellowish 
gelatinous mass was precipitated, the liquid becoming somewhat 
gelatinous itself. 

The therapeutical effects of this plant are the same as those of the 
European Anemone Pulsatilla and Anemone pratensis Dr. W. 11. 
Miller, of St. Paul, Minnesota, has used it with decided success in 
several chronic diseases of the eye, such as cataract, amaurosis and 
opacity of the cornea. It h;»s also been given with good results in 
cutaneous eruptions and in secondary syphilis. These facts were 
mentioned in the former thesis on this subject, and Dr. Miller has 
since then (18(33) used the plant medicinally with considerable suc- 
cess. 

■ 

BENZOIN ODORIFERUM, NEES. 
By J. Morris Jones.. 
Extract from an Inaugural Essay. 
The common names of this indigenous shrub are spice wood, 
spice bush, fever wood, fever bush, Benjamin bush, wild allspice, 
snap-wood, spice berry, allspice bush. 

The small branches are used as an aromatic, stimulant tonic in 
the forms of infusion, tincture and fluid extract. The proportions 
of the drug in these preparations are — infusion, two ounces to the 
pint of boiling water; tincture is two ounces to pint of diluted al- 
cohol, and the fluid extract is so made that one fluid-ounce represents 



Am. Jouh . Pn\RM. ) 
July 1, 1873. \ 



Benzoin Odoriferum, Nees. 



301 



one troy-ounce of the drug. It is said to be used as an agreeable 
drink in low fevers and in intermittents, and also as a vermifuge. 

According to Dr. Drake, the oil of the berries is used as a stimu- 
lant. The infusion has an aromatic and astringent taste, and the 
odor of the bark. The tincture is of a brownish color and has an 
aromatic and astringent taste and a faint odor of the bark. 

I. Four troy- ounces of the bark, exhausted with strong alcohol, 
gave a tincture of a bright green color, leaving on evaporation an 
extract which had a dark green color. This extract was .treated 
with different solvents; first with sulphuric ether, which took up 
the coloring matter, leaving an extract of a dark brown color. This 
extract was found to be insoluble in cold benzin and sparingly solu- 
ble in hot benzin, precipitating again on cooling ; it is likewise in- 
soluble in chloroform and bisulphide carbon. The remaining extract 
treated with water imparted to it a brownish color, and upon evapo- 
ration the solution left but a small residue. The portion insoluble in 
water was then dissolved in alcohol, which gave a solution of a brown- 
ish color. Acetate of lead produced a flocculent precipitate, and 
the filtrate was not affected by subacetate of lead. The lead was 
separated by treating the solution with sulphuretted hydrogen, and 
the clear filtrate upon being evaporated left a very small residue. 

II. Four troy-ounces of the bark were exhausted with ether by 
maceration and percolation and yielded a tincture of a green color. 
This was evaporated to a soft extract, which was of a dark green 
or almost black color and had a very strong odor of the drug; upon 
standing, this extract separated into two layers, one being of a green- 
ish color and the other clear ; the latter imparted to paper a greasy 
stain, which, upon being heated, disappeared. A portion of the ex- 
tract was dissolved in ether and thrown upon water; by gradually 
heating the water to evaporate the ether, there were obtained small 
globules which were found to be of a resinous character, and an oily 
layer which, when separated, was found to have a strong odor of the 
drug and an aromatic taste. 

The resinous matter was treated with alcohol, which dissolved the 
greater portion of it. The insoluble portion having been separated 
by filtration and the alcoholic solution evaporated, a resin was ob- 
tained which was soluble in ether and partly soluble in chloroform 
and benzin. It was somewhat lighter in color than the portion in- 
soluble in alcohol, and when dried had a brittle and resinous fracture, 



302 



Cortex Amy dali Persicce. 



j Am. Jour. Phabm. 
\ July 1, 1873. 



while the insoluble portion broke somewhat like wax, neither of them 
having odor or taste. 

III. Four troy-ounces of the bark were boiled with water, and 
yielded a decoction of a brownish color and an aromatic, somewhat 
astringent taste. A portion being tested by iron and gelatin gave 
evidence of tannin. From another portion the tannin was removed 
by acetate of lead ; the filtrate, on the addition of subacetate of 
lead, gave no precipitate ; this solution was treated with sulphuretted 
hydrogen to precipitate the lead, and after concentration by evapo- 
ration the solution indicated the presence of sugar by Trommer's 
test. Starch was also found to be present by solution of iodine. 

IV. Sixty troy-ounces of the bark were ground and after macera- 
tion for twenty-four hours with water, distilled, yielding an oily layer 
of a strong aromatic odor floating upon the aqueous distillate, which 
did not react upon red or blue litmus paper. 

The oil obtained by distillation and the oil obtained from the ether- 
ial extract were very similar, that obtained by distillation having a 
stronger odor; both oils when tested were found to belong to the cin- 
namyl series ; the addition of bichromate of potassium and sulphuric 
acid, or of permanganate of potassium producing the odor of bitter 
almonds. 

V. Twenty grams of the air-dry bark were incinerated ; the weight 
of the ashes obtained was 0*59 gram, the percentage being 2*95; of 
this amount distilled water dissolved *119 gram. The ashes contained 
oxide of iron, lime, potassa, soda, hydrochloric and carbonic acids, 
and were free from sulphuric and phosphoric acids. The organic 
constituents were found to be tannin, resin, wax, starch, sugar, chlo- 
rophyll, albumen and volatile oil containing cinnamyl- compound. 



CORTEX AMYGDALI PERSlCvE. 
By J. Howard McCrea. 
From an Inaugural Essay. 
The author collected the peach tree bark in the latter part of May, 
and, drying it in the air, found it to lose 33J per cent. By analysis 
he proved it to contain tannin, albumen, starch, gum, lignin (about 
50 per cent.), hydrocyanic acid (in the cold infusion), resin soluble in 
alcohol and insoluble in ether, fat, extractive and a potassium salt. 
The bitter principle was not isolated : it appears to be different from 



Ah. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Ja\y 1, 187'i. J 



Cortex Amygdali Persicoe. 



303 



phloridzin, as the author failed to obtain it by the process for this 
principle. A tincture representing two troyounces in the pint was 
prepared by percolation, and used by Dr. H. D. W. Pawling, King of 
Prussia, Pa. Concerning its medicinal properties, the author says: 

From the large amount of tannic acid found in the bark, I think it 
might class very favorably with some of the officinal astringents, al- 
though Dr. Pawling did not use it as such, but mainly found its vir- 
tues to reside in the prussic acid. I here will add his opinion con- 
cerning its medical virtues : 

I have examined your preparation, and find, by the use I have made of it, 
that it possesses antispasmodic, stimulant and sedative properties. 

The first case in which I used it was that of Mrs. W., who was supposed to 
be laboring 1 under disease of the heart. She had been treated by several phy- 
sicians, but without any permanent relief. On a visit to some of her friends 
she was taken with one of her old attacks. I saw her almost immediately, and 
found her cold, pulse at one hundred and ten, sighing, and exhibiting every 
symptom of nervous prostration. I gave her a teaspoonful of your tincture in 
a little sweetened water, repeating the dose in an hour, then again in two hours, 
and so on continuing. She was relieved after the second dose, and after re- 
peating for a few times she became so much improved that she was able to 
return home the next morning. Since then I have frequently heard from her, 
through her brother, who says she now immediately receives relief from a dose 
or two, and J have been supplying her ever since. 

The next case was a delicate girl, who had been suffering some time from 
chorea, but who had in a measure recovered from the irregular muscular move- 
ments, but still remained distressingly nervous. I gave her the same dose as 
in the case of Mrs. W . , at more distant intervals, which appeared to benefit 
much, and in conjunction with iron made a permanent cure. 

The next case was a gentleman of nervous temperament, complaining- of 
twitching and nervous spasms. I placed him under the use of your tincture, 
which he has been using for some length of time and still continues to use with 
great benefit, and, as he expresses himself, will soon make a cure. 

In pertussis, or whooping cough, I think it exhibits some virtue. I have 
used it in conjunction with senega, and I think with considerable relief. 

In the bronchial affections of infants I have seen it do considerable good in 
conjunction with senega or ipecac. In one case particularly, a child of Mrs. 
L., a poor puny child that contracted catarrh a few weeks after birth, I had 
tried all the usual remedies for this ailment, until the poor child was reduced 
to an extremity. After receiving your tincture I commenced to try it in con- 
junction with squill and senega. After continuing the combination for some 
time I had the pleasure of seeing the child recover. 

I should have liked much to have further experimented with your prepara- 
tion, but running short and no fresh supply on hand, I was compelled to give 
over; butin the cases of the character I first mentioned I think it will prove a 
valuable adjunct. 



304 



Compton ia Asplen i folia . 



i Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
1 July 1, 1873. 



COMPTONIA ASPLEN IFOL1 A. 
By Richard T. Chiles. 
Extract from an Inaugural Essay. 
All parts of the plant possess a resinous and spicy odor, which is 
increased when the plant is rubbed, but the leaves and joung branches 
are the parts which are used in medicine. 

Sweet fern is esteemed in domestic practice as a mild astringent 
tonic, possessing considerable alterative properties, and has been 
used with great success in diarrhoea, dysentery and the bowel corn- 
plaints, which are so prevalent among children during the summer 
months. 

Preparations : Decoction, Infusion, Syrup and Fluid Extract. — 
The decoction is made by boiling an ounce of the leaves in a pint 
and a quarter of water to a pint, and straining; of this preparation* 
one or two fluid-ounces may be given two or three times a day. 

An infusion made in the proportions of a half ounce of the leaves 
to a pint of boiling water is frequently used. 

A fluid extract, prepared by the following formula, yields a pre- 
paration which contains the virtue of the leaves in a concentrated 
form, and which has many advantages over either the decoction or 
infusion. 

Take of— 

Sweet fern leaves, in line powder, . 10 troy -ounces. 

Diluttd alcohol, . . . a sufficient quantity. 

Moisten the powder with three fluid-ounces of diluted alcohol, pack 
it firmly in a cylindrical percolator and gradually pour diluted alco- 
hol upon it until twelve fluid-ounces are obtained; set this aside, and 
continue the percolation until two pints have been obtained or until 
the powder is exhausted. Evaporate this by means of a water-bath 
to four fluid ounces, and mix it with the reserved tincture. The dose 
of the fluid extract is one-half to one fluidrachm. 

The syrup is prepared by mixing four fluid-ounces of the fluid ex- 
tract with twelve fluid-ounces of syrup. 

Chemical Examination. — A portion of the leaves was exhausted 
with cold water. The resulting infusion was of a light red color 
and had a bitterish and astringent taste, with very little of the odor 
of the leaves. When boiled and allowed to cool, it deposited a floc- 
culent precipitate, indicating the presence of albumen. 



Am. Jodr. Pharm. ) 
. July 1, 187rs. / 



Com pton ia Asplen if (A la . 



305 



The infusion, when treated with a solution of sulphate of copper 
and an excess of solution of potassa, gave, on being boiled for a short 
time, a reddish precipitate of suboxide of copper. This test indi- 
cates the presence of sugar. 

Another portion of the infusion gave a greenish-black color with a 
solution of sesquichloride of iron, a white curdy precipitate with sul- 
phuric acid, and a slight precipitate with gelatin. After digesting 
the infusion with an excess of gelatin for twenty-four hours and fil- 
tering, the infusion gave no precipitate with sulphuric acid, and on 
the addition of solution of sesquichloride of iron gave a greenish- 
black color, which was entirely dissipated on the application of heat. 

Four troy-ounces of the leaves, when exhausted with cold water 
and the resulting infusion being evaporated, yielded about thirty per 
cent, of a dark brown extract. Two hundred and forty grains of this 
extract, after having been submitted to the action of alcohol and 
ether successively, left about thirty-five per cent, of dark brown ex- 
tractive matter. The alcohol, with which the extract had been ex- 
hausted, on being evaporated yielded a substance of a pale brown 
color somewhat translucent, hard and brittle. It is soluble in water 
and officinal alcohol, but is insoluble in absolute alcohol, ether and 
oil of turpentine. Its aqueous solution, on being agitated, forms a 
lather like a solution of soap, and in many of its properties it resem- 
bles saponin obtained by a similar process from Saponaria officinalis. 

Four troy-ounces of the leaves were exhausted with alcohol, and 
the alcohol distilled oft' from the tincture until it was reduced to a 
syrupy liquid. This was thrown into a large bulk of water, and the 
precipitated resin collected on a filter. The resin, after having been 
well washed with cold water, was dissolved in alcohol, and the solu- 
tion evaporated spontaneously. The resin, as thus obtained, is of a 
dark green color, very friable, and has the peculiar odor of the leaves 
highly developed. Its taste is bitter and camphorous. It is soluble 
in alcohol, ether and alkaline solutions. On the addition of an acid 
to the latter solution it is precipitated unchanged. 

The distillate obtained by distilling water twice from fresh por- 
tions ( f the leaves was agitated with ether, the ethereal solution 
drawn off and allowed to evaporate spontaneously. A small quan- 
tity of an oily liquid was obtained, which communicated a greasy 
stain to bibulous paper, disappearing entirely on the application of 
heat. 

20 



306 



Tincture of Rhubarb. 



\ An. Jour. Prakm. 
X July 1,1873.. 



A portion of the leaves, which had been exhausted with alcohol, 
was now treated with ether. The ethereal liquid was evaporated 
to a small bulk and thrown into water, when a small amount of fatty 
matter separated and floated on the surface of the water. It was 
absorbed by bibulous paper, to which it communicated a greasy stain, 
that was not dissipated by the application of heat. During the evap- 
oration of the ethereal liquid a small quantity of green waxy matter 
was deposited on the sides of the evaporating dish. 

A quantity of the leaves after having been exhausted respectively 
with cold and boiling water, alcohol, ether, diluted acids and alkaline 
solutious, left a dark brown lignin, which was converted by concen- 
trated sulphuric acid into a pasty mass soluble in water. The leaves, 
when incinerated, yield about five per cent, of ash, in which potassa, 
lime, oxide of iron, silica, sulphuric, muriatic and carbonic acids were 
found. 

The organic constituents are albumen, sugar, tannin, gallic acid, 
gum, extractive, resin, volatile oil, fatty and waxy matter, lignin and 
a substance having properties analogous to saponin. 



ON TINCTURE OF RHUBARB. 
By J. B. Moore. 

This tincture, on account of its tendency to deposit on standing an 
abundant precipitate, has always been a source of annoyance to phar- 
macists. This instability is not only pharmaceutically objectionable, 
but is especially so in a medicinal point of view, as the precipitated 
matter has been ascertained to contain a portion of the active prin- 
ciples of the drug. Chrysophanic acid, which is supposed to be either 
one of the elements of activity of rhubarb, or intimately associated 
with its medicinal virtues, has been found to be among the principles 
usually contained in the precipitated matter. Hence it is important 
that some means be devised to render the tincture more permanent, 
and to prevent this deposit from occurring. 

• To myself this imperfection in the officinal tincture of rhubarb has 
been annoying, not only on account of my consciousness of the fact 
that this precipitation depletes the preparation of a portion of its 
medicinal power, and thu< detracts from its reliability and efficiency 
as a medicinal agent, but also because of its rendering the tincture, 
not unfrequently, unsightly in appearance, and causing it to be cloudy 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ] 
July 1, 1873. / 



Tincture of Rhubarb. 



307 



by the disturbance of the sediment when the tincture is decanted in 
the hurry of dispensing. I, therefore, thought that a little time could 
he profitably spent in some experiments with the view of so amending 
the officinal process as to overcome the difficulty referred to; and as 
my efforts in this direction have been quite satisfactory, I have con- 
cluded to give the result for the benefit of others, and here present 
the following modification of the officinal formula, which yields a tinc- 
ture that will keep with but slight precipitation : 



Mix the glycerin, alcohol fort, and water. Moisten the powders,, 
previously mixed together, with the mixture ; pack the moistened mass 
in a glass jar or other close vessel, and let it stand for twenty-four 
hours. Then rub the powder through a No. 20 sieve, and pack it in a 
glass funnel prepared for percolation, and gradually pour upon it the 
remainder of the menstruum, and when it has all been absorbed con- 
tinue the percolation with diluted alcohol until thirty-two fluidounces 
are obtained. 

As a preventive measure to obviate the tendency to deposit in this, 
as well as in many other tinctures and also fluid extracts, it will be 
well to have the receiving vessel perfectly dry or else rinsed out with 
a portion of the same menstruum which is to be used in the percola- 
tion, and the percolate after a half flnidounce or ounce has passed 
should be occasionally agitated. This last simple precaution will not 
infrequently prevent, at least in a measure, the tendency to deposit 
which such concentrated solutions might otherwise have. 

If the percolation is well managed in making fluid extracts and 
some tinctures, the first portions of percolate which pass are usually 
so dense and so supersaturated that, if allowed to remain long in this 
condition, they will in a short time begin to let fall a portion of their 
excessive charge, and after this process is once established there is no 
telling where it may end. And such solutions, when long exposed in 
this supersaturated condition, become a helpless prey to oxidation 
and other injurious atmospheric influences. More especially is this 



Jfy. Pulv. Rhei, No. 40, . 

" Cardamomi, No. 40, 



5 °°j 

f^iv f .^ij, 
f 3xvij, 



gss, " 



Glycerine, . 
Alcohol, fort., 

Aquae-, 



f^xij fS.vj, 
q. s. 



Alcohol, dil. 



308 



Tincture of Rhubarb. 



(Am. Jour. Phakm. 
'( July 1,1873. ' 



the case when the percolate contains tannin, starch and other proxi- 
mate principles, which, when thus associated together, are liable, even 
at ordinary temperatures, to undergo changes unfavorable to the sta- 
bility of the finished product. Hence the importance of attention to 
this apparently trivial matter. 

The frequent agitation of the percolate during the process of per- 
colation intermixes the denser portions with the successive and less, 
densely saturated portions as they pass. It not unfrequently hap- 
pens that, when percolation is slow, several days are consumed before 
the completion of the process, so that the denser portions, if allowed 
to remain undisturbed, are most sure to deposit more or less matter,, 
which although it is frequently very readily redissolved, is not so 
likely to remain afterwards in permanent solution. At least this has 
been my experience while carefully and closely observing very fre- 
quent manipulations of this kind. # 

There are obscure chemical and molecular changes which may occur 
under such circumstances, as the result of oxidation and other influ- 
ences, in consequence of the nascent condition of the vegetable princi- 
ples, and these changes but few could divine or explain. It therefore 
behooves usall'to adopt every expedient in our manipulations that 
may suggest itself, to guard against the possibility of such results. 
After the percolation in any instance has sufficiently advanced that, 
the solid matter extracted is mixed with sufficient of the menstruum 
to hold it in solution, then the agitation of the percolate be no longer 
continued, and the superstratum which accumulates may serve a good 
purpose, in some instances, in protecting the stronger portions be- 
neath from the action of the air during the exposure necessary to 
complete the process. 

The deposit occurring in the officinal tincture of rhubarb very often 
not only covers the bottom of the bottle with a deposit of from a 
quarter to a half inch in depth, but the sides of the bottle most ex- 
posed to the direct light also receive their share of coating. 

The above formula does not entirely remedy the defect, but it so 
nearly accomplishes the object as to render the tincture as prepared 
by it a much more satisfactory preparation. The deposit accumulat- 
ing in a quart of the tincture made by this formula on the 5th of last 
February is at this time so slight when compared with that usually 
occurring in the officinal tincture, that it really appears, practically, 
of but little consequence. The tincture, made as above directed, does 



«\.m. Jour. Pharm. ) 
July 1, 187:5. j 



Tincture of Rhubarb. 



309 



not usually manifest the slightest evidence of deposit until about three 
weeks after it is prepared, and then the precipitation proceeds very 
^slowly and very sparingly, while the officinal tincture begins to throw 
down a copious deposit in a few hours after it is made. I tried in 
several experiments increasing the proportion of glycerin to six fluid- 
onuces, but with no advantage whatever — in fact with less satisfac- 
tory results. 

And, furthermore, the menstruum was not so satisfactory to work 
with, and the drug was not so easily nor so thoroughly exhausted as 
when the proportions in the formula above were adhered to. It has 
been suggested to increase the alcoholic strength of this tincture, in 
order to prevent the deposit, but this I deemed objectionable, as the 
spirituous strength of the preparation should not be augmented, if 
possible to avoid it; in fact, this property should be decreased in al- 
most all tinctures to the minimum consistent with their integrity and 
permanence. Glycerin being so excellent a solvent for rhubarb, and 
so eligible both therapeutically and pharmaceutical^, that I at once 
summoned it to my aid in forming a menstruum that would not only 
exhaust the drug thoroughly, but at the same time hold the extracted 
matter in permanent solution, and find it, practically, to answer the 
purpose almost fully. 

The menstruum I have employed is much more satisfactory to use 
than the diluted alcohol of the officinal formula, as the percolation is 
more easily accomplished with it « for, being less aqueous than the 
tatter, there is less tendency or likelihood, in case the powder is ac- 
cidentally packed too tightly, for the percolation to cease or to pro" 
€eed too tardily. 

When rhubarb is very dry, as it often is, it powders so easily that 
it is almost impossible, unless the greatest care be exercised, to get 
it in anything like a uniform moderately coarse powder, as continued 
contusion and rubbing in the mortar very quickly reduces the greater 
portion to a very fine powder before the remaining portion is suffi- 
-ciently fine to pass the sieve, and as a consequence the powder is 
likely to be too fine and irregular. This result can, in a measure, 
be avoided by sieving the powder very frequently during the process. 
€ontuse and rub it for a few minutes only at a time, and then throw 
it on the sieve, and the portion which refuses to pass return to the 
mortar to be again treated in like manner, and thus repeating the 
operation until the whole is reduced to the requisite degree of fine- 



310 Gleanings from the European Journals. { h ^™i 7 m™* 

ness. In this manner I have generally succeeded in obtaining a very 
uniform powder. 

It will be observed that the quantity of menstruum proper, i* e t> 
mixture of glycerin, alcohol fort, and water, directed in the formula-,, 
is slightly in excess of the quantity actually required to yield the de- 
sired quantity of the tincture. This is done in order to afford a, 
stratum between the amount of the menstruum proper required to* 
yield the thirty-two fluid-ounces of tincture of the formula, and the 
diluted alcohol with which the percolation is completed. This pre- 
vents any admixture of the latter with the former, and thus insures; 
to the finished product a fixed and definite constitution. This ap- 
parently trivial, though really important circumstance, is often over- 
looked by many in framing formulae for tinctures, fluid extracts, etc. 

Philadelphia, Pa., -Jane, 1873. 



GLEANINGS FROM THE EUROPEAN JOURNALS. 
By the Editor. 

Citric (C-iil fn>m whortleberries, J r aceinium vitis-idtea, Lin* — Dr. 
Graeger expresses the juice, mixes the residue twice with water £o 
dissolve the remaining acid, and expresses. A third maceration does, 
not pay, unless the expressed liquid is used for a fresh portion of ber- 
ries. The liquids are mixed and a solution of glue is added until tlie- 
tannin is precipitated. The clear filtrate is assayed with normal al- 
kali to determine the amount of carbonate of calcyim necessary for 
the complete neutralization of the acid, and decanted after carbonic 
acid ceases to be given off". The liquid is heated to boiling in a copper 
kettle with continued agitation ; after about ten minutes the super- 
natant liquor is syphoned off, the precipitate washed upon a strainer 
with boiling water, to remove coloring matter, and dried. By incin- 
eration of a portion, the amount of lime contained in it is ascertained,, 
and from it the sulphuric acid is calculated necessary for the decom- 
position of the precipitate. The citrate of calcium is then decom- 
posed by digesting it for several hours with the acid, previously di- 
luted with ten times the quantity of water ; the precipitated gypsum 
is collected, pressed and exhausted by mixing with water and press- 
ing. The clear, faintly reddish solution is decolorized with animal 
charcoal, concentrated, filtered to remove gypsum, crystallized, and 



* See Analysis in Amer. Journ. Pharmacy, 1871, p. 543. 



AM i.'[i7i,'i P 8 I 73 RM '} Gleanings from the European Journals. 311 

the crystals purified by recrystallization, when they are obtained per- 
fectly colorless. 

In two experiments the yield was over one per ct., and the cost, ex- 
clusive of labor, about one-fourth of the commercial acid. The filtrate 
from the citrate of calcium contains sugar (five per cent, of the ber- 
ries used), which may be utilized by converting It into vinegar, or into 
alcohol, in which latter case the ma late of calcium may likewise be 
obtained.— N. Jahrb. f Pharm. 1873, April, 193-197. 

Cleaning of Bottles. A. Eckstein recommends to clean bottles 
which contained solutions of resins, by using first lye and rinsing 
them filially with alcohol. If they contained petroleum, oil of tur- 
pentine, &c, the volatile oil is destroyed with some strong sul^iric 
acid, and the bottle placed under a hydrant, when the last L nices of 
the volatile oil will be readily removed. — Ibid., 241. 

A new anilin red is obtained, according to M. F. Hamel, by adding 
to 25 or 30 grains of anilin contained in a glass flask a few drops of 
chloride of sulphur, and shaking continually to prevent the carboniza- 
tion of the anilin. After five or ten minutes the mixture is dissolved 
in strong acetic acid, filtered and carefully evaporated, when a bril- 
liant almost black body is obtained, which dissolves in acetic acid, 
ether and alcohol, with a beautiful color resembling fuchsin. — Pharm. 
Cent. Halle, 1873, No. 17. 

To fasten leather upon metal, F. Sieburger recommends the process 
proposed by the late Prof. Fuchs : one part of crushed nutgalls is di- 
gested six hours with eight p. distilled water, and strained. Glue is 
macerated in its own weight of water for twenty-four hours, and then 
dissolved. The warm infusion of galls is spread upon the leather, 
the glue solution upon the roughened surface of the warm metal, the 
moist leather is pressed upon it and then dried, when it adheres so 
that it cannot be removed without tearing. — Ibid., No. 19, from Poly 't. 
Notizbl. 

A new extract of meat. Neues Jahrb. f. Pharm. for April contains 
an 'extract from a paper by Prof. Leube, of Jena, published in Berl. 
klin. Wochenschr., 1873, p. 195, in which the following directions are 
given : 1000 grams of beef free from fat and bones are cut very fine, 
mixed in a porcelain vessel with 1000 grams of water and 20 grams 
of pure muriatic acid, and then boiled in a Papin's pot for ten or fif- 



312 Gleanings from the European Journals. {^juf^.ilS* 

teen hours, the mass being occasionally stirred in the beginning. Af- 
ter the time indicated, the mass is triturated in a mortar until it ac- 
quires the appearance of an emulsion. It is tnen again boiled in the 
Papin's pot for fifteen or twenty hours, then almost neutralized with 
pure carbonate of sodium, evaporated to th«* consistence of mush, and 
divided into four parts. 

Dr. R. Mirus has modified the above process somewhat (Pharm. 
Zeitung, No. 37) ; 250 grams beef suitably prepared as above, are in- 
troduced into a strong bottle and agitated with water until all lumps 
have disappeared ; the muriatic acid and remainder of water are add- 
ed, the bottle corked and the stopper wired. Five or six of such bot- 
tles are then boiled in a high pot for fifteen hours; each bottle is 
then well agitated and the boiling continued for fifteen hours more. 
The preparation may also be made in a suitable steam-boiler by 
placing the meat in a covered porcelain vessel and boiling for the 
length of time indicated. The object is to alter the muscular fibres 
under pressure and the conditions stated, until they are as nearly as 
mav be possible disintegrated. 

In the liquid state the preparation soon spoils unless preserved by 
Appert's method ; it may, however, be evaporated in a steam-bath to 
dryness, when it will keep well in closed bottles, and should, when 
prescribed, be softened by the addition of warm water. It is highly 
recommended in various affections of the stomach when the mucous 
coating requires to be protected from irritation, in rec< nvalescense 
from typhus, etc., and may be combined with broth or Liebig's ex- 
tract of meat, or milk and cracker may be used alternati iy. 

Preparation of chronic alum. Prof. A. Lielegg dissolves 29-5 
parts bichromate of potassium in a warm mixture of -89 sulphuric 
acid and the requisite quantity of water ; when cold, 38 p. oxalic acid 
are added in small portions, carbonic acid is given off, and the chro- 
mic alum obtained on spontaneous evaporation. — Dingier s Polyt. 
Journ., 1873, Feb., 321. 

Purification of tallow. II. Treudlen states that tallow purified in 
the manner stated below is almost free from odor, keeps well for a 
long time, and is well adapted for culinary and perfumery purposes, 
for ointments, plasters, etc. Fresh tallow is fused in boiling water, 
while hot pressed through a close linen strainer, together with the 
water, then boiled with the latter and carefully skimmed. After cool- 



AM ju]°yi', i873* M '} Gleanings from the European Journals. 313 

ing, the water is removed by pressure, the tallow again fused and pre- 
served in well- covered earthen vessels. — Ibid., March, 510. 

Ammoniaeum. — An inquiry of some interest has been started by 
Mr. D. Hanbury into the original source of ammoniaeum. Diosco- 
rides, in the first century, describes it as coming from " the parts 
about Gyrene," and near the temple of Ammon, from which it may 
have derived its name. Some ammoniaeum still reaches this country 
at times from Morocco, and is probably of the same botanical origin 
as that first described by Dioscorides and others. This gum, however, 
is very inferior to, and indeed differs from the ordinary Persian am- 
moniaeum, so much so, that certain writers, Pereira, Guibourt, and 
others, have concluded that the ammoniaeum referred to in earlier 
times was not the same as we know, or that it had been erroneously 
attributed to Africa. Mr. Hanbury, however, has discovered that a 
better quality, more nearly corresponding to the usual ammoniaeum, 
is obtained in Morocco, and that it is both consumed in the Empire 
and finds its way to Egypt and Arabia. This traffic he believes to 
have been very ancient, and as London brokers now call the Moroc- 
can product " ammoniaeum,'" there does not seem to be any matter 
for astonishment that th| ancient writers should have confused the 
two gums. In Jackson's account of the Empire of Morocco he de- 
scribes a sort of ammoniaeum produced by a giant fennel called 
Feshook. The gum exudes from the stem in consequence of the 
puncture of a beetle, and, falling to the ground, becomes contami- 
nated with earth, for which reason it does not suit the London mar- 
ket ; but it is used in all parts of the country for cataplasms and fu- 
migations. Following up Mr. Hanbury 's inquiries, Mr. John Moss 
has made a chemical examination of the African ammoniaeum, and 
shows the results in the following table, which, for comparison, he 
places side by side with an analysis of Persian ammoniaeum by 
Hagen : — 

African Ammoniaeum. Persian Ammoniaeum. (Hagen.) 

(Moss.) Resin, . . . 68-0 

Resin, . . . 67-76 Gum, . . . 19-3 
Gum, . . * 9-014 Gluten, ... 5-4 

Water and Volatile Oil, 4-29 j Extractive, . . 1*6 
Bassorin and insoluble Sand, . . . 2*3 

matter, . . . 18-85 Volatile Oil and Water, 2-8 



99-914 100-0 
— Chemist and Druggist — Pharm. Journ. March 22, 1873. 



314 



A New Variety of Opium* 



f Am. .Iotik. Pharm. 
t July 1,1873. 



In a subsequent paper published in the Pharm. Journ., March 29, 
Mr. J. Moss proves experimentally that ammoniacum contains no 
sulphur. 

False China Root. At a public sale of drugs, E. A. Webb met 
with an article named China root, which in reality was that curious 
fungoid production, Pachyma cocos, which has been described by Mr. 
Hanbury as resembling large, ponderous, rounded tubers, having a 
rough blackish-brown bark-like exterior, and consisting internally of 
a compact mass of considerable hardness, varying in color from cin- 
namon brown to pure white. It is stated that this was the first time 
it appeared in commerce in England. — Pharm. Journ., March 29. 

Origin of Myrrh, Among the plants brought by Ehrenberg from 
his travels in Asia in 1826, was Balsamodendron myrrha, Nees, from 
which myrrh has since been supposed to be collected, until some years 
ago the late Prof. Berg found in Ehrenberg's herbarium a specimen 
of a different species labelled by Ehrenberg that he had collected 
myrrh from it; Berg named the plant Balsamodendron .Ehrenbergia- 
num. Daniel Hanbury now calls attention to our deficient knowledge 
of the source of myrrh, which is asserted t(f be produced in no less 
than four districts, namely, 1, in the country about Ghizan on the 
eastern shore of the red sea; 2, on the southern Arabian coast east- 
ward of Aden ; 3, in the Somali country south and west of Cape 
Gardafui, and, 4, in the region west of the gulf of Aden, lying be- 
tween Tajura and Shoa, including Harar, to the south-east. There 
are certainly three varieties of myrrh which may well be derived from 
distinct species. Numerous well preserved specimens of the trees, 
including leaves, flowers, fruits and the exudation are needed to solve 
this question. — Ibid., April 19. 



ON A NEW VARIETY OF OPIUM. 
By P. Carles.- 

For some time past a new kind of opium has been met with in com- 
merce which is said to come from Persia. The sample obtained by 
the author was in conical cakes, weighing about 440 grams, which 
had been covered with poppy leaves, of which a few remnants re- 
mained, and were free from rumex fruits. Its odor is not narcotic 

^Translated from Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie, 1873, Juin, 427-429. 



Am. J oris. Pharm ) 
July I, 1873. J 



A New Variety of Opiurp. 



315 



like that of Smyrna opium, but strongly resembles that of green 
coffee; when heated, however, it gives off an odor reminding of choc- 
olate. It is soft like ordinary opium, and contains 5*60 per cent, of 
moisture. It has a light color, which does not deepen on exposure ; 
examined by the eye or the magnifier, it is quite homogeneous. It 
mixes readily with cold water without requiring the malaxation neces- 
sary for the officinal kind. The solution is slightly colored. 

While Smyrna opium yields generally 49 per cent, of aqueous ex- 
tract, this new kind yields 53. It presents, however, the follow- 
ing remarkable quality: when about two -thirds of the water have 
been evaporated in the water-bath, crystalline crusts are formed which 
successively fall to the bottom, and the liquid will finally, after cool- 
ing, appear as a crystalline mass, from which, by taking it up with 
water, 1'10 per cent, of pure narcotina was separated. 

The assay of this crude opium gave, by Fordos' method,* as a mean 
of two experiments, 8*40 per cent, of morphia and 3-60 per cent of 
narcotina ; the amount of morphia is therefore less than is required 
of Smyrna opium. f 

The readiness with which this opium dissolves in water, its deli- 
quescence in the atmosphere, etc., suggested a falsification with honey 
or glucose. It is not easy to establish this, since Mr. Magnes Lahens 
has shown it to be a normal constituent, at least, of Smyrna opium. 
Both kinds reduce readily solutions of copper; but is this reduction 
due exclusively to glucose? Fermentation appeared to the author to 
be the only way to decide this question, in view of the multiplicity of 
constituents, a certain number of which, like glucose, reduce the cop- 
per solution. This has been proven by parallel experiments made 
with Barreswili's solution and fermentation. Smyrna opium gave 
some bubbles of carbonic acid, and this so-called Persian opium sev- 

* It is well known that it takes several days for the morphia to precipitate 
completely; the precaution was observed by the author, who observed in this 
case that if only one-half of the required quantity of ammonia is used, nearly 
all the narcotina will soon crystallize out, leaving the morphia in solution, 
which is subsequently precipihited. This behavior is particularly important 
to manufacturers of morphia who may happen to use this opium. 

fThis so-called Persian opium is certainly of medium quality. As far as 
the author's information goes, Smyrna opium, of 10 per cent, morphia, is not 
the commonest in the market. But since the Codex has adopted that stand- 
ard, the author thinks that this opium might be used in place of Smyrna opium 
by increasing the prescribed quantity one-fifth. 



316 



Two New Remedies, etc. 



f Am. Jour. Phabm. 
t July 1, 1873. 



eral cubic centimetres ;* but there was no uniformity between these 
results and those obtained by Barreswill's solution, which corrobo- 
rates the above expressed opinion that alkaline copper solutions are 
unfit for determining correctly the glucose in opium, and that re- 
course must be had to fermentation. In this case the so-called Per- 
sian opium appeared to contain an abnormal quantity of glucose ; but 
it is difficult to establish it by reliable points of comparison. 

This opium differs considerably from the Persian opiums described 
by Guibourt,f as coming in sticks wrapped in paper and weighing 
about 20 grams, and as containing -I per cent, of morphia, or, accord- 
ing to Merck, even one per cent, and 80*55 of extract. Guibourt 
states also that its solution separates, on evaporation, a white crystal- 
line deposit, but he has not established its nature. 



ON TWO NEW REMEDIES AT TILE VIENNA EXPOSITION. 

By W. HiLDWErN.J 
Among the large number of plants indigenous to the Philippine 
Islands, two.species of trees have recently attracted considerable atten- 
tion ; they ;ire Echises seholaris, nat. ord. Apocynaceoe, and Garcinia 
mavgostana, nat. ord. Guttiferaei The former is very common in the 
province of Batangar, Island of Luzon, and its bark has been used 
bv the natives, under the name of dita, as a remedy in all kinds of 
fever. G. Gruppe, apothecary in Manilla, obtained from it an un- 
crystallizable, very hygroscopic bitter principle, which he named 
ditain, and which has been employed by Prof. Dr. Miguel Zina, the 
chief physician of the province of Manilla, in the hospitals under his 
supervision. He found that ditain is not only a complete substitute 
for quinia, but is even superior to it in not producing the unpleasant 
effects sometimes observed from the latter. It is given in the same 
manner and doses as quinia, and is prepared by a process similar to 
that of the latter alkaloid ; it has also been used as a tonic in a num- 
ber of cases with success. 100 grams of bark yielded two grams of 
ditain, 0*85 sulphate of calcium and 10 grams of extractive, which is 
without any effect. The trees yield, without being injured in their 
growth, a large quantity of bark, 50 kilograms of which cost in Ma- 

* One c.e. carbonic acid indicates 3 - 88 m. of glucose, 
t Drogues simples, iii, 657. 

J Translated from Zeitschrift d allg. Oesterr. Apoth. Yer., 1873, p. 249. 



Aw juiyT*i873! RM ' } Form ulas from Pharmacopcea German ica. 317 

nilla about 30 francs, so that a kilogram of ditai'n would cost in Eu- 
rope about 160 francs, or less than half the price of quinia. 

The other new remedy is extractum antidysentericuin, prepared 
from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana, which, some years ago, 
was introduced into Europe for tanning purposes. Garcinia occurs 
frequently in Madras, Cochinchina and the Philippine Islands. Here- 
tofore it was used in the form of decoction. G. Gruppe prepared 
from it an extract which has been introduced there into all the hos- 
pitals, and has been employed in the barracks and prisons as well as 
in private practice. It appears to be a sure remedy for rapidly and 
effectually curing dysentery, chronic diarrhoea, catarrhs of the uterus, 
bladder and urethra; in fact, in all cases in which astringents are in- 
dicated. It is given in the form of pills or as syrup, it being readily 
soluble, and in the latter form particularly adapted for children. Its 
price in Europe would be about 21 or 22 francs. 



SELECTED FORMULAS FROM PHARMACOPCEA GERMANIC A. 
By the Editor. 
(Concluded from page 263 of last number.) 

Tartarus boraxatus s. Kali tartarieum boraxatum s. Oremor tartari 
solubilis. Borax, 2 p.; distilled water, 20 p. Dissolve and add 5 p. 
purified cream of tartar. Agitate to dissolve, filter, evaporate to dry- 
ness, and powder. 

The tinctures are made by maceration, at a temperature of 15 to 
20° C, or by digestion, temperature 35 to 40° The officinal alcohol, 
spiritus, has a specific gravity of 0*830 to 0*834, the diluted alcohol 
a spec. grav. of 0*892 to 0*893. In nearly all cases the tinctures 
are stronger in alcohol and often less liable to precipitate than the 
corresponding ones of the U. S. Ph. The proportions are mostly 1 
of material to 5 or 10 of menstruum. 

Tinctura Aloes composita s. FAixir ad long am vitam. Aloes, 9 p.; 
gentian, rhubarb, zedoary, saffron, agaric, of each 1 part; alcohol of 
0*892 sp. gr., 200 parts. This is a simplified formula for a very pop- 
ular German remedy. 

Tinctura amara. Orange berries, centaury, gentian, of each 2 p.; 
zedoary, 1 p.; alcohol, *892 sp. gr., 35 parts. 

Tinctura aromatica. Chinese cinnamon, 4 p.; cardamom, cloves, 



318 Formulas from Pharmacopcea Germanica. | AM i^;ifn. M 

galangal, ginger, of each 1 p.; alcohol, -892 sp. gr., 50 p. Digest for 
a week. 

Tinctura aromatiea acida. Made like the preceding, except that 
the alcohol is mixed, before the digestion, with 2 parts of sulphuric • 
acid. 

Tinctura Chinee composita s. Elixir roborans Whyttii. Pale cin- 
chona, 6 p.; orange peel, gentian, each 2 p.; Chinese cinnamon, 1 p.; 
alcohol, -892 sp. gr., 50 p. 

Tinctura Chinoidini. Chinoidin, 2 p.; alcohol, 17 p.; hydrochlo- 
ric acid, 1 p. Dissolve. This mixes with water without being pre- 
cipitated. 

Tinctura f err i pomata. Ferruginous extract of apples, 1 p.; vin- 
ous cinnamon water, 9 parts. Dissolve. 

Tinctura Iodi decolorata. Iodine, hyposulphite of sodium, and 
water, each 10 parts. Digest until dissolved ; add ammoniated alco- 
hol, 16 p., and alcohol, 75 ; keep in a cool place for three days and 
filter. It has a slightly ammoniacal odor. 

Tinctura Opii crocata corresponds to Vinum opii, U. S. P., except 
that it contains 6 drachms of saffron to the pint. 

Tinctura Opii simplex is weaker in alcohol but stronger in opium 
than the tincture of the U. S. P. It is made from powdered opium, 
4 p.; alcohol, sp. gr. -892, and distilled water, each 19 parts. Ten 
grains contain the soluble constituents of one grain uf powdered 
opium. 

Tinctura Opii benzoica is made of the same material, honey ex- 
cepted, as the Tinctura opii camphorata, U. S. P., but the medicinal 
ingredients are in larger proportion, that of opium being about 4 : 5. 
Powdered opium, 1 p.; benzoic acid, 4 p.; camphor and oil of anise, 
each 2 p.; alcohol, sp. grav. -892, 192 parts. 200 grains contain 1 
grain of opium. 

Tinctura Scilke Jealina. Squill, 8 p.; caustic potassa, 1 p.; alco- 
hol, sp. gr. -892, 1 part. 

Unguenium cereum, made from 2 p. yellow wax and 9 p. olive oil, 
is the basis of the ointments of belladonna, conium, digitalis, hyoscy- 
amus, mezereon, savin, white precipitate and oxide of mercury. The 
proportions are 1 part of extracts or of the mercurial compounds to 



**ju!Ti, wT { formulas from Pharmacopoea Germanica. 319 

9 of wax ointment. Opium ointment contains in 10 parts about 1 p. 
of opium, and is made of extract of opium and water, each 1 p.; wax 
ointment, 18 parts. 

Unguentum Cantharidum. Bruised cantharides, 1 p.; olive oil, 4 
parts. Digest for twelve bours, express, filter and add yellow wax, 2 
parts. 

Unguentum diachylon Ilebrce. Lead plaster and linseed oil, equal 
weight, are fused together and mixed. 

Unguentum flavum, used in place of the old-fashioned marsh mal- 
low ointment, is made by digesting for half an hour 1 part of turme- 
ric in 30 parts of lard, then melting together with 3 parts each of 
yellow wax and Burgundy pitch, straining and cooling. 

Unguentum Kalii iodati is a little weaker than the iodide of potas- 
sium ointment of U. S. P. The liberation of iodine is prevented by 
adding to the ounce about 2J grains of hyposulphite of sodium. 

Unguentum.leniem = cold cream. 

Unguentum Rosmarini comp>ositum s. Ung. nervinum. Lard, 16 
parts ; suet, 8 p.; yellow wax, expressed oil of nutmegs, each 2 p., 
are fused together. When nearly cold, one part each of the oils of 
rosemary and of juniper are added. 

Unguentum Terebintliinai compositum s. Ung. digestivum. Mix 
thoroughly 32 parts of V enice turpentine and 4 parts of yolk of egg ; 
then add 1 part each of powdered myrrh and aloes and 8 parts of 
olive oil. 

Vanilla saccharata. 1 part of finely cut vanilla and 9 parts of 
sugar are reduced to powder by continued trituration. 

Vinum Colehici sem. and Vin. IpecacuanJue are made with sherry 
wine in the proportion of 1 : 10. The former is therefore weaker, 
the latter stronger than the corresponding preparations of U. S. P. 

Vinum camphoratum. 1 part each of finely powdered gum arabic 
and camphor are mixed and triturated with 48 parts of good white 
wine, gradually added. The preparation is turbid. 

Vinum Ohinw. Macerate for a week 1 part of Calisaya bark with 
20 parts of good red wine. Express and filter. 



320 



Churrus. 



f Am. Jour. Phar». 
1 July 1,187a. 



CHURRUS. 
By John R. Jackson, A.LlS., 
Curator of the Museums, Royal Gardens, Ktu\ 

Three well known products of the hemp plant (Cannabis sativa) are 
known in India as Gunja, Bhang, and Churrus ; the first being the 
dried flower branches pressed together while in a fresh state, and 
used for smoking like tobacco ; the second, the leaves and capsules^ 
from which an infusion or intoxicating drink is made; and the third, 
a kind of an earthy resin, which is always described as the most pow- 
erful of all. Churrus varies, however, in quality, three or more kinds 
being known ; the first or highest quality occurring in large irregular 
lumps, the second in smaller lumps, and the third in finely broken 
pieces, with a large proportion of dust. All these have a more or 
less earthy fracture, but there are two small samples in the Kew Mu- 
seum which have been apparently moulded by pressure into hard and 
compact masses, each about two inches long, and about half as thick 
again as a man's thumb, rounded at each end, and which have a some- 
what greenish fracture, and a perceptible odor of musk. Whether 
this has been imparted to them in the course of preparation, or by 
contact with other articles, I am not able to say. The specimens 
formed part of the collection of the Medico-Botanical Society of Lon- 
don, and were obtained for the Kew Museum in 1853, since which 
time they have been kept in a glass jar, separate from other speci- 
mens, sufficient time, one would think, for them to lose any perfume 
not actually incorporated into their substance. Churrus is said to be 
seldom or never the pure resin as it exudes from the leaves, stems, 
and flowers of the hemp plant, so that it is not improbable that musk 
may sometimes be mixed up with it. And, as a further proof of the 
system of adulteration, the following fact may also be stated: — 

Amongst some fruits, seeds, and other botanical specimens recently 
received at the Kew Museum from Yarkand, were some of the mealy 
fruits of the Trebizonde date (Elceagnus hortensis). The information 
which accompanied them was to the effect that the tree was cultivated 
for the sake of the fruits, which were largely consumed as food, and 
were carried in quantities in caravan journeys. The wild fruits, how- 
ever, are not eaten, but the meal obtained from them is used entirely 
to adulterate churrus. In India the hemp is an officinal plant, its 
principal use being in tetanus, hydrophobia, and neuralgia, in its va- 
rious forms; but it has also been used, it'is said, with success in such 



Am. .Tour. Phahm. > 
July 1,1873. j 



New Salt of Quinia. 



321 



diseases as cholera, rheumatism, asthma, and some phases of skin dis- 
ease. It is applied in the forms of extract and tincture, and has 
been recommended for use in this country. In the Indian Pharma- 
copoeia are some remarks by Sir Robert Christison, who speaks of it 
not only as an excellent substitute for morphia, but as being suitable 
in cases where morphia could not be applied, or was objected to by 
the patient. He further says, he has "long been convinced, and new 
experience confirms his conviction, that for energy, certainty, and 
convenience, Indian hemp is the next anodyne, hypnotic, and anti- 
spasmodic to opium and its derivatives, and often equal to it. ' All 
the products of the hemp are, however, so much adulterated that the 
difficulty seems to be in obtaining gunja of good quality from which 
to prepare the extract, which Sir R. Christison considers the best of 
all forms in which it can be used. 

Under the name of " Majoon," a compound is used in India com- 
posed of bhang, butter, sugar, flour, and milk. — Pharm. Jouru. (Lon- 
don,) March 29, 1873. 

PRELIMINARY NOTICE OF A NEW SALT OF QUINIA. 
Quinia Meconate. 
13v Peter Towxsend Austen. Ph. B. 

As a Salt of quinia and meconic acid has not to my knowledge been 
before described, I attempted to prepare one. 

If an alcoholic solution of meconic acid be added to an alcoholic 
solution of quinia, a white, curdy precipitate is formed. The precip- 
itate is soluble in hot water, being deposited on cooling in beautiful 
crystals. The water solution gives reactions for both quinia and 
meconic acid. The first curdy precipitate on drying forms a mass 
resembling dried glue, the next precipitate forms minute scales of a 
silken lustre. Finally, small crystals are obtained. When filtered 
and dried on bibulous paper, the salt has a peculiar sheen, resembling 
minute fish scales. 

A direct estimation of quinia was made as follows: A weighed por- 
tion of the dried salt was dissolved in water by the aid of heat, the 
quinia was precipitated by ammonia and dissolved in ether. The 
ethereal solution was separated from the ammoniacal liquid, and 
washed with water by means of a stopcock funnel, after which it was 
evaporated and weighed. Though the greatest care was observed in 
the washing, a loss of quinia occurred. 

21 



322 Notes on Pepsin. {^yl^f*' 

Salt. Quinia. Found. Calculated. 

-25 gram. -137 gram. 54*8 per cent. 56-66 per cent. 
The composition of the salt is then most probably C 7 H 2 (C ao H 24 N a 
Oi)' r 7 , which corresponds to the silver salt C 7 H.,Ag 2 7 . 
Laboratory of Dr. J. Walz, 

No. 18 Exchange Piace, New York. 

— American Chemist, May, 1873. 



NOTES ON PEPSIN. 
By Edward H. Hoskin, JN1. D., Lowell. 

Much has been said about physicians' prescriptions being inaccu- 
rately compounded, and much fault found with the incompetency of 
apothecaries and their assistants — frequently, no doubt, without in- 
justice to either party. As much fault may be found with some of 
the preparations, because of their impurities, and often of the posi- 
tive inertness of what should be the active principle on which the ef- 
ficacy of the drug depends. Amongst these preparations, pepsin is 
particularly alluded to. 

The market is flooded with pepsin, of German, French, English 
and American manufacture, its elixirs, wines and troches — elixirs 
per se, and in alleged combination with bismuth, iron, strychnia, etc. 
— in fact, so elegantly, and apparently therapeutically combined, as 
to please the eye, taste and judgment of the physician, and by its 
promised combination, to appear to him as the very thing he wants 
in, his daily practice. All is not gold that glitters, nor is all pepsin 
that is called so, nor do all its preparations contain the promised 
principle. 

Curiosity at first induced me to examine a sample of Boudalt's 
pepsin, and getting a negative result, I still more carefully tried 
three other samples of the same make, and found all inert ; I then 
tried Velpeau's, and with the same result, and then various samples 
of American preparation, but not ona could I find that was in any 
way a solvent of coagulated albumen. I next tried some elixirs, 
and not one of these would produce the required result ; then some 
of the wines, and with the same lack of success. 

After these experiments, I came to the conclusion that pepsin, as 
sold in the shops, was a fraucl, that physicians were defrauded of 
their success, and the patient of his health and his means, through 
the worthlessness of the drug supplied. 



Am. Jour. Pharm ) 
July 1, 187:}. j 



Notes on Pepsin. 



323 



But on looking over a review of the new Pharmacopoeia, in the 
Journal of March 13th, I noticed the mention of the pepsin made 
by Scheffer, of Louisville, and being anxious, if possible, to find a 
reliable article, I wrote to him for a sample, and received foy mail 
two descriptions — " saccharated pepsin," and u concentrated pep- 
sin." I at once experimented with them, and obtained most ex- 
cellent results. With one grain of the concentrated article, I ob- 
tained the solution of one hundred grains of coagulated albumen, 
and with five grains of the saccharated, sixty grains of albumen — 
in each case using one ounce of water and six drops of muriatic 
Bcid. With one grain, also, of the former, I procured the solution 
of 137 grains of raw, lean beef. 

These results are, I think, eminently satisfactory, and prove, at 
least, that there is one reliable article to be had — of home manufac- 
ture, also, instead of heavily dutied foreign goods, and which so fre- 
quently are considered the only reliable preparations. 

I have been sceptical as to the therapeutic value of the so called 
pepsin wines and elixirs, and my experiments have proved that, at 
all events, the pepsin used in their manufacture is not of any use. 
for there is no solvent action exerted whatever on coagulated albu- 
men by any of them I have yet tried. 

This may be the proper place to describe the method I adopt for 
detecting the presence of what I will call active pepsin. 

It is well known that the presence of albumen in diabetic urine is 
van obstacle to the detection of the sugar, and that a fine mauve or 
purple color is produced on the addition of either Trommer's or Feh- 
ling's test solution. It occurred to me that this reaction would just 
•come in for my purpose. Take coagulated albumen, and put into 
the pepsin wine or elixir ; submit to one hundred degrees Fahr. in a 
water-bath, and if there is any of the active peptic principle present, 
-solution of so much of the coagulum will ensue, and the albumen re- 
duced to an allotropic condition, which, when added to the test solu- 
tion, would produce the purple color. 

On trying the experiment, no such thing occurred; but, on making 
a simple solution of pepsin in water, adding acid and albumen, and 
digesting for half an hour, I procured a solution which, on addition 
-of the cupreous test, at once yielded the splendid color ; repeated 
trials have yielded the same^results. Flesh, or cheese, may be used 
in place of albumen, as all] that is required is to obtain a peptone. 



324 



Notes on Pepsin. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ July 1, 1873. 



and the reaction will show it ; hence proving that pepsin must have 
been present in order to its production. 

I have repeatedly dissolved a perfectly good pepsin in sherry wine, 
added chlorhydric acid and albumen, and submitted to a water-bath 
and then tested for peptone ; but in no case have I been able to de- 
tect it. From this fact, I conclude that pepsin wines are useless, as 
far as the drug is concerned, and that the presence of the alcohol, or 
the small proportion of tannin, or both, destroys its catalytic action* 
Tannin, in solution, does the same thing. So, also, do most metal- 
lic salts ; and here I would quote from Dr. T. King Chambers " On 
the Indigestions," page 94 :— " But for the time named, I advise its 
being given alone, and the action not interfered with in general by 
other medicines. Many will really prevent its chemical effect, and 
all will confuse one's judgment of the advantage gained." 

But, if to a peptone already formed, either wine, alcohol, tannin, 
or a metallic salt is added, the addition of the test will at once ex~ 
hibit its reaction, though tannin, if in large quantity, somewhat masks 
it. From this, it appears that the failure of the test to indicate pep- 
sin in wine or dilute alcohol, or in the presence of tannin, or a me- 
tallic salt, does not result from the action being masked, but from the 
fact of the pepsin (under the conditions) being inert. 

If, then, these elegant pseudo-pharmaceutical preparations will not 
accomplish the conversion of a protein substance into a peptone in 
the test tube, there is, I think, small likelihood of their doing so in 
the disabled stomach. It is true the other ingredients may be of 
service, but often it is the pepsin that the physician is prescribing 
the compound for, and frequently the one thing the patient most re- 
quires ; so that, if the above conclusions are true, then, indeed, are 
physicians laboring in the dark, and their patients done out of their 
health and their money. 

Since writing the above, I have tried samples of Dr. Hawley's 
preparation, and find that his wine and glycerole of pepsin are good 
articles, but the wine does not appear to be a pure sherry, and the 
proportion of alcohol so small as not to interfere with the functions 
of the principle. They both will dissolve albumen, but not so actively 
as Scheffer's. 

I give these few facts for what they are worth, and hope at least 
they may be of some service to the profession, especially to those who 
have not the time for making the investigations they otherwise would 



AM jHiy R i, mT 1 '} Valentines Preparation of Meat Juice. 325 

do, and to those who may have been disappointed in not obtaining re- 
sults they may have been led reasonably to expect. — -Boston Med. 
and Surg. Journ., May 22d, 1873. 



THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION 01' VALENTINE'S PREPARA- 
TION OF MEAT JUICE. 
By W. H. Taylor, M. D., State Assayer and Chemist. 
The subject of concentrated food is one which the physician ac- 
knowledges to be of paramount importance, and it is one on which 
he desires to have information of a character more definite than he 
can at present obtain. Among the substances presented to his no- 
tice as concentrated food, the various extracts of beef are the most 
prominent, but in the conflict of opinion as to their true value, which 
prevails among those whom he regards as authorities, he feels in- 
clined to discard the theoretical expositions and to. judge for him- 
self, basing his judgment upon the results of his clinical experience. 
A large experience of this kind, in all parts of the country, with the 
preparation of meat juice manufactured by Mr. Mann S. Valentine, 
of this city, has elicited such an amount of evidence in its favor as 
leads me to believe that I am doing the medical profession a service 
by calling general attention to it ; and as it is doubtless of interest 
to those who use it to know its chemical composition, I append the 
analysis of a sample recently examined by me. 

Composition of Valentine's Preparation of 31 eat Juice. 
Water, . . . . 61-12 

Organic substances, . . . 27-90 

Containing uncoagulated albumen . I'll 

Fat, ... -18 
Creatine, creatinine and other or- 
ganic constituents of flesh-juice 
and blood, . . 26*66 

Inorganic substances, .... 10-98 
Containing chloride of sodium, . . 1*42 

Sulphate of potash, . . *52 

Phosphates of iron, lime and magne- 
sia, : 1-21 
Phosphates of potash and soda, 7*83 
The analysis shows that this preparation contains a proportion as 



326 



Varieties. 



f Am. J obr. Pearm*. 
{ July 1,1873. 



well of the nutritive principles of flesh as of those other principles, 
which are supposed to act especially as corroborants of nervous force,, 
— all being in such a form as requires the least expenditure of vital 
power to cause their digestion. 

It is not my purpose to discuss the comparative merits of this or- 
that preparation of meat. I will simply quote this passage from 
Liebig : "Were it ever possible to furnish the market at a reasonable 
price with a preparation combining in itself the albuminose together 
with the extractive principle, such a preparation would have to be 
preferred to the extractum carnis (Liebig's Extract of Meat), for it 
would contain all the nutritive constituents of meat;" and I add that 
Mr. Valentine has made good progress towards the realization of this, 
result. — Virginia Clinical Record, June, 187-3. 



Varieties* 

Adulteration of Copaiba with Castor Oil. — Several specimens of copaiba, 
balsam adulterated with castor oil have, within the past year, come under the> 
notice of Prof. K. S. Wayne. The sophisticated article appeared to have a 
greater consistency than the genuine copaiba — a somewhat lighter color. To. 
the taste and smell no great difference between it and the genuine could be 
observed ; its superior density alone was what caused suspicipn as to its purity, 
and led to an examination of it and the detection of the ahove -named adulte- 
rant. In the experiments made to detect the adulterant, it was found that 
petroleum benzin was a quick and perfect means of so doing. It was found 
that the pure copaiba was perfectly soluble to a clear solution in it, and that 
castor oil was not. It formed a milky mixture upon being shaken together., 
which quickly separated into a denser and lighter liquid, the lower containing 
all the oil The suspected article was mixed in a test-tube with three times its. 
volume of benzin. and shaken ; a milky mixture was formed, which quickly 
separated into two portions — the upper containing in solution all the copaiba j 
the lower the castor oil. The latter, upon further examination, was found to 
be, as mentioned, castor oil. Hence, castor oil, as an adulterant of copaiba, is. 
one of the most readily detected of the many substances that can be used for 
the purpose ; and an article that will not freely and entirely dissolve in petro- 
leum benzin must be rejected as impure. Prom further experiments with, 
other substances, such as Venice turpentine, true and artificial and other fixed 
oils, the test unfortunately has no value. 

Note, the amouut of castor oil found was not the volume separated in the 
lower stratum, but about 50 per cent, of that. As from experiment from a 
measured volume in a test-tube, the lower portion separated was double the 
volume of oil used, when the quantities used were those named in the experi-* 
icent above. — Cincinnati Lancet. 



V 



AM fuiy U ?' IS-;™'} Varieties. 327 

Notion ia grandifiora as a Remedy in Hydrophobia. — At a recent meeting; 
of the Royal Horticultural Society, the subject of the application in the neigh- 
borhood of Bombay of Nottoma qrandiflora as a remedy in hydrophobia was 
brought forward, and a reference made to the statements of Major Wheeler in 
the Times not lonu since, to the effect that six men under his charge having 
been bitten, an infusion of the stem of the plant was administered to five who 
recovered, the sixth who refused to take it having died. To Dr. A. Gibson is 
due the credit of having introduced the properties of this plant to notice in 
India. It is a succulent belonging to the Compositae, and is found in dry rocky 
places in the Madras Peninsula. The following notes on the administration 
and its effects is from the Pharmacopoeia of India: "About four ounces of the 
freshly gathered stems, infused in a pint of cold water for a night, yield in the 
morning, when subjected to pressure, a quantity of viscid greenish juice, which, 
bting mixed with the water, is taken at a draught. In the evening, a further 
quantity of the juice, made up into boluses with Hour, is taken. These medi- 
cines are directed to be repeated for three successive days. From official doc- 
uments placed at the disposal of the Editor by Dr. Gibson, it appear;; that the 
remedy has been tried in numerous cases, but as «t the time of the infliction of 
the wound, caustic was applied locally in the majority of cases, it is difficult to 
determine how far the Nottonia operated, if at all. as a prophylactic. Further 
trials may solve the question.'" — Pharm. Journ. [Loud.), April 2G, 1873. 

Supposed American Origin of Rub as Ulceus. — Our cultivated Raspberry is 
an importation from Europe. Our native Red Raspberry, R. strigosus, how- 
ever, is so near it that the specific distinctness has been in doubt; and specs- 
mens from British America and the Rocky Mountains certainly occur which a 
botanist must needs refer lo R. Idceus itself. In his studies of the European 
Rubi, Prof. Areschoug (in Botaniska Notiser. 1872, and in a translation by 
himself in Trimen's Journal of Botany, April, 1872, p. 108, etc.) makes promi- 
nent and important the fact that R. Idceus has no near relative, or. in other 
words, is the sole Raspberry in Europe, but in mode of growth, in the bark, 
etc., as well as in the fruit, accords with American species, — with one of them 
so closely that all who have come to the conclusion that species have a history 
must needs infer a community of origin.. Areschoug conclud- s. accordingly, 
that "this species did not originally have its home in Europe, but its origin is 
to be found in the east of Asia, viz., Japan and the adjacent countries, or per- 
haps in North America." It is one of the members of that old boreal flora (as 
we suppose) now mainly East Asiatic and North American, which has found its 
way to. aud held its place in, the north of Europe somewhat exceptionally. 
Both R. strigosus and R. Idceus inhabit Japan and Mandchuria, and Maximo- 
wicz regards them as forms of a common species. Prof. Areschoug adopts the 
now familiar idea " that the Asiatic and North American floras have recipro- 
cally mixed with each other by passing Rehring's Straits and the islands which 
in its neighborhood form a bridge between the two continents ;" — which is a 
partial explanation of a problem that has to be treated far more generally now 
that we have reason to believe that this flora formerly filled the Arctic zone, 
lie trunks, moreover, th.it the simple-leaved frutescent species (also extra- 



328 Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 



( Am Jocb. Pharm . 
I July 1,1873. 



European) are the ancestors of those with divided leaves. — but this is a specu- 
lation of a different character, upon which little or no evidence can be brought 
to bear. a. g. — Am. Jour. Set. and Arts, June, 1873. 

Liquor Picis Alkalinus — Dr. L. D. Buckley, of New York, gives the follow- 
ing formula for this preparation, which was originally devised by his father: 
R. Liquid pitch, ^ij ; caustic potash, ; water, f.^v. Mix and dissolve for 
external use. This mixes with water in all proportions, and only moderately 
discolors the skin. It dries rapidly and leaves very little stickiness. He has 
used it in all degrees of strength, and regards it as the best preparation of tar. 
— Med. Nevis and Library, June, 1873, from Archives of Sci. and Prart. Med., 
Feb., 1873. 

§ jjarmacctttical Colleges ani Inflations. 

New York College of Pharmacy. — At a special meeting of this College 
nominations were made to fill the vacancies in the Board of Pharmacy. The 
vacancy occasioned by the resignation of Dr. W. M. Smith was filled by the 
appointment of Dr. B. R. Hays, while Dr. Wm. Neergaard. we are pleased to 
learn, has withdrawn his resignation, and this withdrawal has been approved. 

At the College meeting held June 19th letters of acknowledgment were re- 
ceived from Prof. Dr. F. A. Fliickiger, Dr. G. C. Wittstein, Dr. H Hager and 
Mr. H. B. Brady, who had been elected honorary members. Resolutions were 
passed authorizing that arrangements for the lectures be hereafter made in the 
month of January, and directing the Lecture Committee to arrange monthly 
conversational meetings from October to April inclusive. 

Thf Philadelphia College of Pharmacy is now engaged in making prepa- 
rations for a considerable enlargement of its cabinet and the e> < » blishment of 
u pharmaceutical museum. The library is being re-catalogued, and the exten- 
sive herbarium re arranged and cutalogized. 

Maryland College of Pharmacy. — At the stated meeting held June 12th 
the Committee on Botanical Garden reported that the project was in a fair 
way of being accomplished, and that by the mutual agreement between the va- 
rious committees and the Park Commissioners, the scientific direction and con- 
trol of the gardeu would be vested in the Academy of Sciences. The Committee 
on Conference, with the medical societies (see page 88 of our February number) 
made a report, after which Mr. J. F. Hancock proposed the following preamble 
and resolutions, which were discussed and adopted : 

Whereas, The Medical and Surgical Society of Baltimore made charges against 
the pharmacists of this city for certain alleged irregular practices, for which and 
to correct their interference with the duties of physicians, said Medical and 
Surgical Society appointed a committee to confer with other committees which 
they invited from the medical societies of the city and the Maryland College of 
Pharmacy; and 

Whereas, This College, pleased with an opportunity by which to establish 
more harmonious and honorable relations between the two professions of medi- 
cine and pharmacy, appointed a committee in accordance with the communica- 
tion received from the Medical and Surgical Society, which committee did meet 



Am. Jour. Phahm. > 
July. 1, 187:j. ]" 



Editor ltd. 



329 



punctually at each of the meetings of the Conference Committee, and heard 
calmly and patien.tly the charges as specified in the report from said Medical 
and Surgical Society, as also other charges which were added thereto by the 
Conference Committee, which charges were acknowledged so far as believed to 
be true and just, but so far as they were believed to be unjust and selfish were 
refuted by the committee from this College : and 

Whereas, In turn the pharmaceutical committee preferred charges against 
the medical profession for irregular and disreputable practices, and in order to 
more fully and fairly meet the grievances of both parties, a resolution was 
adopted by the Conference Committee by which a subcommittee was appointed 
consisting of three physicians and three pharmacists, with instructions to con- 
sult together on the subject and draft resolutions expressive of the grievances 
of both, which resolutions were to be presented for discussion at a general 
meeting of the two professions to be called by the chairman of the Conference 
Committee upon receiving the report of the subcommittee; and 

Whereas, The members of the medical profession belonging to the subcom- 
mittee failed to attend the meeting of the committee, after having been duly 
notified ; and further, as it has been learned, that at a subsequent meeting of 
the Medical and Surgical Society the committee from that body was regularly 
discharged, thus withdrawing on their part the charges against pharmacists, 
and virtually admitting themselves to be in error: therefore, 

Resolved, That, in the estimation of this College, the members of the Medi- 
cal and Surgical Society of Baltimore have discovered that the beam in their 
own eye is quite as large as the mote in ours, and, as too great a sacrifice is 
demanded of them to remove the beam from their own eye, they have agreed 
that the mote shall remain in the eye of their brother. 

Resolved, That, as the Medical and Surgical Society of Baltimore, by the dis- 
charge of its committee, has withdrawn its charges against pharmacists, thereby 
rendering the committee from this College powerless to act, that the committee 
be and is hereby discharged fr^m the further consideration of the subject. 

Resolved, That the Secretary be instructed to record this preamble and reso- 
lutions in the Book of Proceedings, and to forward a copy of them to each of 
the presidents of the medical societies represented in the C nference Com- 
mittee. 



National College or Phakmacv. — The first course has been attended by fif- 
teen students, of which number four had previously attended lectures in other 
colleges. Three of the latter passed the requisite examinations, and received 
their diplomas as graduates iri pharmacy. Their names are : Albert M. Read, 
Clarence R. Dufour and Wm, B. Hieskell. 



(Editorial Department 

The Twenty-first Annual Meeting of the American Pharmaceutical As- 
sociation. — The time is rapidly approaching when this meeting will be held, 
the first one in a Southern city, and, as far as can be judged from our corres- 
pondence, it will be largely attended from all sections of the country. It will be 
the second time that the Association will meet in a city to which it had not been 
invited for that particular time, and the success of the Cleveland meeting is 
looked upon as a guarantee for the success of the n^xt one. at Richmond, Va„ 
whither the Association goes under circumstances precisely like those the year 



330 



Editorial. 



( Am. Jour. Phakm. 
t July 1,. 187:;. 



previous: and as in this case, it will, undoubtedly, in September next draw to 
its place of meeting many of its present members, and a large number of phar- 
macists who have hitherto not been identified with the Association. Beauti- 
fully situated on the banks of the James river, Richmond and its surroundings 
present many attractive sceneries, and a historical importance reaching far back 
to the Colonial times. A trip to some of the historical spots in the neighborhood 
of Richmond has been suggested, and a'ter the final adjournment a visit is con- 
templated to Mount Yernon, the home and last resting-place of Washington. 

The routes proposed for the Eastern and Western members will be announced 
in the Secretary's circular, which will soon be issued. 

Applications for membership and for space at the exhibition of pharmaceu- 
tical objects, should be addressed to the Permanent Secretary without delay. 

Variability of Pharmaceutical Preparations. — ,£ A writer in 'The Drug- 
gist' reports the result of examinations of eighteen different fluid extracts of 
belladonna, made by different manufacturers. They ranged from 410 to 80; 
or. in other words, the weakest preparation was but one fifth the strength of 
the most active. Such facts are startling to practitioners. Doubtless similar 
uncertainty prevails, though perhaps not to such an extent, in the whole range, 
of pharmacal preparations. A remedy for the evil is imperatively demanded. 
The responsibility and remedy rests with pharmacists. The rapid progress of 
pharmaceutical science within a lew years past, and the multiplication of asso- 
ciations and schools for its culture, ought to have debarred the possibility of 
results so embarrassing and disreputable. We are assured that fluid extracts; 
are the most certain and uniform of medicinal preparations, and they are largely 
prescribed by physicians under this guarantee. We turn the subject over into 
the hands of our pharmacists for that attention and reform which are alike 
demanded by the magnitude of the subject in its relation to life and disease, 
and by their own reputation and their obligations to the community." — Chicago 
Medical Examiner, May 1. 

We copy the above paragraph in the hope that ihe subject may attract the. 
attention of our medical contemporaries to a far greater extent than it has. 
hitherto done. We know nothing of the correctness of'the examination quoted 
above, but we must remark here that the amouut of solid matter contained in 
liquid pharmaceutical preparations is never a sure criterion by which their 
strength can be judged. Most of them cannot be assayed, because their medi- 
cinally active principles are either unknown or cannot be fully isolated with the 
same exactness as inorganic compouuds. Hence all such assertions must be 
taken with a considerable degree of skepticism, unless the method of analysis 
is clearly described. 

The variability of the pharmaceutical preparations as they are found in com- 
merce, is nothing new to the pharmacial profession, whose voice has frequently 
V»een raised against a practice that has gradually been leading to this uncer- 
tainty. We refer to the prescribing by physicians of preparations of certain* 
manufacturers. The pharmaceutical journals, the colleges of pharmacy, local 
pharmaceutical societies, and the National Association have frequently pro- 
tested against it, but the medical journals have rarely noticed such protests* 



Am. JoCR. Ph vkm. j 
July 1. 187:]. J 



Editorial. 



which we believe were not heeded by the majority of those physicians who are 
given to that censurable habit. 

It has often been stated by pharmacists that the large majority of fluid ex- 
tracts in the market are not nearly up to the strength required by the Pharma- 
copoeia ; yet some physicians will insist that A or B's fluid extract be used for 
his prescriptions, while others prefer aud D's make, thus frequently compel- 
ling the pharmacist to keep on hand five or six different products bearing the 
same name. Commercial sugar coated pills are often of the same stamp. We 
have seen so-called three- grain qninia pills which after the removal of the sugar- 
weighed only two grains, a difference which cannot be accounted for by the 
loss of the water of crystallization. We have known so-called five-grain Do- 
ver's powder pills weigh barely five grains with the sugar covering. The unre- 
liability and variation of the alcoholic beverages yclept elixirs is such as to 
have forced several societies to adopt special formulas for their guidance, in 
order to get rid of the countless trash that may be found in the market, and to 
offer to physicians preparations of a definite strength. 

We are aware that physicians are not alone to blame, nor do we mean to in- 
clude all physicians in this category. When we heard a pharmacist say that, 
he bought tinctures for less than he could make them, we told him frankly that 
we would not trust him in pharmaceutical matters. The aim of pharmaceuti- 
cal researches in this country has been to simplify the processes, so that even 
a moderate amount of skill may succeed in making the galenical preparations 
as uniform in strength as possible, and to leave no excuse to pharmacists for 
purchasing, and to physicians for prescribing, a favorite manufacturer's prod- 
ucts. There is no reason why every pharmacist should not. as many do, make 
all those preparations of the quality of which they cannot readily assure them- 
selves, and there are many reasons why all physicians should prescribe them as 
made by the officinal processes by the dispensing pharmacists themselves. 

Our contemporary we trust wiil aid us in arriving at such a happy result, 
consisting in a strict uniformity of all officinal preparations, which may be 
somewhat modified only by the relative skill of the operator. 

Botanical Gardens have frequently been alluded to in this journal, and 
their importance to the pharmaceutical student has often been pointed out. 
We take pleasure, therefore, in stating that the city of Baltimore appears to be 
in a fair way of adding one to the number already established in various sec- 
tions of the globe. About three years ago a movement was made by several 
wealthy citizens to build a conservatory in Druid hill park. Owing to the ill 
health of M r. Bartlett, who appears to have been particularly active for the 
furtherance of this enterprise, it was suspended until by the united action of 
the Maryland College of Pharmacy and the Maryland Academy of .Sciences 
the project was revived, and an offer of sixty acres of ground made by the Park 
Commissioners, if the required sum. estimated at $50,000, could be secured. 
The offer has been accepted ; in a short time $25,000 have been raised by sub- 
scription, and plans and estimates for the necessary buildings have already 
been ordered, while it was agreed to place the scientific control in the hands of 
the Academy of Sciences. 



332 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. {^jRftfgg?- 

We wish this undertaking all the success which the object aud the prompt- 
ness of action deserves. Some years ago a similar movement had been inaugu- 
rated in Philadelphia, but we have never learned of any steps looking towards 
accomplishing the desirable end. 



REVIEWS AND BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 

A Treatise on the Principles and Practice of Medicine, designed for the use of 
Practitioners and Students of Medicine. By Austin Flint, M. I>., Professor 
of the Principles and Practice of Medicine and of Clinical Medicine in the 
Bellevue Hospital Medical College Fourth edition, carefully revised. Phil- 
adelphia: Henry C. Lea. 1873 8vo.. pp. 1070. Price, bound in cloth, 
$6.00; in leather, raised bands, 87.00. 

The fact that within a brief period thiee editions of this work have been ex- 
hausted, is sufficient evidence of its value to the medical student and practi- 
tioner. In his extensive clinical experience and private practice, the author 
has had many facilities for'observation. the results of which have been used in 
this new revision, together with the contributions to medical literature both in 
Europe and this country, so that the revised edition fully sustains the reputa- 
tion acquired by the preceding ones. Correctness, clearness, and convenience 
in the arrangement, as well as in all the details, render the work what the au- 
thor intended it to be, a text-book and a work of reference. 

The Passions, in their r<-l<iti<>us to Health and Diseases. Translated from the 
French of Dr. X. Bourgeois, Laureate of the Academy of Medicine of Paris, 
&c. By Howard F. Damon, A. M., M. D. Boston : James Campbell. 1873. 
The author states in the preface that in writing the book lie has been guided 
by the maxim of Aristotle : "'To say what should be said, to only say what 
should be said, and to say it as it should be said." In our opinion, neither por- 
tion of this maxim has been carried out. and the world would have lost nothing 
if the book had never been written and never been translated. 

Reform oder Umsturz des Concessions- Systems im Apothekenwesenl Denk- 
schrift des Deutschen Apotheker- Vereins. &c. Von Dr. G. Hartmann, 
Apotheker in Magdeburg 1 . Mit einer Anlage enthaltend 5 statistische Ta- 
bellen. Magdeburg. 1873. Fol. 60 pages. 

Reform or Overthrow of the Concession- System in Pharmacy ? Memorial of 
the German Apothecaries' Union, &c. With an Appendix, containing five 
statistical tables. 

Those of our readers who are not familiar with the exceptional position of 
German pharmacy and pharmacists are referred to the essay of Dr. Fred. Hoff- 
mann on this subject, which was published in this .Journal iu 1871 Since the 
removal in Germany of the former guild-restrictions, the abrogation of the va- 
rious restrictions placed on the practice of pharmacy has been very extensively 
discussed, and particularly the principal question relating to the limitation of 
officines to a certain number of inhabitants. A discussion of this question, 
however, is impossible without the simultaneous consideration of all the side 
issues, every one of which is of vital importance in its relation to and the solu- 
tion of the main point of contention. The regulation of apprenticeship and 



Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. 333 

number of apprentices, the uniformity of the prices of medicines throughout the 
empire, the supervision of the establishments by regular and thorough inspec- 
tors, the high value obtained by the grants or concessions in the absence of 
all competition, the encumbrances resting upon many establishments in conse- 
quence thereof, are a few of these side issues which cannot be ignored in dis- 
posing of the former. 

The author calmly reviews all the arguments which in Germany have been 
advanced against and for the limitation of officines, and comes to the conclusion 
that it should not be annulled, although the necessity of certain reformatory 
measures is freely conceded. This is likewise the opinion of a number of prom- 
inent men in Germany, as we observe from the contents of two additional 
pamphleis which we have lately received. In our opinion this abrogation, even 
in Germany, is merely a question of time, and on account of the numerous and 
wide spread interests involved, a progressive reform is required, having the 
ultimate removal of the restrictions in view, while their sudden overthrow would 
doubtlessly injuriously affect a large number with comparatively little benefit to 
the public. 

The pharmaceutical affairs of other countries have been often cited and freely 
discussed while this controversy has lasted; and, as is often the case, the par- 
ties have noticed mainly what could be used as arguments in favor of their 
special views. But the fact has been almost totally ignored, that, as far as 
England and the United States are concerned, pharmacy is in a transitory con- 
dition, and that in both countries the pharmacists have been and still are the 
strongest advocates of measures calculated to protect the public from harm, 
but do not raise their voice in favor of the denial of a right which is granted to 
every other citizen, namely, to locate his business wherever he sees the chances 
of procuring for himself and family an honest livelihood. The main questions 
involved in the agitation in pharmaceutical affairs in Germany, have been dis- 
cussed in Paris at the international Pharmaceutical Congress, held there in 
1867. The vote as cast by the representatives of the United States,* we be- 
lieve represents the views of the large body of pharmacists in this country, and 
we opine, if Great Britain had been represerfted, her vote would have been like 
that of the United States. 

The document is a very important one in the history of pharmacy, and as 
such deserves the careful perusal of all intelligent persons. It was, with all 
other documents bearing on the same question, referred to the Chancellory of 
the German empire, from which office the proposition of a law may perhaps 
soon be expected, aiming to solve the problem with justice to all concerned. 



Pharmaceutical Lexicon: a Dictionary of Pharmaceutical Science. Contain- 
ing a concise explanation of the various subjects and terms of pharmacy, with 
appropriate selections from the collateral sciences, formulae for officinal, em- 
pirical and dietetic preparations ; selections from the prescriptions of the 
most eminent physicians of Europe and America ; an alphabetical list of 
diseases and their definitions ; an account of the various modes in use for the 
preservation of dead bodies ; tables of signs and abbreviations, weights and 
measures, doses, antidotes to poisons, etc. etc., and, as an item of curiosity, a 



* See Proceeding* of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1XG7, p. 316. 



334 Reviews and Bibliographical Notices. { AM ^l^ u ' 

few leaves from a dispensatory published in the seventeenth century. De- 
signed as a guide for the pharmaceutist, druggist, physician, etc. By H. V. 
Sweringen, member of the American Pharmaceutical Association. Phila- 
delphia: Lindsay & Blakistou, 1873. 8vo. pp. 576. 

The idea of writing a pharmaceutical lexicon was a good and praiseworthy 
one, which might have been carried out in various ways, so as to impart of any- 
given term the scientific information connected with it, or to merely explain 
the meaning of it. The author has chosen the latter course, omitting strictly 
scientific information almost completely. The dictionary, which in our opinion 
was quite sufficient for one book, occupies 427 pages. As the first one fourth 
part of the title indicates, it is to embrace pharmacy and its collateral sciences ; 
it is therefore difficult to fix a proper limit for the work, and lo draw a sharp 
liue between that which should be admitted and excluded. In this endeavor 
the author has not been as successful as might have been desired. In admit- 
ting, for instance, such minerals as kaolin, karpholite, karphosiderite. karsten- 
ite, etc., their relation to pharmacy is not at all apparent, and, with the same 
propriety, the names of nearly all minerals might have found places in the work. 
The chemical compounds stand in a similar position ; when we meet with such 
terms as dibromo-coryamyrtin, dichloroxyphenyl-sulphuric acid, phtalic acid, 
phtalmid. phycite, etc.. we might as well expect to have a catalogue of all the 
chemical compounds ever discovered. 

The difficulty mentioned above is also apparent in another direction. Bo- 
tanical terms which are frequently used in describing vegetable drugs, as for 
instance acaulous, lanceolate, perfoliate, "serrate, etc., have very properly found 
a place; but why equally important and common terms, like amplexicaul, cor- 
date, dentate, linear, sheathing, spatulate, etc., have been omitted, is not clear. 

The arrangement of the matter is alphabetical, but hardly as systematic as 
might have been expected. Acids are found arranged under their descriptive 
names, like nitric, malic, maleic, etc., and partly also under the letter A, like 
acid, nitric, etc. ; the salts are partly found under the letters of their acids, 
partly under that of their bases; so is the description or rather explanation of 
the officinal substances partly m#with under the Latin, partly under the Eng- 
lish name, and notices of one and the same substance, like opium, are found in 
several places. Why adulterated opium should have a heading under A, to the 
exclusion of every other adulterated article, is not apparent. 

The explanations are sometimes quite unsatisfactory, Gum is. for instance, 
stated to be " a term employed to express various concrete vegetable juices," 
and Gammi resince " concrete natural juices of plants .... consisting of gum 
and resin." Acacia gummi, enumerated as a species of acacia from which most 
of the gum arabic of commerce is obtained, was probably intended for A. gum- 
mifera, but an explanation of what gum arabic means, we have been unable to 
find. 

The enumeration of botanical species requires more care, the recognized 
uames and their synonyms being occasionally given as of equal value, and the 
latest edition of the United States Pharmacopoeia deserved to be more fre- 
quently consulted. 

The second part of the work consists mostly of tables collated from various 
sources. The advantage of the select prescriptions in such a work is not ap- 



^jnwii^r} Review* and Bibliographical Notices. 335 

parent to us; the compiler does, moreover, not even credit t lie authors, who. 
as the title informs ns. are among' the most eminent physicians of Europe and 
America. 

The author has bestowed much labor upon this work, which is dedicated to 
the Ameiican Pharmaceutical Association, by whose members as well as by the 
profession in general it will doubtless be welcomed as a useful aid (not a guide), 
giving short explanations and information which are not found together in any 
other work, on teims and subjects frequently met with in scientific literature, 
and containing- a number of formulas which are often needed. Notwithstand- 
ing the shortcomings, we endorse the author's views, expressed in the preface, 
that it will prove of great service to the pharmaceutical student, apprentice, 
the pharmacist, druggist ard physician, as a book for ready reference, and as 
an aid to the study of scientific works. 

On the action of Rhus venenata and Rhus toxicodendron upon the Human 
Skin. By James C. White, M.D., Professor of Dermatology in Harvard Uni- 
versity. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 1873. 8vo, pp" 27. 
This interesting and valuable monograph was read before the Boston Society 

of Medical Sciences in November, 1872, and published in the March number of 

the New York Medical Journal. 



Ninth Annual Report of the Alumni Association of the Philadelphia College of 

Pharmacy. 1873. 8vo, 56 pages. 
Second Annual Report of the Alumni Association of the College of Pharmacy 

of the City of New York. 1873. 8vo, 50 pages. 

The transactions o( both Associations have been reported in our April and 
May numbers. The pamphlets contain the valedictory addresses delivered at 
the last commencements of the two Colleges. 

Des Aconits et de I'Aconitine. Par Charles Patrouillard. Paris : 1872. 4to, 

87 pages. 
On the Aconites and Aconitia. 

It is a thesis which was presented in November last, to the Ecole superieure 
de pharmacie of Paris, to obtain the title of " Pharmacien of the first class." 
It is divided into seven chapters, the first of which treats of the botanical char- 
acters of the genus Aconitum, the geographical distribution of its species, their 
division into subgenera, and the causes of their variability. The second chapter 
describes the tubers of Aconitum napellus in the fresh conditiou and as found in 
commerce; tubers which have not yet developed their terminal bud, even when 
collected in the fall, contain a large quantity of water (loss ascertained in dry- 
ing 62 per cent.) and little alkaloid, while those tubers which had produced 
»tera and Mowers, retain, at the close of active vegetation, much less water and 
a larger quantity of the active principle, while they are resinous upon the frac- 
ture, and at the same time soft and spongy, frequently even presenting large 
cavities, the result of the partial resorption of the medullary tissue ; the younger 
tubers, however, have a more inviting aspect, and are, therefore, preferably 
collected. The resemblance of aconite root in the fresh state to horseradish is 
so slight, that the one cannot be mistaken for the other by p'ersous of ordinary 



336 



Obituary. 



j Am Jour. Phasm. 
t July. 1, 1873. 



intelligence. The same is the case with the rhizome of Aconitum lycoetonum, 
which in no way resembles the officinal aconite tubers. 

In the third chapter the species of aconite peculiar to the Himalaya moun- 
tains, are characterized, and their tubers, which occur in commerce frequently 
mixed with each other under the name of bikli or bish, are described and com- 
pared with a false jalap, named by Guibourt jalap digitc, which we have never 
met in our commerce. Bikh cannot be mistaken, except by the grossest and 
most unpardonable carelessness, for true jalap, even not for the oblong or 
sometimes almost fusiform adventitious tubers which are frequently found to a 
considerable extent intermixed with the globular and uapiform tubers; the 
concentric arrangement of the resin cells in true jalap is so apparent and at the 
same time characteristic that thereby it may be readily distinguished from all 
other drugs. 

The fourth chapter is devoted to the preparation of aconitia. The author 
found that for the fresh root the exhaustion with tartaric acid is at least use- 
less; he recommends the following process as adapted also to the quantitative 
estimation of the alkaloid : Finely powdered root is exhausted with 92 per cent, 
alcohol, containing 1 per cent, tartaric acid ; the alcohol is distilled off in a 
vacuum at about 40° C. ; and the residue almost completely exsiccated under 
the air pump. The extract is dissolved in water, the filtered solution washed 
with ether to remove coloring matter and resin, saturated with powdered bicar- 
bonate of sodium and again agitated with much ether to dissolve the alkaloid, 
which crystallizes on the spontaneous evaporation of the ether. If not entirely 
colorless, the aconitia is dissolved in nitric acid, decolorized by animal char- 
coal and recrystallized from ether. The author has generally obtained about 
0"3 per cent, of pure alkaloid. 

The chemical properties of aconitia are described in the fifth chapter, in 
which the author comes to the conclusion that there is but one alkaloid of 
aconite — a supposition which is not warranted by actual experiments, the ar- 
guments being insufficient to disprove the results obtained by Messrs. Smith, 
Morson Hiibschmann and others, although the decomposition of this alkaloid 
in the presence of other constituents of the root and under the influence of 
heat may explain the different results. This, however, is acknowledged by the 
author in summing up his results. 

The pharmaceutical preparation* and their processes, and the toxical effects 
of aconite and aconitia are discussed in the sixth and seventh chapters. 

The essay is a valuable contribution to our knowledge of aconitd 



OBITUARY. 

Thomas Q. McKenzie died in Baltimore May 6th, in the "1st year of his age. 
He had been in the apothecary business for nearly half a century at the corner 
of Baltimore and Gay streets, and enjoyed in a high degree the esteem of his 
fellow citizens. For several years, owing to increasing age, he had led a \ery 
retired life. 



Josiah Stewart, one of the founders of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great 
Britain, died on the 21st of March last, aged 69 years. 



THE 

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACY. 



AUGUST, 1873. 



ON CHLORIDE OF MERCURETHYL. 
By J. M. Maisch. 

This compound, it appears, has recently been introduced in Eu- 
rope into medicine, and it is claimed for it that it may be used in 
the same doses and for the same purposes as corrosive sublimate, 
over "which it has the advantage of not precipitating albumen, no 
matter in what solution the latter may be, whether as egg albumen, 
in the serum of blood, in urine, etc. Sobering & Co. have introduced 
it under the name of Hydrargyrum cethyloehloratum. 

It was discovered by Strecker* and by Diinhauptf in 1854. The 
former chemist started with iodide of ethyl, preparing therefrom as 
the first step the iodide of mercurethyl ; the process of the latter in- 
volves the previous preparation of bismuth-triethyl, which, being de- 
composed by corrosive sublimate, yields the compound in question, 
besides chloride of bismuth-ethyl. Whichever course is followed, the 
process, or rather series of processes, are tedious and complicated ; 
but that of Strecker appears to offer better advantages in utilizing 
all the material. 

Iodide of ethyl or hydriodic ether = C 4 H 5 I, was discovered by 
Gay-Lussac in 1815, and prepared by distilling absolute alcohol with 
hydriodic acid, and separating the compound from the distillate by 
water. SerullasJ subsequently improved the process by using iodine 
and phosphorus with alcohol, and Personnel found the use of amor- 

* Ann. d. Chem. und Pharra. xcii, 57. f Journ. f. prakt Chemie, lxi, 399. 
% Ann. de Chim. et de Phys. xxv, 323 ; xlii, 119. 
I Oompt. rend, lii, 468. 

22 



338 Chloride of Mercurethyl. { ^^SS^ 

phous (instead of ordinary) phosphorus very advantageous, using 
again absolute alcohol. The latter process was rendered more prac- 
tical in 1862 by Reith and Beilstein,* who proposed to put one part 
of red phosphorus into five per cent, of alcohol, spec. grav. 0.83, 
placing the flask with the mixture into cold water, adding 10 parts 
of iodine, distilling after 24 hours, shaking the distillate with soda 
solution, and removing the oily liquid which is rendered anhydrous 
and rectified. Lieben communicated, in 1868, to the Vienna Acad- 
emy of Sciences, his observations that the chlorides of the alcohol 
radicals are converted into the iodides on being heated to about 130° 
C, with an excess of concentrated hydriodic acid. Wanklynf and De 
VrijJ have simplified the preparation of iodide of ethyl very much 
by using absolute alcohol, to which a little more than one molecular 
weight of iodide of potassium is added, after which dry hydrochloric 
acid gas is pnssed into the liquid ; or the hydrochloric acid is first 
passed into the alcohol and sufficient iodide of potassium added after- 
wards ; after 24 hours the mixture is distilled, the iodide of ethyl sep- 
arated by water and purified by washing, drying and rectifying. 

Iodide of ethyl is a colorless oily liquid of 1.93 spec. grav. at 15° 
0. (60° F.), of a strong and peculiar odor, and boiling at about 70° 
C. (158° F.) When digested with mercury or some other metals, 
ethyl compounds of the metals are obtained. In this manner and 
by taking advantage of the influence of diffused light, Strecker pre- 
pares the iodide of mercurethyl, recrystallizing the product from al- 
coholic ether. It forms then colorless iridescent scales, subliming 
at the temperature of boiling water, fusing at a higher temperature, 
of an unpleasant odor, and being decomposed by direct sunlight 
finally into mercuric iodide ; its composition is C 4 H 5 HgI. If its al- 
coholic solution is precipitated by nitrate of silver and the filtrate 
carefully evaporated, crystals or a crystalline mass of nitrate of mer- 
curethyl are obtained, which is readily soluble in water and almost 
as freely in alcohol. 

This nitrate is easily converted into the chloride by adding to the 
aqueous solution of the former, muriatic acid or chloride of sodium, 
nitric acid, or in the latter case nitrate of sodium being separated in 
the aqueous solution. 

Chloride of mercurethyl has the composition of C 4 H 5 HgCi ; it 



* Ann. d. Chem. und Pharra., cxxvi, 250. 
Polyt. Centralbl. 1867, 675. X N. Jahrb. f. Phann. xxxi, 169. 



A lug u vi8™'} The Night Bell 339 

forms white thin scales with an almost silvery lustre, and of a, pecu- 
liar ethereal unpleasant odor; it is very sparingly soluble in cold 
water, little in ether and cold alcohol, but freely in boiling alcohol, 
crystallizing again on cooling ; it sublimes at 40° C. (122° F.) with- 
out fusing previously, and condenses in thin 1 ami me ; exposed to the 
air it evaporates completely, and heated in a water-bath it may be 
fused to a clear oily liquid, which evaporates without leaving any 
residue. When rapidly heated upon platinum foil it burns with a 
slight flame, the vapors having a disagreeable odor and a metallic 
taste. Being very poisonous, it must be handled with great care on 
account of its ready volatility. Sobering regards it as pure if it is 
readily and completely volatilized, dissolves without residue in boil- 
ing alcohol, yields in alcoholic solution but a faint reaction of chlo- 
rine, and, with alkali, does not produce a precipitate. 

It remains to be seen whether its inactivity upon albumen renders 
this new claimant for medical favor so much superior to corrosive 
sublimate and similar mercurials, that its good qualities would more 
than outweigh the dangers and uncertainties that must result from 
its ready volatility at our usual summer temperature. 

THE NIGHT-BELL. 
By J. B. Moore. 

The night-bell, to many, may appear a strange subject for an arti- 
cle for publication in a pharmaceutic journal ; but, as it is so inti- 
mately connected with the night or after-hours' business of the phar- 
macist, I thought a few words concerning the role it plays in that 
unpleasant part of our business would not be out of place nor unin- 
teresting to the readers of this journal. 

The remarks that follow, however, will not so immediately concern 
the night-bell itself as they will relate to the business with which it is 
so intimately associated. 

Answering the night-bell is a duty among the most unpleasant con- 
nected with the business of pharmacy. It not only interferes with 
our comfort, but in some instances impairs our health ; it, neverthe- 
less, is inseparably connected with and forms an integrant part of our 
business, and the physician might as well refuse to attend to his night- 
calls as for the pharmacist to refuse to respond to the call of the 
night-bell. This duty should therefore be accepted, and promptly 



340 The Night Bell. { A \u£\$lT* 

and cheerfully performed, by every member of our profession who 
pursues this calling with the right spirit, and with the determination 
to do his whole duty. 

Many pharmacists answer the night-bell very reluctantly, and some 
will rarely respond to its unwelcome ring, and when they do will 
hardly treat a nocturnal customer with common courtesy, while there 
are some who never attend to any night business whatever ; that dis- 
tasteful part of their legitimate duties they seem to ignore entirely, 
and leave it to their neighbors to perform. After they lock their 
doors at night their shops are as impregnable to a suffering customer 
as would be the citadel of a beleaguered city to a corporal's guard. 
After they close their doors at night they, as it were, commend their 
customers to the mercy of circumstances. If an individual swallows, 
in the night, laudanum or other poisonous or deleterious substance, 
by mistake, he can get relief as best he can, so far as they are con- 
cerned ; or if any one should be attacked with hemorrhage, or should 
meet with some accident that would imperil life if immediate and prompt 
relief could not be procured ; or if a person should be seized with 
cholera morbus, colic or other painful or dangerous malady — they 
must obtain relief in the best way they can, or suffer until morning, 
or perhaps die. How a successful prescription business can be done 
under such management I cannot understand. Surely the pharma- 
cist guilty of such utter disregard of his duty and the interests of 
his customers is not deserving of the patronage of any community. 

Aside from the kindly sympathies and the humane promptings of 
our nature, there are also business interests involved in this matter 
which should commend it to the favorable consideration of all who 
desire success in the business of pharmacy, as none of us can tell what 
influence the prompt and polite attention to our night business may 
exert upon the general business of our store. 

Every young man who contemplates choosing pharmacy as his busi- 
ness, if he is not already aware of the labors and various onerous 
duties which belong thereto, he should be fully and candidly informed 
of them by his intended preceptor before he enters upon his appren- 
ticeship, and the night business should especially be impressed upon 
his mind as one of the most important and unpleasant parts of his 
duties. Then, if he demurs, and seems to think that he cannot ac- 
cept and perform cheerfully all the legitimate demands of the busi- 
ness, he should, thus at the threshold, abstain from entering the arena 



Am. Jour. Pharm. } 
Aug. 1, 1873. j 



The Night Bell 



341 



of such a self-sacrificing and responsible vocation, and should be ad- 
vised to turn his attention to some other calling more in accord with 
his tastes. 

The petulance and ill-temper frequently manifested by pharmacists 
when called up at night are very unbecoming, and are evidences of 
the lack of the right spirit, and often cause the loss of a good cus- 
tomer, as persons are not likely to patronize a drug-store in day time 
where they are treated with discourtesy when compelled by necessity 
to call at night. People rarely visit a drug-store between midnight 
and five o'clock in the morning for any article of medicine, no mat- 
ter how important or how trifling, unless they absolutely need it. 
No man, woman or child will willingly and unnecessarily arise from 
their bed, and walk perhaps four or five squares, or even, in some 
instances, eight or ten squares, to a drug-store for an article, and that, 
too, probably, in the dead hour of night, unless they were prompted 
by what they consider immediate and imperative necessity ; and, 
whether they really need it or not, if they think they do, that is a 
sufficient justification and excuse for their calling the pharmacist up, 
no matter at what hour or how trifling the want. There are, of 
course, none of us who like to have our rest broken, or to have our 
sweet slumbers disturbed by the noisy tongue of the night-bell, but 
the duty to which it summons us is a legitimate part of our business, 
and we should therefore not feel too much annoyed at such occur- 
rences. 

We should all be humane and charitable towards our nocturnal 
visitors, for they are generally brought to our door either by real or 
imaginary necessity. We cannot expect everybody to be as wise as 
ourselves in matters relating to physic and disease. We must make 
due allowance for the prevailing ignorance of the public in such mat- 
ters. If the public were all doctors or pharmacists, we, perhaps,* 
would not have our hours of rest so frequently invaded. A child, 
perhaps, is suddenly taken ill, in the middle of the night, with pain 
in the stomach, and begins to cry ; or has taken a slight cold, and 
has a little fever ; or is threatened with croup or some other disease, 
and although, to a practiced or professional eye that has a knowledge 
of disease, the symptoms would not be at all alarming, since it would 
see in a minute that there was no immediate danger, or the slightest 
necessity for immediate medical aid, yet the excited parent, who is 
not capable of judging of the magnitude of the danger, becoming 



342 



The Nh/hl Bell 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Aug. 1, 1873. 



alarmed and seized with dread apprehensions, starts immediately, for 
a physician and thence to the drug-store, or else he at once proceeds 
to the latter for some article which experience has taught him is 
useful in such cases. Now, I contend that it would be a sad state of 
affairs if the anxious and affrighted parent could not gain admittance 
to any neighboring pharmacy to obtain the much-coveted boon, in the 
form, perhaps, of five or ten cents' worth of paregoric, laudanum, 
sweet spirit of nitre, hive syrup, syr. ipecac, lime water, or other sim- 
ple remedy ; or, if the physician has been sought, and the medicine 
cnnnot be procured, the attendance and skill of the physician are 
expended in vain. 

Yet there are but few pharmacists who seem to view the matter of 
their night business in the right light, or deal with it in the right 
spirit. We are aware that there are many calls made upon us at 
night, after business hours, for medicines that are entirely unneces- 
sary, or at* least for which there is no immediate need; but we must 
also remember that there are many similar calls made upon us by the 
public in day time which may be placed in the same category, and 
which go to make up, perhaps, no small share of our sales, and con- 
tribute to a very great extent to supply us with the comforts of life. 
But these calls are made at a time when they are more pleasurably 
tolerated. 

Some pharmacists will never get up at night to answer any call, 
unless it is for medicine on a prescription, just as though no medi- 
cine was ever needed to relieve pain and suffering, or to cure disease, 
tut what was directed in the prescription of a physician. Such an 
idea and such a practice are simply ridiculous. 

I have had people to not unfrequently call at my store late in the 
night for medicine, and tell me that they had come eight or ten 
• squares, and had tried to gain admittance at every drug store on 
their way, but failed to get any one up. I have frequently secured 
good customers in this way far remote from my own store. People 
usually feel very grateful to you for such an accommodation. They 
feel that you have proved a friend in need. 

It is important, also, when called on for medicine at night, to admit 
the customer as quickly as possible, and not to keep the person wait- 
ing at your door longer than cannot be avoided, especially in cold and 
inclement weather, and more particularly if the applicant be a woman 
or child, for they are naturally timid and often much afraid to be out 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Aug. 1, 1873. j 



The Night Bell. 



348 



in the street at a late and lonely hour of the night. Five minutes in 
waiting outside, and that, perhaps, in the cold and rain, will seem to 
them as long as fifteen or twenty minutes to you who are inside, es- 
pecially if the call be an urgent one. This is why customers are 
often so impatient, and annoy the pharmacist so frequently by their 
continued or frequent ringing of the bell or knocking at the door, if 
the call is not answered at once. The moment the night bell is rung 
or a knock is made at the door, it should be immediately responded to 
by answering through the speaking tube, if such a convenience is at 
hand, or from the window. This will prevent impatience, and the 
customer will wait contentedly at the door, and give you time to has- 
tily arrange your toilet. 

. I am well aware that the patience of pharmacists is often sorely 
tried by these night callers, and theie is often great excuse for our 
sometimes becoming vexed at the frequent interruptions of our rest. 
After we have been on our feet the whole day long, and wearied 
and fatigued both in body and mind by the labors and anxieties of 
the business of the day, and the 

" Soul is quite weighed down with cares, and asks 
The soft refreshment of a moment's sleep," 

then it is when we have retired to our couch of repose, and, perhaps, 
have just got fairly into a doze, that we are suddenly awakened by 
the tingle of the night bell, which, at first, falls upon the tympanum 
" like the soft sweet music of a dream," but in a moment arouses us 
to the consciousness that it is the unwelcome ring of the horrid night 
bell. I know that under such circumstances we cannot but occasion- 
ally instinctively and irresistably feel provoked and cross at all man- 
kind, to think that even at night, at hours when all the world is 
hushed in slumber and almost all can enjoy their rest undisturbed, 
the poor apothecary is denied this privilege, which makes us not un- 
frequently wish that we had in early life chosen some other calling. 
But such feelings of dislike or aversion to the performance of any 
part of our necessary duties, no matter how unpleasant, should not 
be encouraged nor allowed a permanent lodgment in our bosoms, but 
should be repressed and, if possible, extinguished, or, if not, they 
will " grow with our growth, and strengthen with our strength," 
until finally every unpleasant duty that interferes with our comfort 
or abridges our pleasure will become distasteful to us, and will be 
performed with reluctance and indifference. Therefore, from our 



4 



344 



The Night Bell. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Aug. 1, 1873. 



commencement in business we should endeavor to educate ourselves 
to accept and perform every duty pertaining to our vocation with 
cheerfulness and alacrity. By persevering in such efforts we will 
finally establish within ourselves a bulwark against such feelings. 

It must be borne in mind that every business of life has its un- 
pleasant features ; and while ours has its full share, it also must have 
corresponding charms for its votaries, as it appears that when a man 
once becomes a pharmacist he always remains one, for we seldom 
see him quit it to embark in any other business. 

While we are gravely and lamentingly contemplating the long 
hours and the many annoying and onerous duties of our business, we 
can gather consolation if we will but observe the labor and long hours 
of our corner grocer. We will then see that we have a comparatively, 
easy business. He is on his feet, hard at work, all day long ; his 
store is open as late at night as ours, and in the morning, while we 
are yet slumbering, he is by daylight at his post, with his store open 
and business in full blast, selling to the industrious housewife, from 
a penny's worth of wood for her morning fire to the choicest mackerel 
for breakfast. 

I have, in common with my colleagues, experienced all of the many 
annoying features of the night business in all their multifarious forms. 
Perhaps, on the approach of day, before the nightingale has ceased 
her joyous notes, or the cock has raised his clarion voice to greet the 
first faint gleam of " meek-eyed Morn," a pull of the night bell or a 
rap at the door may awake you from your much-needed morning nap 
and summon you to your post. You, a3 quickly as possible, present 
yourself at the door, and salute your premature visitor in the most 
agreeable manner consistent with your inward thoughts and feel- 
ings. Without offering any apology for disturbing you at such an 
unseasonable hour, he, perhaps, with the greatest sang-froid, asks 
you if you can change him a five dollar note, or says that he will take 
some postage stamps, or a few good segars, or that he wishes a Seid- 
litz powder, or other equally trifling article ; or, probably he may 
ask you if you know where Mr. So and So has removed to, who used 
to live in this neighborhood. 

This is not an overdrawn picture or description of some of the 
scenes which occasionally take place in drug stores. Similar in- 
stances have occurred in my own experience. People guilty of such 
improprieties usually belong to tee class of early risers, who think 



Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
Aug. 1, 1873. / 



The Night Bell 



345 



that everybody else, like themselves, should rise with the lark. Now 
I have very little patience with, and no sympathy for, such people, 
and in such cases I usually administer to the guilty party, ih a. calm 
but emphatic manner, without any outward manifestation of anger, 
a suitable rebuke. I generally say to them : "I am surprised that 
you should call me up at such an unseasonable hour in the morning 
for so trifling an article, that you could so easily have done without 
until I had opened my store." I say furthermore to them : "I am 
always willing, and will at any time, with pleasure, get up at any 
hour of the night to furnish you with any article of medicine or 
medical appliance that I have and that you might require in any case 
of emergency in sickness occuring at night, but I will not permit 
myself to be thus disturbed of my rest at so early an hour in the 
morning on so trifling a pretext." A little calm and plain talk of 
this kind does not always offend, and yet serves as a good and whole- 
some lesson to the individual, and prevents the repetition of the of- 
fence. 

The calls that we have made upon us after business hours, which 
may be classed in the category of unwarranted and unnecessary, usu- 
ally occur either in the early part of the night, before half past twelve 
o'clock, or in the early morning, between five o'clock and our usual 
hour for opening. 

These calls are usually made by careless, thoughtless, inconsider- 
ate, and often ignorant people, who may, in summer, be seen sitting 
around on their door steps until midnight, chatting, neglectful of 
their little wants in the way of medicine they desire to take before 
retiring or when they arise in the morning, hence, are obliged to call 
the pharmacist up after he has retired to rest, or before his usual 
opening hour in the morning. It is to this class of untimely visitors 
that a few well-timed words of chastisement and rebuke should be 
courteously administered. 

Some pharmacists make it a rule to charge more for their services 
at night, and after mature consideration, I don't know but that this 
is perfectly right, for we should be paid for our labor in proportion 
to its magnitude and the personal sacrifices connected with its per- 
formance. The physician usually, I believe, charges more for his 
visits by night than for those which he makes by day, and I, there- 
fore, cannot see any reason why the pharmacist is not justifiable in 
following the same rule. Of course, in adjusting our charges, we 



346 



Aromatic Tincture of Assafcetida. { 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 
Aug. 1, 1873. 



should be governed by the apparent circumstances of each particular 
case. If the person is very poor we should be very considerate, and 
as moderate as possible in our charges, otherwise we may do great 
injustice to poverty and overtax the necessities of poor and deserving 
people. But, notwithstanding, I cannot but think that an advance in 
our prices on our night sales is perfectly justifiable, although it has 
formerly always been a rule with me to make no extra charge at night, 
and that rule has been rarely departed from in my store. 

1, for many years, attended to answering the night bell or night 
calls myself, but of late years have delegated that duty to my pre- 
scription clerk, and have always insisted upon a prompt and polite 
attention to the duty. As men advance in life they cannot so well 
afford to have their rest broken, as when once disturbed they cannot 
so readily get asleep as when younger. Most young men, however, 
can usually fall asleep the moment their head touches the pillow. 

I have been induced to write upon this subject, believing it to be 
one of universal importance and interest to our profession, and which, 
moreover, has heretofore not received that just and intelligent con- 
sideration that its importance deserves, and to which its place in the 
business of the pharmacist entitles it. And if I have succeeded in 
impressing the points here made upon any of the younger members of 
the profession, who are especially liable to overlook them, I shall not 
have penned this article in vain. 

Philadelphia, July, 1873. 

ON AROMATIC TINCTURE OF ASSAFCETIDA. 
By L. Myers Connor. 
This tincture has such an unpleasant smell and nauseating taste, 
that it cannot be given in every case required. Frequent requests of 
physicians to prepare a tincture that would be more pleasant to the 
taste and produce the same effect without the addition of water, have 
induced me to make some experiments. The formula offered has 
been tried, the aromatics being no objection, either in properties or 
preparation ; it can be made at any time, also keeps well. 
R. Tinct. Assafoetida, U. S. P., . . ,|viij, 



Mix. Dose, one and a half to two fluid-drachms, without the ad- 
dition of water. 

Dallas, Texas, June 18, 1873. 



" Orange-peel, 
Ess. Peppermint, 



5iij. 



Am. Jour. I'hakm. \ 
Aug. 1, 1873. 



Analysis of Osha RihA. 



347 



ANALYSIS OF OSHA ROOT. 
By Herman Haupt, Jr. 
Abstract from the author's Inaugural Essay. 

This New-Mexican umbelliferous root, the botanical origin of which 
is still unknown, has been noticed in the American Journal of Phar- 
macy, 1867, p. 202, and 18(38, p. 106. The material for the follow- 
ing experiments had been received from Mr. Jacob Krummeck, of 
Santa Fe, through Prof. Maisch. 

On leaving a canton flannel strainer in contact with a hot decoc- 
tion of the root, the woollen fibres of the strainer were observed to 
be dyed a reddish brown color, while the cotton fibres remained white. 
Dilute sulphuric acid changed the color to yellowish-brown (snuff 
color), alum solution (1 to 8) the same ; solution of soda and of ferrous 
sulphate deepened the color considerably. 

Sixteen ounces of the root in coarse powder were distilled with 
water ; the distillate, at first clear, became turbid when quite cool, 
and separated volatile oil. The aqueous decoction, after the volatile 
compounds had been removed by distillation, was carefully evapor- 
ated to a syrupy consistence and trea ted with alcohol ; the brown pre- 
cipitate dissolved readily in water, the solution yielding with alcohol 
a white precipitate of gum, which, on exposure to the air, again as- 
sumed a brownish color. 

A concentrated solution of this precipitate formed stiff jellies with 
solutions of ferric chloride and of borax ; acetate of lead precipitated 
it white, the filtrate therefrom, after the removal of the lead by sul- 
phuretted hydrogen, yielded, on evaporation, nearly white deliques- 
cent crystals. 

The alcoholic filtrate obtained as above from the decoction, re- 
duced cupric oxide in alkaline solution at the boiling temperature, 
but not in the cold after standing for several hours ; the reduction 
was probably due to some organic body aside from sugar. 

The root exhausted by hot water was dried, when it weighed six 
and a half ounces ; it was exhausted with strong alcohol, the tincture 
distilled and evaporated, and the residue successively treated with 
petroleum benzin, bisulphide of carbon and chloroform. On evapor- 
ating the last two solutions slowly, resinous masses were left behind 
without any sign of crystallization. Equal quantities of these resins 
dissolved in a like quantity of alcohol, gave solutions of a similar 



348 



Analysis of Osha Boot. 



S Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 Aug. 1, 1873. 



brown shade, but much paler in the case of the bisulphide of carbon 
resin. 

The solution in petroleum benzin separated, on standing, at first a 
brown resin, in appearance and behavior identical with that taken up 
by the chloroform, and after several days particles of fat. The ben- 
zin was evaporated, and the resulting oil cooled to 8° F., when ife 
thickened slightly, but did not congeal. The oil was saponified, the 
soap converted into soda soap, and the fatty acids liberated by sul- 
phuric acid; a brownish gelatinous mass was obtained, which dis- 
solved in alcohol, leaving a small portion of oil .behind which was 
readily taken up by bisulphide of carbon. The alcoholic solution 
yielded a precipitate with acetate of lead, which was soluble in ether,, 
and on the evaporation of the solvent the oleate was obtained again 
as a yellowish semi-fluid mass. 

The mother-liquor from the soap was evaporated, and yielded a 
dark colored liquid containing potassium and sodium salts. This 
liquid being difficult to purify, some fat was obtained from the root 
by treating it with hot benzin, then saponified with oxide of lead, and 
the mother-liquor purified by sulphuretted hydrogen and alcohol ; the 
liquid finally obtained, although not quite colorless, had the proper- 
ties of glycerin. 

The volatile oil separated from the aqueous distillate mentioned 
above, was heavier than water, of a light yellow color and the sharp 
burning and aromatic taste of the root. Sodium acted upon the an- 
hydrous oil with considerable violence, slender white needle-shaped 
crystals being separated on standing. Caustic potassa did not unite 
with this oil. 

A portion of the aqueous distillate, from which the volatile oil had 
been separated, still retained considerable odor ; it was repeatedly 
distilled from chloride of sodium and thus concentrated, the distillate 
was mixed with a concentrated solution of bisulphite of sodium and 
the mixture cooled by ice. No crystals being obtained, the absence 
of an aldehyde in the distillate was established. 

The aqueous distillate being of an acid reaction, was neutralized 
with carbonate of sodium and concentrated by evaporation, when the 
color became quite dark. After purification by animal charcoal and 
alcohol and recrystallization, deliquescent crystals were obtained. 
The salt distilled with an excess of diluted sulphuric acid, yielded a 
colorless distillate of a pleasant aromatic odor, reminding of the oil 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Aug. 1, 1873. j 



Jervic Acid and Jervates. 



349 



of cognac. When almost neutralized by soda, the solution gave no 
precipitates with sulphate of copper, ferric chloride and mercurous 
nitrate. 

In order to compare this aromatic acid with angelic acid, the latter 
was prepared by Buchner's process, by exhausting angelica root with 
alcohol, evaporating the liquid, separating the balsam, washing it with 
water, exhausting it with solution of potassa, purifying the compound 
by repeated concentration and filtration, and distilling with sulphuric 
acid. Angelic acid was obtained in colorless needles, having a pecu- 
liar aromatic odor, reminding of valerian, and being sparingly solu- 
ble in cold ; but freely in hot water. The lead salt was obtained in 
shining white plates. 0*07 grams of the lead angelate, having been 
previously dried at a moderate heat, was decomposed by sulphuric 
acid, yielding O052 grams lead sulphate, containing 0*0855 grams 
lead, which is equal to 54*7 per cent, oxide of lead in the angelate ; 
theoretical percentage 55*17 (See Gmelin's Hand-Book). 

Some Osha root was treated in precisely the same manner as the 
angelica root ; the acid obtained did not crystallize. The lead salt 
was obtained in shining plates, which, on heating, fused into a trans- 
parent mass. It was dried together with the lead angelate ; 0-02 
grams of it yielded 0.019 grams sulphate, corresponding to 0*0129 
grams lead and to 69*9 per cent, oxide of lead in the organic salt. 

It seems clear from the results as given above that the acid of 
Osha root is not identical with angelic acid ; it appears to be a new 
acid hitherto unknown, and to deserve to be distinguished by the 
name of Oshaic acid. 

From 100 grains of the air-dried root 8 grains of ashes were ob- 
tained, containing iron, aluminum, sodium and potassium. 



JERVIC ACID AND JERVATES.* 
By Hermann Weppen. 

The potassium and sodium salts are prepared by carefully neutra- 
lizing an aqueous solution of the acid with pure carbonate ; the slight- 
est excess of the latter causes the liquid to assume an intense yellow 
color. The solutions are evaporated spontaneously under a bell-glass 
over sulphuric acid. The potassium salt is yellowish, scarcely crys- 



Abstract of a paper published in Archiv d. Pharm., 1873, March. 



350 



Jervic Acid and Jercates. 



\ Am. Jour. Pharw. 

1 Aug. 1, 1873." 



talline ; the soda salt is white, and consists of very thin needles. 
Both have an alkaline reaction, are insoluble in alcohol and ether, 
freely soluble in water, from which solution alcohol precipitates them 
finally crystalline. Composition : C ]4 H 6 O l2 K 4 +2H 2 0. The sodium 
jervate contains 3 molecules of water. 

The jervates of the alkaline earths are obtained by carefully add- 
ing to a boiling solution of the acid, recently precipitated pure car- 
bonate suspended in hot water, until it just ceases to be dissolved. 
The salts crystallize on cooling, are insoluble in alcohol, but slightly 
soluble in water ; the solutions are neutral to test-paper. Composi- 
tion : C 14 H 6 12 Ba 2 ; the strontium jervate contains 1, the calcium salt 
6 molecules of water. 

An excess of nitrate of silver produces in aqueous solutions of jer- 
vic acid a crystalline precipitate = C 14 H 8 12 Ag 2 --|-2H 2 1 , which is 
freely soluble in hot water, is not colored when exposed to the direct 
sunlight, and not decomposed up to a temperature of 160° C. ; the 
solution has an acid reaction. The neutral silver salt obtained by 
double decomposition of the hot solutions, crystallizes in fine needles, 
is affected by the light (at least while moist), and has a neutral reac- 
tion. It is C 14 H c 12 Ag 4 . 

The mercurous salt obtained by double decomposition has the same 
composition and contains \ molecules of water, is crystalline and in- 
soluble in water. 

Jervic acid is a tetrabasic acid ; a well-defined ether has not been 
obtained yet. Pelletier and Caventou regarded it as gallic acid; the 
latter, however, is monobasic and tetratomic. By doubling its mole- 
cule (2C 7 H 6 O 5 =C u H 12 O 10 ), it will be seen that jervic acid, C 14 H 10 O 12 , 
contains 211 less and 20 more than the former ; and digallic acid, 
C M H 10 O 9 , differs in composition from jervic acid merely by 30. The 
question, whether these acids are related to each other, may probably 
be solved by the study of their derivatives. 

The two acids differ from each other as follows : 

Jervic .Acid. Gallic Acid. 

Not fusible or sublimable. Fusible with evolution of OO2 and 

formation of pyrogallic arid metagailic 
acids. 

Soluble in 100 parts of cold and Soluble in 100 parts of cold and 3 
about 10 parts of boiling water. parts of boiling water. 

Insoluble in ether, difficultly solu- With difficulty soluble in ether, easily 
ble in alcohol. in alcohol. 



Gleanings from the European Journals. 



Contains two molecules of water of 
crystallization. 

With little ammonia no alteration ; 
with much ammonia, lemon-yellow 
color. 

With excess of potassa, lemon-yel- 
low. 

With excess of baryta water, yel- 
low precipitate. 

With lime water, yellow precipi- 
tate. 

With excess of calcium carbonate, 
yellow. 

Sulphuric acid produces no visible 
change. 

Chloride of calcium produces no 
precipitate. 

With ferric salts, no alteration in 
the cold ; the liquid becomes darker 
brown on heating. 

Nitrate of silver yields a white pre- 
cipitate, which does not decompose 
with separation of silver. 



351 

Contains two molecules of water of 
crystallization. 

Little ammonia turns it yellow, much 
ammonia red-brown. 

Excess of potassa, yellow, red, then 
brown. 

With excess of baryta water, yeK 
low ; then blue solution with green-blue 
flocks. 

With lime water, yellow ; then vio- 
let-green solution with similar flocks. 

With excess of calcium carbonate, 
bluish ; then indigo-blue solution : 
finally, green blue precipitate. 

Sulphuric acid causes red solution of 
rufigallic acid. 

With chloride of calcium, yellow pre- 
cipitate, with evolution of carbonic 
acid. 

With ferric salts a blue solution, 
passing through green into brown. 

With nitrate of silver no precipitate ; 
the solution separates metallic silver. 



GLEANINGS FROM THE EUROPEAN JOURNALS. 
By the Editor. 

Estimation of alcohol in fusel oil. — Dr. G. L. Ulex, of Hamburg, 
recommends to distil from 100 c. c. of the suspected fusel oil 5 c. c, 
and to agitate the distillate with an equal volume of saturated solu- 
tion of table salt. If, on standing, one-half or more is separated as 
an oily liquid, it is a reliable proof that the fusel oil contained less 
than 15 per cent, of proof spirit. If, however, a smaller quantity or 
no fusel oil is separated, an addition of proof spirit has taken place. 
A given quantity of fusel oil is then agitated with an equal volume 
of saturated solution of table salt, in which propylic and butyiic al- 
cohols are far less soluble than in water. After complete separation 
the salt solution is distilled, to recover the alcohol and estimate its 
amount. — Pharmac. Zeitung, 1873, No. 48. 

Test for free alkalies and for tannic acid. V. (Iriessuiayer.- — If a 



352 j ^|g Gleanings from the European Journals. { A \i°™i F m£"' 

drop of a solution of tannin is mixed with 1 c. c. of T J^ normal so- 
lution of iodine the iodine color disappears instantly, gallic and hy- 
driodic acids being formed. The iodine solution may be weaker, 
but must not be stronger, so that it is completely decolorized. If 
one drop of ammonia is now added, previously diluted to one-tenth 
its strength, or in place of it 1 c. c. of water having a very faint al- 
kaline reaction, a brilliant red color, appearing carmine in reflected 
light, is produced, which remains unchanged for some time. This 
reaction is much more delicate than that produced by concentrated 
alkalies upon tannic or gallic acids, because the color is quite char- 
acteristic, and the liquid does not become darker, as in the absence of 
iodine. — Ibid., from Zeitsehr. f. Chemie. 

Constituents of cubebs.* — C. P. Schulze has again examined the 
officinal cubebs, and arrived at results differing somewhat from those 
obtained by Bernatzik and Schmidt. The composition of cubebic 
acid was found to be HOjC^H^Oy, of its crystallized soda salt NaO, 
CggH^Oy+^HO. The brown neutral resin could not be obtained in 
crystals ; it is of pilular consistence, softens readily, is easily solu- 
ble in ether and chloroform, but with difficulty in alcohol. Concen- 
trated sulphuric acid forms with it a dirty brown mixture, which, on 
the addition of nitric acid, becomes purple, then violet, and finally 
brown. After continued exposure of the mixture to the air the col- 
oration produced is not as bright and distinct. — Archiv d. Pharm., 
1873, May, 388-395. 

Soft soap is frequently adulterated. According to J. B. Oster, the 
microscope detects these adulterations very readily, silicates, silicic 
acid, alumina, ruptured starch granules, &c. being plainly visible. — 
Pharm. Cent. Halle, 1873, No. 22. 

Ozonized water, made by Krebs, Kroll & Co., of Berlin, has been 
again examined by Dr. Behrens, of Kiel, and by Dr. 0. Jacobsen, 
both arriving at the conclusion that the examined water contained a 
little hypochlorous acid. — Wittst. Viert. Schr., 1873, 230. 

These results, together with those obtained by Prof. Boettger (Am. 
Journ. Pharmacy, 1872, 105) seem to indicate that the so-called ozone 
water of the above firm is not always of the same composition ; at any 



* See also Amer. Journal of Pharmacy, 1870, 222. 



A \tTiwT'} Gleanings from the European Journals. 353 - 

rate, it does not deserve its name. See also Am. Journ. Pharmacy, 
1872, 396. 

The test for balsam of Peru with solution of table salt (Am. Journ, 
Pharmacy, 1872, 106) appears to Werner to be unreliable, since ar- 
tificial products may be prepared having a higher specific gravity than 
that solution. He recommends the test of the German .Pharmaco- 
poeia as perfectly reliable ; the balsam is triturated in a mortar with 
an equal part of sulphuric acid, and the mass afterwards repeatedly 
washed with water. Pure balsam leaves a hard residue, which breaks 
readily, while the product from adulterated balsam is either tough, or 
soft like an ointment. The operation requires about five minutes. 
Ibid., 295. 

Vegetable glue. — This name is applied to a mucilage of gum arabic, 
the adhesive properties of which have been considerably increased by 
adding to 250 grams (made of 2 parts of gum to 5 of water) 2 grams 
of crystallized sulphate of aluminum, previously dissolved in 20 grams 
of water. Alum has a similar effect, but in a less satisfactory degree. 
—Pharm. Cent. Halle, 1873, No. 24. 

Impure chlorate of potassium has been met with by Dr. Godeffroy. 
The salt was pulverulent, and sold at a higher price than the pure 
crystallized. By fusing and igniting 12 troyounces of it a blackish 
mass was obtained, which, when treated with water, left a residue 
weighing 90 grains, and consisting of manganium with traces of iron ; 
this corresponds to 2 per cent, of binoxide of manganese. — Zeit. d. 
Oesterr. Apoth. Ver., 1873, No. 17. 

Precipitation of magnesium.— -Prof. Mohr has proven experimentally 
that the precipitation of magnesium from an ammoniacal solution is 
best effected by ammonio-phosphate of sodium (microcosmic salt), 
which produces at once the insoluble crystalline precipitate, while 
phosphate of sodium separates at first gelatinous phosphate of mag- 
nesium, which is only gradually converted into the crystalline am- 
monio-phosphate of magnesium. — -Zeitschr. f. Analyt. Ohem., 1873, 
36-39. 

The bark of Azadirachta Indica or nim tree has been analyzed by 
J. Broughton, who separated from it a resin-like principle of the 
composition C 3G H 50 O u . It is obtained by exhausting the bark with 

23 



354 Laws which Regulate the Distribution, Etc. \ k \l™ \ *J 7 £ M - 

60 per cent, alcohol, precipitating the tincture by water, exhausting 
the dried precipitate by benzol, evaporating, again exhausting by 
carbon disulphide, then by dry ether, and finally by absolute alcohol; 
the last exhaustion separates a white transparent crystallizable sub- 
stance, probably a fat, certainly not the active principle or an alka- 
loid. Thus purified the resin is dark brown, somewhat soft, of agree- 
able smell, slightly soluble in water, entirely in all the foregoing 
solvents, insoluble in fixed oils, fusible at 92° C. The dilute solutions 
have a strongly bitter, but not disagreeable taste. Strong alkalies and 
sulphuric acid dissolve it with alteration. The author believes that 
it can scarcely possess antiperiodic febrifuge qualities, though it may 
be a good tonic. 

Another bitter substance, apparently a hydrate of the former, has 
been separated from the bark and the leaves ; it is far more soluble 
in water. The leaves likewise contain no alkaloid. The powerful 
smell of the tree is not due to a sulphuretted oil, as has been sur- 
mised; indeed, no essential oil could be obtained, although the aqueous 
distillate of the bark has the perfume of the tree. — Pharm. Journ. 
and Trans., 1873, June 14, from Madras Monthly Journ. of Med. 
Science. 



THE LAWS WHICH REGULATE THE DISTRIBUTION OF A SUB- 
STANCE BETWEEN TWO SOLVENTS. 
By Berthelot and Jungfleisch. 
Abstract by C. E. Groves, from Ana. Chim. Phys. [4], xxvi, 396-417. 

Although chemists frequently resort to the purely physical process 
of extracting a substance dissolved in one liquid, by agitating it with 
another liquid not miscible with the first, the laws which govern this 
molecular action have not hitherto been studied. 

The present essay consists of three parts; 1. Experiments on the 
distribution of a substance between two solvents, made in conjunc- 
tion with Jungfleisch; 2. Theory of this distribution; 3. Experi- 
ments on the state of dissolved salts, made with L. de St. Martin. 

The authors have studied the solubility of iodine and bromine in 
water and carbon disulphide, also of succinic, malic, tartaric, oxalic, 
acetic, benzoic, sulphuric and hydrochloric acids, and ammonia in 
water, and in ether. The method of experimenting was to dissolve 
the substance in one of the liquids, and then agitate it with a known 



AM A? g TO i, m A 3 RM } Laws which Regulate the Distribution, Etc. 355 

volume of the other, the amount of substance being determined in 
each of the superposed liquids when they had become saturated. 

It is found that when a substance is simultaneously in presence of 
two solvents, the quantities dissolved by equal volumes of the two 
liquids have a constant ratio, which is called the co-efficient of distri- 
bution, and is independent of the relative volumes of the two solvents, 
but varies with the degree of concentration, and with the tempera- 
ture. In the case of succinic acid, a decrease of temperature causes 
a diminution of the co efficient of distribution, and the same effect is 
produced by dilution. With oxalic, malic, tartaric, and acetic acids, 
on the contrary, the co-efficient increases with the dilution, and the 
same with ammonia. The co-efficient for iodine, with water and car- 
bon disulphide, may be regarded as independent of the degree of 
concentration. 

The fact that the co-efficient of distribution is independent of the 
relative volume of the two solvents, may be readily explained in the 
following manner : Imagine the superposed liquids to be saturated 
with the substance : then for equilibrium to persist, it is only neces- 
sary that there should be equilibrium at the surface of contact of the 
two liquids, and this would be undisturbed by the addition of an arbi- 
trary volume of the same liquid saturated to the same degree, to 
either of the superposed liquids. From the consideration of the in- 
fluence of concentration, it is evident that as the solutions become 
more dilute, the co-efficient of distribution approaches a certain limit, 
so that if it is desired to remove a substance from a solution by agi- 
tating it with another liquid, it is advisable to employ the latter in 
successive fractions (ib. [4], xx, 422-425). Moreover, it is easy, by 
successive determinations of the co-effiuients of distribution, to ascer- 
tain whether the substance dissolved is homogeneous or a mixture (ib. 
[4], xx, 425, 429 and 431). As there is a limit to the co-efficient as 
"the solutions become more dilute, there will likewise be one as they 
become more concentrated, and it would naturally be supposed that 
this limit would be the ratio of the two liquids when saturated sepa- 
rately ; but, experimentally, this has been found not to be the case, 
the co-efficient being less than that corresponding to the ratio of the 
solubilities. With respect to the relation between the co-efficient of 
distribution and the chemical composition of the substance dissolved, 
the authors find that? ether removes more readily from their aqueous 
solutions : 1. The more highly carburetted of two homologous acids ; 



356 



Pepsin. 



J Am. Joub. Phaem. 
I Aug. 1, 1873. 



2. The monobasic rather than the corresponding bibasic acid (e. 
butyric than succinic acid) ; 3. Or than the bibasic acid having nearly 
the same percentage composition (acetic acid and succinic acid) ; also 
-{4) of acids containing the same carbon and hydrogen, that which 
has least oxygen (succinic and malic acids). 

In the case of two substances in presence of two solvents, they are 
distributed as if each of the substances acted alone. This relation is 
analogous to the law of the solubility of mixed gases, and is capable 
of being applied to the separation of two mixed substances (ib. [4], 
xx, 425-431). — Amer. Chemist, May, 1873, from J. Lond. Chem. 
Soc. 



PEPSIN. 
By Charles Symes, Ph.D. 

There are few medicines, perhaps, which have received so extensive 
a trial, and yet respecting which such differences of opinion exist, as 
pepsin. It cannot be doubted that this arises chiefly from the fact 
that it has not been recognized by the Pharmacopoeia, and hence no 
standard tests of quality exist in this country. Chemists purchase 
the kind they think best, influenced perhaps by the advertisements of 
manufacturers or the report of some experimenter who may have used 
very carefully prepared samples, and not the commercial article ; or 
it might be they are guided by price, the best qualities being usually 
attributed to the highest priced article of its kind, and this, indeed, 
should be a correct guide. But I have also heard of orders for pepsin 
in which the only condition stipulated for was its low price. It occa- 
sionally occurs that extremes meet, and my experience indicates that 
they are not so wide apart as would be supposed, even in this instance. 
It will not be surprising, however, under such circumstances, that 
pepsin might mean anything possessing more or less digestive power,* 
an appearance varying from that of decorticated liquorice to pulv. 
doveri, and an odor from almost nil to the strong smell of bacon. Va- 
riable as it might be, it has stood the test of time, and at last assert- 
ed its right to recognition and admission to at least the outer circle, 
viz : to the Appendix, of the British Pharmacopoeia. 

For some time past I have been conducting a series of experiments 
on pepsin, first with a view of ascertaining the quality of commercial 
specimens by different makers ; and secondly, of testing the various 
processes which have been proposed for its preparation as a medicinal 



Pepsin. 357 

or restorative agent. My results under the first head somewhat sur- 
prised me, and might do others who have not made this subject one of 
experimental inquiry ; one or two examples will perhaps serve as 
illustrations. It will be seen that I have used a minimum quantity 
of acid, so as to test the full peptic power of the various samples — the 
amount of acid often recommended in a given quantity of fluid being 
much larger than can possibly exist in the human stomach. In each 
instance, the white portion of hard-boiled eggs chopped in small pieces 
was used, and after digestion the undissolved portions, before weigh- 
ing, were brought to as nearly as possible the same condition of dry- 
ness as they were in previously ; 100 grains were introduced into each 
of six vials — to five of these ten drachms distilled water, ten minims 
dilute hydrochloric acid, and ten grains of pepsin of various kinds 
were added ; in the sixth four drachms of the distilled water were 
replaced by the same quantity of pepsin wine, each drachm of which 
should have represented two-and-a-half grains of Pepsina Porci ; all 
were digested under precisely the same conditions at a temperature of 
100° for 12 hours. The following gives the amount by weight of un- 
dissolved albumen in each vial : — 



No. 1 left undiss 

66 o u 
a g a 
a 4 66 

« 5 « 

a Q 66 



Ived, 1 J gr. 

21 " 

2-i " 

28 " 

41 " 

56 " 



Now, the medical man who is desirous of testing the value of pep- 
sin as a remedial agent, in one or more cases where he considers it 
ought to be of service, if there is any good in it, will be perfectly sat- 
isfied of its efficacy should Nos. 1 or 2 be dispensed, more or less so if 
No. 3 ; but what if No. 5 ? or if he should have prescribed pepsin 
wine, as No. 6 ? It might be said that this latter is largely prescribed, 
and also taken by invalids without prescription, frequently with good 
results. I can only reply that, according to the above statement, it 
possesses about one- half the peptic power that it should do, and that 
as the stomach is a laboratory whose operations are somewhat obscure 
even to the closest observer, in imitating its processes in a vial where 
we lack the vital agency, the activity of any samples operated on is 
almost sure to be underrated. Nevertheless, experiments conducted 
carefully under the same conditions are valuable as affording compara- 



358 



.Pepsin. 



5 Am. Jour. Phabm. 
I Aug. 1, 1873. 



tive results ; and certain is it that wine or any alcoholic fluid is a most 
unsatisfactory vehicle for pepsin, also, that, when taken with food, it 
unquestionably retards digestion. The above experiment was several 
times repeated, first with portions of precisely the same samples, and 
also with samples by the same makers, but obtained from different 
sources ; the results varied slightly, but bore the same relation to 
each other. It was thought desirable not to obtain the samples from 
the manufacturers direct,- informing them of the purpose for which 
they were required, but all were obtained from authentic sources. 
The pepsin Nos. 1 and 2 were both by the same manufacturer, and, 
as it will be seen, were of good quality, but it is somewhat anomalous 
that according to the dose given the former should have been about 
five times the strength of the latter, whereas it would appear that 
there is little difference between them. The catalytic action seems to 
be much more vigorous in the early part of the process of digestion 
than towards the end; therefore, had a larger amount of albumen 
been present in the vial No. 1, it is possible a larger amount might 
have been dissolved, and the residue have been but slightly greater 
than it actually was. Nevertheless, this could not have been sufficient 
to account for the great similarity in activity of the two specimens. 

Of the processes for its preparation as a medicinal agent, that of 
precipitating its solution by acetate of lead, and subsequent separa- 
tion of the lead by hydrosulphuric acid, has probably been longest in 
use, but its activity appears to be more or less injured by the chemical 
treatment. The process of M. Brucke, consisting of solution in dilute 
phosphoric acid, neutralization with lime-water, re-solution in dilute 
hydrochloric acid, and final treatment with cholesterin, rectified 
spirit, and ether, yields a product possessing active peptic properties, 
but is more suitable as a laboratory experiment than for the purpose 
of manufacture on a commercial scale. Tannin and alcohol have both 
been proposed as precipitants for pepsin, but I am not aware of any 
definite process in which these are used for its preparation on a large 
scale. Next in order is the somewhat primitive process of Dr. Beale. 
It is given in the Pha7*maceutical Journal, N. S., Yol. II, p. 684, and 
is as follows :— 

" The mucous membrane of a perfectly fresh pig's stomach was 
carefully dissected from the muscular coat, and placed on a flat board. 
It was then lightly cleansed with a sponge and a little water, and 
much of the mucus, remains of food, etc., carefully removed. With 



Am. Jour. Pharm. > 
Aug, 1, 1873. ) 



Pepsin. 



S59 



the back of a knife or ivory paper knife, the surface was scraped very 
hard in order that the glands might be squeezed, and their contents 
pressed out. The viscid mucus thus obtained contains the pure gastric 
juice, with much epithelium from the glands and surface of the mu- 
cous membrane. It is to be spread out on a piece of glass, so as to 
form a very thin layer, which is to be dried at a temperature of 100° 
over hot water or in vacuo over sulphuric acid. Care must be taken 
that the temperature does not rise much above 100°, because the ac- 
tion of the solvent would be completely destroyed. When dry, the 
mucus is scraped from the glass, powdered in a mortar, and trans- 
ferred to a well-stoppered bottle." 

Several persons who have performed experiments with this (so 
called) pure digestive powder, including Dr. Beale himself, have spoken 
highly of its peptic properties ; and from their position we cannot 
doubt the accuracy of their experiments and statements. In my own 
hands, however, I cannot say the results were so satisfactory as 1 had 
anticipated. The process, too, if carried out strictly according to Dr. 
Beale's instructions, is a very wasteful one, more pepsin being lost 
than is obtained ; if, on the other hand, it is attempted to obtain a 
larger quantity, the quality is reduced. The mucus which is directed 
to be sponged off, and which is usually considerable in quantity, pos- 
sesses about one-third to one-half the activity of the mucus which is 
afterwards directed to be scraped off ; then, after this scraping, a con- 
siderable amount of pepsin remains, which can be demonstrated by dis- 
solving it out. 

Lastly, we have the process of Mr. E. Scheffer, the most satisfac- 
tory as regards uniformity of excellence and economy in working of 
any I have tried. It has been detailed in this Journal so recently* I 
need not therefore even recapitulate here. It can be made to answer 
strictly to the tests given; it keeps well; is soluble in an acidulated 
fluid, and hence might be prescribed in solution of almost any strength. 
Amongst other experiments one was performed in which a given quan- 
tity of the moist mucus scraped from fresh, cleansed pigs' stomachs, 
was divided into equal portions, one of which was retained moist, ano- 
ther dried in a thin layer at a temperature not exceeding 100°; from 
a third portion the pure pepsin was separated by Mr. Scheffer's pro- 
cess, but adding sufficient sugar of milk to bring it to the exact weight 
•of the portion simply dried. 



*See American Journal of Pharmacy, Feb. 1872. 



3€fb 



On Butter. 



f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
t Aug. 1, 1873. 



Into each of four vials 100 grains of coagulated albumen, 10 drops 
dilute hydrochloric acid, and 10 drachms of water were placed ; to 
the first 10 grains of the dried mucus, to the second 80 grains of the 
moist (it requires this quantity to produce 10 grains of the dry), to 
the third 10 grains of the purified saccharated, to the fourth 10 grains 
of the same, and two drachms of the water were replaced by sherry 
wine. After twelve hours' digestion, at a temperature of 100°, the 
results were as follows : 

No. 1 left undissolved 81 grs. 

u 2 u \ " 99 <• 

a 3 tt t< 12 '< 

a 4 a a £2 " 

From this we learn that undried mucus is more active than the same 
substance after drying ; that the pure pepsin diffused through sugar 
of milk is more active than the mucus from which it is obtained ; and 
finally, prove the truth of the statement before made, that wine par.- 
tiully destroys the activity of pepsin and is an unsuitable vehicle for 
its administration. 

I propose, therefore, to substitute for pepsin wine an elixir, made 
by dissolving the purified moist pepsin in raspberry vinegar, so that 
one fluid drachm shall be capable of dissolving 100 grains of coagu- 
lated albumen. This keeps well, and is perfectly palatable. — Pharm. 
Journ., (London), July 2, 1873. 



ON BUTTER* 
By J. Campbell Brown. D. Sc. (Lond.) F. C. S., 

Lecturer on Chemistry and Toxicology at the Liverpool School of Medicine, 
Public Analyst for Liverpool, Cheshire and the Isle of Man. 

Definition of Butter. — Pure butter is a fat which has passed through 
the udder of a cow or other animal as one of the constituents of milk, 
and which has not been decomposed, by keeping or otherwise, into 
fatty acids or glycerin. 

In milk and cream, the fat is all contained in minute round glob- 
ules, and butter appears, under the microscope, full of these globules. 
Chemically, it consists of a mixture of neutral fats, the glycerides of 
the non-volatile acids, palmitinic acid (C 16 H 32 2 ), and butyroleic acid 
(C 12 H 30 O 2 ) ; and the glycerides of the volatile acids, butyric acid (C 4 

*Froin the "Liverpool and Manchester Medical and Surgical Reports, 1873." 
Communicated by the Author. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Aug. 1, 1873. S 



On Butter. 



361 



H 8 2 ). capronic acid (C 6 H 12 Q 2 ), caprylic acid (C 8 H 16 2 ), and caprinic 
acid (C 10 H 20 O 2 ). (Wagner and Oookes.) The last four glycerides 
are the characteristic fats of butter. 

When butter has been decomposed, the rancid taste and smell make 
its condition evident to every one. The skill of the analyst is most 
frequently directed to the detection of fats from the flesh of animals 
or from the vegetable kingdom. The fats which are generally used 
as adulterants or as substitutes for butter are suet, tallow, dripping, 
lard, a mixture of refined fats sold under various names, palm and 
similar vegetable oils. The most characteristic ingredients in these 
fats are stearin, margarin and palmitin. 

Stearin is a crystalline fat, melting at 144° F., and solidifying at 
124° F., soluble in hot ether, or in seven times its weight of boiling 
alcohol, but deposited from both these solutions on cooling. 

Margarin forms scales, which melt at about 116° F., and are solu- 
ble in warm ether. 

Palmitin is a solid crystalline fat, melting at from 118° to 143°, 
and solidifying at 114°. It is readily soluble in ether, sparingly 
soluble in alcohol. Stearin, margarin, and palmitin are seldom ob- 
tained pure; they occur in Nature dissolved in olein and other oils, 
which lower the melting-point. For instance, mutton and beef suet* 
lard and palm oil melt at temperatures from 25° to 55° below the 
melting-points of stearin and palmitin. 

In drawing up the following table for the examination of butter, I 
have made free use of the observations of Dr. Ballard [Chemical Netvs, 
vols, iv and v), and the scheme of Dr. Parkes ("Hygiene^ chap, v, 
section xi) ; but I depend chiefly on my own observations on a large 
number of samples from different sources, made during the years 
1871 and 1872. 

Table for the Examination of Butter. 
1. Weigh out an ounce of the sample of butter which is to be ex- 
amined, place it in a test-tube seven-eighths of an inch in diameter, 
and melt by placing the tube in hot water. Place a thermometer, 
with a pear-shaped bulb, so that the bulb shall be in the middle of the 
fat about one inch below the surface, and allow the whole to cool 
spontaneously. If the quantity of water in the butter be large, it 
will collect in the tube below the fat ; the casein will also collect in 
the lower part of the tube. Watch the mass as it cools, and note 
when solidification commences and when it is complete. The follow- 
ing are the average solidification-points : — 



362 



On Butter. 



J Am. Jotjr. Pharm. 
\ Aug. 1, 1873. 



With pure butter the thermometer is obscured between 74° and 68°, 
and the mass is solid at 60°. 

Beef dripping obscures the thermometer at 79°, and is solid at 72°. 

Mutton dripping obscures the thermometer at about 85°, and is 
solid at 84°. 

Lard obscures the thermometer at 84°, and is solid at from 79° to 
70°, but it often remains as soft as butter at a much* lower tempera- 
ture. # 

Mixtures solidify at intermediate temperatures. 

2. Determine the quality of the butter by the taste and smell of 
the re-congealed fat and of the original sample. 

3. Examine several portions of the original sample by means of a 
good microscope, using a one-quarter inch or one-fifth inch object 
glass. In butter made from milk or cream, nothing is seen except 
the characteristic globules, and the granular masses of curd, and the 
cubical crystals of salt. The hard fats of butter are present in the 
globules in a state of solution, and are not recognizable in a separate 
form. 

If stearic acid, stearin or palmitin be present in separate form, 
they will be recognized by single fusiform crystals, or star-like ag- 
gregations of acicular crystals. They indicate the presence of melted 
fats. 

Other substances, such as starch, flour, palm oil corpuscles, Irish 
moss, coloring matter, etc., may also be distinguished by the micro- 
scope, as distinct from butter or fats. 

4. Examine the same portions with the same object-glass, together 
with a polariscope, consisting of two Nicol's prisms and a selenite 
plate. The crystals referred to in (3) polarized light, and when viewed 
by the polariscope are more distinctly defined. Particles of suet and 
other fats, which have not been melted, may also be distinguished by 
their action on polarized light, by their amorphous form, and by their 
membranes. 

5. Repeat the microscopic examination after the addition of tinc- 
ture of iodine, acetic acid, and other reagents usually employed to de- 
tect substances other than fat. 

6. Weigh carefully a convenient quantity of the sample,*say 1 oz., 
in a tared porcelain dish, evaporate in a water-bath, or in air-bath, 
at 212°, until free from water, and weigh again ; the difference is the 
amount of water per ounce, which should not exceed 35 grs. (5 to 10 
per cent. Parkes). 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Aug. 1, 1873. J 



On Butter. 



363 



7. Dissolve the residue in ether, warming gently until the whole 
of the fat is dissolved, filter through a weighed filter-paper, collecting 
the filtrate in a beaker, then wash the dish and filter-paper with ether 
until a total of 5 or 6 oz. has been used, and allow the whole to stand 
for some time at a temperature of 65°. 

8. Dry the precipitate on the filter-paper, and weigh ; deduct the 
weight of filter-paper ; the remainder is approximately the amount 
of curd, or casein, and salt. 

9. Wash the precipitate with boiling water, dry at 212°, and 
weigh ; deduct the weight of filter-paper ; the remainder is the 
amount of curd or casein, which, in good butter, should not exceed 
15 grs. per oz. (3 to 5 per cent.; Parkes). 

10. Estimate the salt, by means of nitrate of silver, in the aqueous 
washings from (9), or wash another weighed portion of butter thor- 
oughly with distilled water, and determine the salt by nitrate of sil- 
ver. It should not amount to more than 8 grs. per oe. in fresh but- 
ter (0.5 to 2 per cent. ; Parkes), or 35 grs. per oz. in salt butter (8 
per cent. ; Parkes.) 

11. If the ethereal solution of the fat from (7) has formed a deposit 
at 65°, decant and filter off the clear solution, and examine the de- 
posit, which is probably stearin, according to (12). 

Evaporate the ethereal solution down to 4 oz., and allow it to stand 
for several hours at 65°. Filter off the deposit, which probably still 
contains stearin, and examine it also according to (12). 

Allow the ethereal solution to evaporate down to 3 oz., and allow 
it to stand for some time at 65°. Filter off the deposit, which may 
still contain some stearin mixed with palmitin, and examine it sepa- 
rately according to (12). If the butter is adulterated, some of the 
stearin, and much of the palmitin, will still remain in solution, and 
may be obtained by continuing the process of spontaneous evapora- 
tion. 

Some samples of pure butter yield no deposit from 3 oz. of ether at 
65° ; but fairly good butter will generally form a slight deposit, the 
amount of which varies in different samples. A sample of butter 
known to be pure should be examined side by side with the sample 
suspected to be adulterated ; and, as winter butter is a more solid fat 
than summer butter, the former should be chosen for the comparative 
experiment. 

12 (a). Place each of the above-mentioned deposits in a thin weighed 



364 



Adulteration of Pepper. 



f Am. Joitr. Pharm. 
1 Aug. 1, 1873. 



glass tube, and after evaporating off the ether, weigh the fat and de- 
termine its melting-point; melt carefully, and allow it to cool grad- 
ually. Place a small accurately graduated thermometer with pear- 
shaped bulb in the melted fat, and observe the temperature at which 
the latter begins to solidify. When quite solid, re-warm the tube 
gradually, by placing it in water, the temperature of which is slowly 
raised, and observe the re-melting-point of the fat. 

(6). Or, melt the fats in a thin glass or porcelain dish, floated in 
water, the temperature of which is slowly raised, a thermometer being 
placed in the water. In this case the apparent melting-point will be 
2° or 3° above the correct figure, but the relative differences between 
the melting points of the several deposits will be the same as in (12a). 

13. Determine the taste and smell of each of the deposits. 

44. The number of grs. per oz. may be reduced to parts per cent, 
by multiplying by the factor 0-22857. — Chem. News, July 4, 1873. 



ADULTERATION OF PEPPER.* 
By M. Bouchardat. 
During the examination of a large number of specimens of ground 
pepper the author met with various inert powders, and among those 
which he detected the most often was one prepared by drying and 
finely pulverizing the parenchyma of potatoes which is left as a resi- 
due in the manufacture of starch. Pepper mixed with this adulterant 
has a more feeble odor ; its taste is at first sweetish, and afterwards 
pungent, but less intensely so than in normal pepper. The mixed 
powder is uniformly grey, whilst the powder of pepper presents some 
blackish particles and some of a yellowish-grey color. Comparison 
should therefore be made between a suspected powder and one pre- 
pared by grinding pepper to the same degree of fineness. Ground 
pepper mixed with this potato powder floats longer on the surface of 
water than that which is pure, and the coloration of the water is dif- 
ferent. Liquor iodi, added drop by drop, gives a more intense blue 
with the potato mixture than with normal pepper. Too much impor- 
tance, however, must not be attached to this test, as M. Leon Soubei- 
ran has shown that pepper contains a considerable quantity of a pecu- 
liar fecula. 

The other substances found mixed with ground pepper were : (1) 
*L'Union Pharmaceutique, vol. xiv, p. 145. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Aug. 1, 1873. j 



Adulteration of Pepper, 



365 



lentil flour mixed with earth, which can be detected by the micro- 
scope and calcination ; (2) chalk ; and (3) linseed cake, ground to a 
degree of fineness comparable to that of ground pepper. By the aid 
of a good glass the fragments of linseed could easily be seen. In 
some specimens seized at the custom-house the powder of sesame 
seeds was .detected ; and it appeared probable that in this case, in 
order to obtain the proper shade for the powder, the adulterator, who 
had sent from Marseilles several hundred bags of this product, had 
mixed many sorts of seeds. 

White pepper, obtained, as is known, by the decortication of black 
pepper, is often adulterated with talc, chalk and starch in consider- 
able proportions. The introduction of these three inert matters may 
have for its Object either the direct increase of bulk or the masking 
of an imperfect decortication. After the examination of numerous 
specimens, M. Bouchardat came to the conclusion that many manu- 
facturers supply two products : one, known as •poivre leger, consisting 
principally of the cortical part of the pepper, black fragments form- 
ing the greater portion of it ; the other, known as poivre blanc, being 
mixed with talc or starch, to imitate the shade of white pepper. Al- 
though the poivre leger contains nothing foreign to pepper, yet, as 
the useful part is eliminated, the sale of such an article must be 
looked upon as a fraud upon the part of the dealer. It is also some- 
times adulterated with ground grains of paradise, which is easily de- 
tected by means of a magnifying glass. In France, to avoid prose- 
cution, the wholesale dealer is said often to sell the ground pepper 
pure and the mixture intended for its adulteration separately. 

The usual adulterants of pepper may be clearly identified by means 
of a microscopic examination, with an instrument of 300 to 400 mag- 
nifying power, in the hands of a skilled person. The powder of pep- 
per is characterized principally by its starch. This appears in com- 
pound grains retaining the form of the cells in which they were con- 
tained, and which they entirely filled. They are of variable forms 
and dimensions ; M. Mussat has measured them from 0*030 mm. to 
0*20 mm. in diameter. The simple grains of which they are formed 
are, from their juxtaposition, irregularly rounded, and are from 0*001 
mm. to 0*0056 mm. in diameter. Under the action of iodine they 
assume a rather dull violet-blue color. Solution of caustic potash 
attacks them but slowly. This fecula is accompanied by the debris 
of the pericarp, which presents two very distinct forms of cells. In 



366 



Bromide of Zinc. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Aug. 1, 1873. 



one case they are nearly cubical, with rather thin walls, containing a 
blackish granular matter, which is the fleshy portion of the pericarp ; 
in the other, the cells forming the endocarp, they are cuneiform, often 
slightly curved, and their very thick walls are canaliculate. The au- 
thor found their mean size to be 0*025 mm. wide by 0*062 mm. long. 
Potato starch is easily distinguished from that of pepper by its simple, 
more or less rounded or ovoid or irregularly trigonal, strongly refrac- 
tive grains. The largest measure 0*180 mm. All, except the small- 
est (which measure about 0*010 mm.), have a conspicuous, often stel- 
late hilum, and their concentric zones are clearly visible. Dilute solu- 
tion of caustic potash attacks them very rapidly. A yellow tissue 
contained in several of the specimens examined was distinguished 
easily by its elongated polygonal cells, with thin, clear, yellow walls, 
enclosing a slightly darker granular substance. It probably belonged 
to some oleaginous cruciferous seed, or to linseed. 

In consideration of the great skill with which pepper is now adul- 
terated, M. Bouchardat recommends that dealers should, as far as 
possible, buy their pepper whole and grind it themselves. — Pharm. 
Jour. (Lend.), June 14, 1873. 



BROMIDE OF ZINC. 

Richmond, June 20th, 1873. 

Mr. Editor. — I desire to call the attention of your readers to the 
Bromide of Zinc as a substance promising to be of value as a thera- 
peutic agent, and to ask a trial of it in suitable cases, in order that 
its true value, if any, may be determined. 

I was led some weeks ago, by theoretical considerations, to con- 
clude that this would probably prove a useful combination, and I 
therefore requested Mr. J. N. Willis, corner 4th and Franklin streets, 
to undertake the preparation of it, in order that it might be duly sub- 
mitted to trial. I was led to this conclusion by the belief that the 
sedative and nervine properties of the bromides, and the tonic and 
antispasmodic properties of the preparations of zinc, would harmonize 
very well together, and by the knowledge that the two classes of pre- 
parations are very much employed in the same category of diseases, 
viz.: epilepsy, chorea, whoopiitg cough and other spasmodic and ner- 
vous affections. In epilepsy, for instance, Hammond and other 
writers recommend the bromide of potassium or sodium and the oxide 
of zinc, given at the same sime, the one in solution, the other in pill. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. 1 
Aug. 1, 1873. / 



Bromide of Zinc. 



367 



Now, why should not the bromine and the zinc be combined in one 
and the same compound, so as to obtain the same object (perhaps) by 
one prescription which has hitherto been sought by two ? We have 
the bromide of iron, the iodide of iron, the iodide of zinc: — then why 
not the bromide of zinc ?_ 

Such were the considerations which led me to propose. the bromide 
of zinc as probably (or possibly) a useful preparation. Mr. Willis 
accordingly prepared some by a process similar to that pursued in 
the preparation of the other articles above mentioned, viz., by direct 
combination of the elements ; and the resulting compound being 
deliquescent, and apparently not very permanent in composition, it 
was deemed best to protect it from change by means of sugar or some 
other agent. Mr. Willis therefore prepared a syrup of the bromide of 
zinc, analogous to the syrups of the iodide and bromide of iron, and 
of the strength of one drachm of the bromide to the fluid-ounce of 
syrup, or grains to the fluidrachm. Supposing that glycerin would 
answer still better the object of protecting the compound from change, 
he also prepared a glycerole, of the same strength. 

After these preparations had been made, I was informed that the 
bromide of zinc was enumerated in a recent price-list of a New York 
manufacturing druggist ; but on a careful examination of the most 
recent works on materia medica and therapeutics accessible to me, as 
well as of the files of five different medical journals, I find no men- 
tion of it ; I am therefore justified in inferring that it is at least not 
generally known to the profession. 

Theory would indicate that this compound would (or might) prove 
useful in various diseases in which a tonic and antispasmodic remedy 
is required, viz.: epilepsy, chorea, hysteria, neuralgia, debility with 
nervous irritability, sleeplessness, etc. I regret, however, that I am 
as yet unable to furnish any clinical proof of its therapeutic value 
from my own experience, no case having recently presented itself 
which I thought suitable for a trial of it. I may refer, however, to 
a case recently under treatment in the hospital of the Medical Col- 
lege, in which it was used with apparent benefit. The patient was 
an adult female laboring under hysteria, with singular involuntary 
movements, not identical with those of chorea, but probably akin to 
them in nature, for which she had been subjected to various treatment 
without success. Dr. Taliaferro, the resident physician, with the ap- 
proval of Prof. McGuire, who was directing the treatment of the case, 



368 The Direct Synthesis of Ammonia. { A Au^i i™' 

determined to make trial of the bromide of zinc, and accordingly gave 
the patient 15 drops of the glycerole, properly diluted, three times a 
day- — which dose was afterwards increased to 20 drops. After a few 
days' use of the remedy, the patient returned to her home in the 
country, where she continued to take it, and I learned at second hand 
from her physician there, that her condition is very much improved. 
Whether, and to what extent, the dose may have been increased, I 
am not informed. Of course, we can only determine by repeated and 
cautious trials what dose can be safely tolerated, and what quantity 
must be given to ensure its favorable therapeutic action. To obviate 
any possible irritating effect upon the alimentary canal, the medicine 
ought to be given in a sufficient quantity of water, to which, if desir- 
able, mucilage and aromatics might be added. 

If any of your readers should decide to make trial of the remedy 
here suggested (which can now be obtained of several of our apothe- 
caries), I hope the results, whether good or bad, will be duly commu- 
nicated for the general information. Yours very truly, 

L. S. Joynes, M.D. 

— Virginia Clinical Record, July, 1873. 



THE DIRECT SYNTHESIS OF AMMONIA* 
By W. F. Donkin. 

The action of induced electricity on mixtures of certain gases has 
been lately shown by Sir Benjamin Brodief to yield very interesting 
results. • 

An obvious application of his method was to treat a mixture of dry 
hydrogen and nitrpgen in a similar manner as those referred to above, 
with the view of effecting the synthesis of ammonia ; and Sir B. Brodie 
kindly allowed me the use of his apparatus for the purpose of the ex- 
periment, which was conducted as follows : 

A mixture of about three volumes of hydrogen with one of nitro- 
gen in a bell-jar over water, was passed through two tubes' containing 
pumice moistened with ajkaline pyrogallate and sulphuric acid re- 
spectively, then through a Siemens induction-tube, and into a bulb 
containing dilute hydrochloric acid. The whole apparatus being first 

* Read before the Royal Society, May 1, 1873 (Proceedings, vol. xxi, p. 281). 
t Proceedings of Royal Society, April 3, 1873, and Pkarm. Joum., 3d series, 
vol. iii, pp. 136, 156. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Aug. 1, 1873. J" 



The Preparation of Gelaiiji* 



369 



filled with pure hydrogen, about half a litre of the mixed gases was 
sent through the apparatus, the induction-coil not being in action ; 
the bulb containing the acid was then removed and another substi- 
tuted, containing an equal volume of the same acid. 

About half a litre of the mixed gases was now passed through the 
apparatus, submitting them to the action of the electricity. The 
contents of the two bulbs were next transferred to two test-tubes;, 
and after adding excess of potash to each, Nessler's test was applied. 
The first solution gave a faint yellow coloration, the second a rather 
thick reddish-brown precipitate. 

No attempt was made to estimate the quantity of ammonia formed, 
•as it would vary with many of the conditions of the experiment. 

Since writing the account of the above experiment, which was made 
in Dr. Odling's laboratory at Oxford on March 24, 1 have seen in the 
" Comptes Rendus " for April 22, 1873, a note of an experiment by 
Messrs. Thenard of Paris, in which they observe the formation of 
traces of ammonia by the action of electricity on a mixture of hydro- 
gen and nitrogen ; but no details of the mode of operating are given. 
■ — Pharm. Journ. and Trans., London, June 21, 1873. 



THR PREPARATION OF GELATIN. 

In the ordinary manner of making light-colored gelatin, thin skins, 
sinews, cartilages and bones are employed, which must be treated 
with muriatic acid and lime before being dissolved. These have fur- 
nished a good article, but at a high price. The expense of this pro- 
cess therefore induced F. Henze, of Berlin, to thoroughly investigate 
the subject of its manufacture in the hope of producing an equally 
good article at a lower price. The material employed was the brown, 
or almost black, glue of very poor quality, which is a by-product in a 
Berlin neatsfoot oil manufactory, and which sells for five dollars per 
hundred weight. This substance does not swell up in cold water like 
glue, but forms a gummy mass, dissolving as a thick, syrupy liquid, 
not very adhesive, but resembling that of which printers' rollers are 
made. It is now used only in making cardboard and as a dressing 
for very dark-colored fabrics. 

In preparing this glue, the feet are first freed from hoofs and the 
more solid bones of the leg, which are used for turning into buttons 
and ornaments, and washed. They are then exposed for three hours 

24 



370 



7he Preparation of Gelatin. 



J Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ Aug. 1, 1873. 



to the action of superheated steam under a pressure of two atmos- 
pheres in a closed vessel ; and after standing quietly half an hour,, 
the liquid is drawn off. After skimming off the supernatant grease, 
the strong ammoniacal glue solution is strained and evaporated on a. 
steam bath, and then furnishes the before mentioned blackish glue. 
When perfectly dry, it is very brittle and easily rubbed off between 
the fingers. Attempts to bleach it have yielded unfavorable results. 
It shows that it is already decomposed and is no longer gluten, or 
contains only very little of it. A large quantity of sulphurous acid 
partially bleaches it, but to employ this on a large scale would involve 
many technical difficulties. The fragile apparatus for making sul- 
phurous acid would soon be broken in the hands of the workmen. Sul- 
phite of soda could be dissolved in a very dilute glue solution, and 
muriatic acid added to decompose this salt, if the quantity of the sul- 
phite of soda required were not too large; but fifty kilogrammes of 
glue would require at least 2,500 grammes sulphite of soda and 2,250 
grammes muriatic acid. The salts formed, which are sulphate of soda 
and chloride of sodium, as also the free acid, would in no case increase 
the quality of glue, but on the contrary would render it utterly use- 
less for many purposes in the arts. The process of bleaching with 
mineral acids would also destroy the iron evaporating pans, so that 
this method must be given up entirely. 

All attempts at giving to the glue, when finished, the color desired 
having failed, no other course remained but to ascertain the cause of 
its becoming so dark-colored. The presence of sulphur and of con- 
siderable quantities of ammoniacal salts in the glue solution was too 
striking to escape notice very long. They could only have been 
caused by allowing the steam to act too long and too violently, where- 
by not only were the cartilages and gristle converted into glue, but 
the hair too had been dissolved, and thus caused the dark color. In 
order to reduce the decomposition of the glue and formation of ammo- 
nia to a minimum, the process may be varied in such a manner that,, 
instead of drawing off the contents of the digester once at the end of 
three hours, they shall be drawn off hourly. On standing a little, the 
grease rises to the top and can be skimmed off, and then a quantity of 
fresh wood charcoal mixed with 25 per cent, bone black is put into 
the liquid and left over night for the purpose of absorbing ammonia 
and other impurities. The following morning it is heated to a tem- 
perature at which gelatin melts, about 70° to 85° Fahr., strained and 



AM ATO U i',m3 RM '} Poisoning by Wild Parsnep. 371 

evaporated to the desired consistency. The amount of charcoal ne- 
cessary is about four per cent, of the quantity of glue in solution. 
The odor given off by evaporation after it has been purified with char- 
coal is quite pleasant and resembles that of bouillon soup, while that 
given off by the former method is one of the most disagreeable smells 
that ever polluted the atmosphere. 

Glue prepared in this way answers all the requirements of a first 
class article. Even in thick layers the color is a pale wine yellow, 
and it possesses a high degree of elasticity. It has neither smell nor 
taste ; and being always prepared from fresh material, it can be em- 
ployed for all the purposes of so-called gelatin. — Scientific American, 
from Dingier s Polyteclm. Journ. 



POISONING BY WILD PARSNEP — [SIUM LATIFOLIUM OF 
GRAY]. 
By C. B. White, M. D., U. S. A. 
On April 24th, 1873, I was called, after dark, to assist E. C, a 
native of Belgium, aged forty-nine years, nearly twenty-one years a 
resident of California, who was suffering from the effects of eacing 
less than one ounce (estimated) of the fresh root of the wild parsnep. 

Evidently not familiar with either this plant or with the taboose 
(a highly nutritious and harmless tuber, largely used by our Indians 
as food), he had taken and eaten some of the root of the former, 
probably mistaking it for the latter, about two hours and a half be- 
fore I saw him. On my arrival, I found that he had received partial 
relief from vomiting and purging, apparently induced by the root 
itself, but I found him much excited and very prostrate in strength ; 
pulse 44, skin cold and clammy, pupils somewhat dilated, respiration 
slow. He complained of great dizziness, lack of mental power, and 
\ loss of voluntary motion, headache, sense of fear of death, with a 

decided burning feeling along the alimentary tract (gesophagus es- 
pecially), and sense of swelling and flatness about the bowels. I ex- 
amined the excreta and became satisfied that most of the root had 
been ejected, and at once gave him two ounces of whiskey, mixed up 
with a raw egg. After this had revived him, I administered morphine 
sulphas gr. J, and left a compound ipecac powder for later use. 

Before I left him he was feeling much better in every way, the skin 
was warmer, the pulse 50, the respiration and appearance of the eyes 
nearly normal. 



372 



Essence of Aldn-Gilan. 



( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
X Aug. 1, 1873. 



I visited him the next day and found that he had passed a good 
night, but was very weak still and had no appetite ; he complained 
also of a sense of soreness and loss of power in his limbs, notably in 
the arms. A mild tonic restored him. 

In treating him, I was forcibly reminded of the action of Vera- 
trum viride, as I have used it in hospital practice. I believe the 
toxic properties of the wild parsnep to closely resemble those of the 
American hellebore, 

The wild parsnep is very common in the swamps and along the 
water courses of this valley (and I believe it to be not uncommon all 
over the Pacific coast) ; in Spring-time it casts off tubers, apparently 
to propagate itself, and before grass starts in the Spring it is fre- 
quently eaten by cattle, causing speedy death. 

When the shoots have grown up, cattle and horses eat them with 
apparent impunity, and the mixing of them with grass cut as hay 
seems to have no injurious result ; but the root seems to have decided 
poisonous properties at all times. I saw a fine cow die about Sep- 
tember 1st, last, from eating it. 

In appearance, mode of growth, odor and taste it resembles its 
innocuous congener, except that its tubers are usually shorter and 
rounder, and that it has a latent pungent flavor. In my opinion, it 
would be well to spread a knowledge of its dangerous properties, so 
as to have new-comers made aware of them. 

damp Independence, Owens Valley, Cal, May 1st, 1873. 

— Pacific Med. and Surg. Joum., June, 1873. 



ESSENCE OF ALAN-GIL AN ( YL ANG-YL ANG). UN ON A ODORA- 
TJSSIMA. • 

By H. Gal. 

In a paper presented to the French Academy the author has re- 
corded the results of an investigation of the principal properties of 
the essence which for the last few years has been known in commerce 
as Ylang-ylang or Alan-gilan. It is a product obtained by distilla- 
tion from the flower of the Unona odoratissima, an anonaceous tree 
growing in the Antilles and Jamaica. 

The essence has a density of 0*980, at a temperature of 15° C. 
A column five centimetres long rotates a beam of polarized light 14° 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Aug. 1, 1873. J 



Essence of Alan-Gilan. 



373 



to the left. It passes over entirely in distillation without leaving 
any carbonaceous residue, but within very extended limits of tem- 
perature, ebullition commencing at about 160° C, and the tempera- 
ture continuing to rise till beyond 300° C. 

The essence is insoluble in water, but entirely soluble in ether ; 
alcohol only partially dissolves it. The insoluble portion taken up 
in ether appears after the evaporation of that solvent as a semi-fluid, 
transparent mass. About one-fourth of the essence yields this pro- 
duct. 

Nitric acid attacks ylang-ylang with great energy, intense vapors 
being disengaged in the cold, and by the addition of water a resin is 
obtained presenting a great analogy with that which is formed by 
oxidation of benzoin by means of the same reagent. Bisulphite of 
sodium is without action upon this essence. Potash, on the contrary, 
when sufficiently concentrated and used at a suitable temperature, 
gives rise to a kind of saponification. If the alkaline portion be re- 
moved, and a fresh quantity of potash added, and the treatment be 
repeated until the essence is no longer attacked, a substance is left 
which is insoluble in water. The aqueous portion, upon the addition 
of hydrochloric acid, deposits a solid body having a crystalline aspect. 
This dissolves with facility in boiling water ; the solution, being fil- 
tered to separate a small quantity of resinous matter, yields upon 
cooling white pearly plates. This body melts at about 120° C, h 
volatilizes very readily, and is deposited upon the cool sides of the 
vessel in shining needles, and boils regularly at about 245° C. These 
are the physical properties of benzoic acid, and this substance has 
also its chemical properties. In fact if a small quantity be heated 
in presence of an excess of lime, an oil is separated which is insolu- 
ble in water, and possesses the odor and properties of benzole. 
Treated with perchloride of phosphorus, an energetic reaction takes 
place, and the piquant and characteristic odor of chloride of benzole 
becomes manifest. A few drops of this latter body with alcohol 
yielded benzoic ether. For greater certainty M. Gal submitted some 
of this acid to analysis. 0-276 of matter, ignited by means of oxide 
of copper, gave 0*126 of water and 0*696 of carbonic acid. 



G 
H 



Found. 
68*7 
5-0 



Calculated. 
68*8 
4-9 



374 



Varieties. 



/Am. Jour. Phabm* 
1 Aug. 1, 1873. 



It is, therefore, quite evident that the acid abstracted from the 
essence by saponification is none other than benzoic acid. The au- 
thor believes this to be the first essence which has yielded a like re- 
sult, that compound having been, hitherto, only met with in balsams. 

The part insoluble in potash was distilled with water, and then 
separated from the water which passed over with it into the receiver. 
After drying over chloride of calcium, this oil distilled at from 170° 
C. to 300° C, very nearly as the natural essence. With so great a 
range of temperature, it was useless to expect to separate from this 
matter definite products with a constant boiling point ; M. Gal, there- 
fore, attempted to ascertain the nature of these bodies, which might 
be supposed to consist of carbides of hydrogen analogous to those so 
often met with in essences. 

The product was treated with anhydrous phosphoric acid ; a vigor- 
ous reaction took place, and a liquid was collected which no longer 
possessed the odor of the essence. Iodide of phosphorus also reacted 
upon it with great energy, and a liquid was distilled more dense than 
water, and possessing a piquant odor. These reactions showed that it 
was an oxygenated substance — or rather a mixture of oxygenated 
substances — resembling the alcohols in chemical properties. 

M. Gal considers it probable that the acid referred to may be con- 
sidered as forming in the essence benzoic ethers with these alcohols. 
On the one hand, the acid does not exist in the essence in a free state ; 
and on the other hand, he was unable to obtain any alcohol soluble 
in water by distillation of the essence in the presence of potash. — 
Land. Pharm. Journ., July 12, from Comptes Hendus,June 16, 1873- 



Varieties. 



Domestic Pepsin. — Messrs. Editors.— I see, in the Journal of May 22 * an 
article on pepsin, by Dr. Hoskins, of Lowell. I think his remarks will do good. 

I am using what I call domestic pepsin, consisting of the inside of the giz- 
zards of chickens, turkeys, ducks or geese, or the stomachs of calves or little 
pigs. Dry them on a stove in a plate, and then bruise them, and give a third 
of a teaspoonful of the powder in syrup a few minutes before eating. Some 
country people dry the gizzard itself and then grate it, and give that powder in 
the same way for dyspepsia. 

*See American Journal of Pharmacy, July, p. 322. 



Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
Aug. 1, 187^. j 



Varieties. 



375 



1 think this crude, inelegant domestic pepsin far superior to pepsin made 
from macerated pigs' stomachs, and it costs the poor patient next to nothing. 
I direct the patient to obtain and dry these skins and bruise them. 

Portsmouth, N. H. N. L. Folsom, M. D. 

—Boston Med. and Surg. Jour.. June 5, 1873. 

Oysters and their Peculiar Digestive Property. — Messrs. Editors. — Re- 
cently, you had a paper from me about pepsin. While trying experiments with 
it, I was one day requested by one of our most experienced physicians to digest 
two oysters. I placed them, after thorough washing, with one grain of Schef- 
fer's pepsin, four drops hydrochloric acid, and one ounce of water, in a test 
tube, and submitted to a temperature of 100° Fah. At the expiration of two 
hours, almost perfect solution had taken place, only four and a half grains re- 
maining on the filter, and the residue was of a feculent character. 

Thinking over this result, and the matter of eating raw oysters, I came to 
the conclusion that here we have an organized being, with a stomach, etc., 
calculated to digest infusoria— as its food — and hence possessing a gastric 
juice ; and if so, what should hinder that gastric juice from digesting even the 
oyster itself, if submitted to the proper condition. 

With oysters, as bought by the quart, there is so much liquor. On boiling a 
little of this liquor it coagulated, indicating so much coagulable albumen. I 
took another portion of two drachms of this liquor, one drop of hydrochloric 
acid, and submitted to 100° Fah. for two hours. It remained perfectly clear, 
and, on boiling a half ot it, there was no coagulation, and, applying Fehling's 
test, there was the beautiful purple color produced, the whole indicating that 
there was in the liquor a natural element to produce the result. This experi- 
ment I have tried repeatedly; and, to make the matter still more conclusive, I 
placed one ounce of the filtered liquor in a flask, added to it 120 grains of 
thoroughly washed and wiped, solid part of an oyster, and five drops hydro- 
chloric acid, and submitted to 100° Fah. for seven hours. On filtering, I had 
only seventeen grains of solid matter left, thus showing that 103 grains of the 
solid oyster had been digested in one ounce of the liquor. 

These facts are, I think, extremely interesting, and though my medical bre- 
thren have, with me, ordered patients, on recovering from exhausting disease, 
oysters as a part of the diet, and many have done it empirically, it has, after 
all, been done under strictly chemico-physiological principles, without our 
knowing it. Very truly yours, 

Lowell, May, 1873. E. H. Hoskins. 

—Ibid. 



On Dextrin — M. Musculus. — The author has transformed glucose into dex. 
trin by a modification of the ordinary process of etherification. Glucose, pre- 
viously dissolved in its water of crystallization and cooled, was dissolved in 
concentrated sulphuric acid. Then, in piece of heating, he added alcohol of 
95 per cent. When all was dissolved, he filtered the solution, and set it aside 
in a cool place in a well stoppered flask. A light precipitate appeared on the 
next day, and continued forming for about three weeks. This precipitate, on 



376 



Varieties. 



(Am. jowr. Pharm. 

t Aug. 1, 1873. 



being separated, washed and dried, differed from starch dextrin only in its rota- 
tory power, which, although nearly double that of glucose, is still below that of 
the natural product. — Amer. Chem., May , from Bull, de la Soc. Chim. 



Detection of Adulteration in Coffee. — J. Miiller. — In order to ascertain 
whether ground coffee has been mixed with either roasted corn or amylaceous 
substances generally, it is only necessary to treat the powder, first with dilute 
caustic potassa, and, after filtration and addition of a large quantity of pure 
water, a solution of iodine is added, whereby the starch is detected. — Chem. 
News, May 30, from Dingl. Polyt. Journ. 



Estimation of Acid in Fatty Oils. — M. Burstyn. — The oils are well mixed 
with twice their bulk of strong alcohol, 90 per cent, at the least ; this dissolves 
the acids which may be present in the oils, while hardly any of the* latter are 
taken up. The alcoholic solution can be readily neutralized with a caustic- 
soda solution of known strength. It is best to take 100 c. c. of the oil to be 
tested, to which an equal bulk of alcohol is added, care being taken to mix the 
fluids thoroughly. After some time the alcohol floats on the oil, and 20 c.c. of 
the former fluid should then be taken for titration. 100 c.c. of good machinery 
oil should not require more than from 0*04 to 1-4 c.c. of normal caustic soda 
solution for neutralization. — Ibid. 



Distribution of Potassa and Soda in Plants. — E. Peligot. — The author has 
endeavored to determine whether a plant, watered during the entire period of 
its growth with water holding in solution common salt and nitrate of soda, ab- 
sorbs a certain quantity of soda; and whether it takes from the soil other ele- 
ments from plants of the same species cultivated under identical circumstances, 
but watered — some with common water and others with potassic and magntsian 
solutions? The tabulated observations show that the common salt, and the 
nitrate of soda have been totally left by the plants ; none of the ashes contained 
soda. Nitrate of soda acts only in consequence of the acid it contains which 
probably combines by double decomposition with potassa or lime. — Ibid., May 
23, from Compt. rend. 

The Dose of Carbolic Acid.— Dr. W. G. Cotton, East Bethlehem, Washing, 
ton Co., Pa. — The following case is of interest, as showing that we may yet be 
unacquainted with what should be the proper dose of carbolic acid in some in- 
stances. Mrs. Moffitt, aged 70, was suffering from diarrhoea, for the relief of 
which she requested her husband to pour out twenty-four drops of laudanum. 
He by mistake gave her that amount of crude carbolic acid. It "burnt" the 
mucous membrane of the mouth and throat considerably, and produced a mod- 
erate amount of nervous prostration, which did not last long. She at once was 
aware there had been a mistake made, but thought the drug taken was "pain- 
killer." In about an hour afterwards the discovery was made that carbolic acid 
had been taken, and milk was then freely used as an antidote. The evil which 
resulted was immediate, but immaterial, and the good accomplished was the 



AM A^y?;T8 H 73? M *} Minutes of the College. 377 

relief of the diarrhoea. I would not recommend twenty-four drops as a proper 
dose of this fluid, but have an idea that oue drop is rather homoeopathic. — Med. 
Times, June 21, 1873. 



A stated meeting of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy was held June 
30th. 24 members present. Wm. Procter, Jr., Vice-Presieent, in the chair. 

The minutes of the annual meeting were read and adopted. The minutes of 
the Board of Trustees were also read for information by Wm. C. Bakes, Sec- 
retary. They inform us of the election of the following gentlemen to member- 
ship in the College, viz , James P. Wood, James. A. Parker, J. A. Schiedt, G- 
Henry Kille, B. L. Smedley, Chas. Schnabel, G. W. Carpenter, Fr. Romberg 
and J. Buckman. 

The committee appointed at the last meeting to endeavor to prevent the 
passage of the " Drug Law," reported, through James T. Shinn, that they had 
prepared a remonstrance to be sent to the Legislature at Harrisburg, but in 
consequence of the defeat of the measure, they found it unnecessary to proceed 
further in the matter. 

Thomas S. Wiegand, Chairman of the Sinking Fund Committee, reported 
that the remaining scrip of the College had been all paid off, in accordance 
with the resolution adopted at the last meeting. 

A letter from W. Erasmus, of Riga, Russia, to the President of the College 
was read. It informs that the President of the Riga Pharmaceutical Society, 
M. Carl Frederking. will, on the 16th of July, celebrate the fiftieth anniversary 
of his connection with Pharmacy. 

On motion, a committee, consisting of Professor John M. Maisch, Alfred B. 
Taylor and James T. Shinn, was appointed to prepare and transmit a letter of 
congratulation to our honorary member on this interesting anniversary. 

Thomas S. Wiegand. on behalf of the committee on deceased members, pre- 
sented the following report: 

On May 26th, 1872, Llewellyn S. Haskell, an associate member of this 
College, died at Santa Barbara, in the 57th year of his age. He had been en- 
gaged in the drug business in his native State (Maine), and removed to Phila- 
delphia, where he was employed by W. & L. Krumbhaar, and upon their 
retirement from business, entered into partnership with the late Jos. Reakirt, 
in conducting the wholesale drug business, on the premises formerly occupied 
by the Krambhaar's ; about eight years after he removed to New York, where 
he was still interested in the drug business for several years. He was a man 
of great activity, fluent in conversation, and of easy address ; he was well in- 
formed on matters relating to the drug business, having paid especial attention 
to chemical studies, both in business and in the laboratory of Professors Booth 
and Boye. 

Mr. Haskell's health had been delicate for a number of years previous to his 
death, and it was in hopes of recovery that the last journey he made was un- 
dertaken. 



378 



Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 



f Am Joie. Phabm. 
\ Aug 1,1873. 



In private life he was pure and loving, and many friends will long lament his 
death. 

The report was accepted, and directed to be placed at the disposal of the 
Publication Committee. 

Prof. J. M. Maisch brought to the notice of the College the death of Prof- 
Liebig, of Munich, and Dr. Casselmann, of St. Petersburg. A. B. Taylor also 
mentioned the decease of Richard W. Test, of Camden, N.J., which event had 
just transpired. 

Prof. Maisch presented to the College from Mr. Lochman, of Carlisle, a new 
-cork-presser, operated upon a new principle, which was accepted, and submit" 
ted to the inspection of the members. 

Prof. Maisch also presented from Mr. Wilder a valuable collection of Swed- 
ish mosses. 

Dr. Robert Bridges, on behalf of the widow of Dr. R. E. Griffith, presented 
for the use of the Library a list of the books she had previously given to the 
College, and which had been the property of her late husband. The catalogue 
•embraced a number of valuable works. 

On motion of J. P. Remington the books were accepted, and the thanks of 
the College were directed to be presented to Mrs. Griffith. " The Library Com- 
mittee was directed to label each of the volumes presented as being a donation 
from Prof. Griffith's library. 

An election for delegates to attend the meeting of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association at Richmond, Ya., in September next, resulted in the 
choice of Prof. Win. Procter, Jr., Charles Bullock, Joseph P. Remington, S. 
Mason McCollin and William Mclntyre. At the same time an election for 
delegates to attend the convention of the teaching colleges, was held. Pro- 
fessors Robert Bridges, Wm. Procter, Jr., and John M. Maisch were chosen, 
with power to fill all vacancies that may occur. 

Then on motion adjourned. 

William J. Jenks, Secretary. 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. — The Board of Trustees have lately 
modified the requirements for graduation, as will be observed from the adver- 
tisement of this School upon another page. Hereafter* persons will not be 
eligible for the diploma of Graduate in Pharmacy unless they have served 
their apprenticeship in a store or stores where prescriptions are compounded. 
Persons apprenticed to wholesale druggists or manufacturers may, after the 
usual examinations, obtain a Certificate of Proficiency in Materia Medica and 
Chemistry, and, after a subsequent service of two years in a prescription store, 
and the successful passing of an examination in theoretical and practical phar- 
macy, will then receive the Diploma of the College. We understand that 
matriculants of the College of former years will be permitted, until the spring 
of 1874, fro compete for the diploma of graduate, under the old regulations. 



^uglwx*'} Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 379 

Maryland College of Pharmacy. — At the stated meeting", held on the 10th 
of July, the semi-annual election of officers resulted in the election of John F. 
Hancock President, and the re-election of Edwin Eareckson Secretary, J. 
Brown Baxley Treasurer, and Louis Dohme one of the Examiners, 

The following gentlemen were elected delegates to represent the College at 
the meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association, to meet at Rich- 
mond, in September. L. Dohme, N. Hynson Jennings, J. Harry Hancock, 
Wm. Silver Thompson, and J. F. Hancock; alternates F, Hassencamp, A. P. 
Sharp, Wm. H. Osbourn, J. Newport Potts and A. N. Marion. 

Messrs. J. Faris M oore, Louis Dohme, Wm. Silver Thompson, Joseph Rob- 
erts and A. P. Sharp were elected delegates to the Conference of Colleges, to 
be held at the same time and place. 



The Louisville College of Pharmacy has changed the requirements for 
graduation so that applicants for the diploma of this College must have served 
an apprenticeship of four years in a prescription store, or of not less than two 
years in a prescription store, and of two years to the wholesale drug business. 

The recent action of the Louisville and of the Philadelphia Colleges har- 
monizes to a greater extent than was the case heretofore, the qualification of 
experience, as required by the teaching Colleges of Pharmacy, that of New- 
York having made a similar change some months since. 

Chicago College of Pharmacy. — At the meeting held June 11th the fol- 
lowing members were elected delegates to the next annual meeting of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association and to the Convention of the Teaching 
Colleges of Pharmacy: Thomas N. Jamieson, Albert E. Ebert, George Buck, 
E. H. Sargent and Theo. H. Patterson. 

The Board of Trustees was empowered to co-operate with any movement 
that may be made for holding a Convention of Pharmacists of the Northwest 
during the October exposition in Chicago. 

After the consideration and adoption of some changes in the By-Laws, Mr. 
E. H. Sargent, in behalf of the Committee on the Attfield Testimonial, pre- 
sented to the College an oil painting of Professor J. Attfield. who, the chair- 
man said, " stands to us as the representative of that noble band of English 
pharmacists who so generously and promptly came to our aid in the time of 
our great adversity." The portrait was received by the President of the Col- 
lege, Mr. Thos. Whitfield, and then directed to be placed on exhibition, with a 
suitable inscription, in the Chicago Art Gallery; 



St Clair Pharmaceutical Association of Southern Illinois. — We ac- 
knowledge the receipt of a copy of the Statutes of this Association, which 
was organized April 23d last, and incorporated May 20th. The following is 
stated to be the object of the Association : 

The object of this Association shall be to unite all Practical Pharmaceutists 
of Southern Illinois for the purpose of promoting the interest, the develop- 
ment, the welfare and progress of the Pharmaceutical Science and Art, and 
also of improving, elevating and protecting our professional standing in public 



380 Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. { A 1^3^* 

life. It shall be furthermore the future aim of this Association to erect a 
School of Pharmacy for the Southern part of this State, at the city of Belle- 
ville, as soon as possible and practicable, in order to educate therein theoreti- 
cally and practically studied Pharmaceutists, so that our worthy profession may 
derive honor, and the medical faculty as well as the public in general may re- 
ceive benefit by it. 

We sincerely wish good success to every pharmaceutical association devoting 
its energies to the welfare and progress of pharmacy, but we trust that our 
friends of Southern Illinois will well weigh the apparent necessities before they 
attempt to carry out their aim to establish a School of Pharmacy. Pharma- 
ceutical education in the United States knows no geographical limits, and is 
not confined by narrow State boundaries ; an indefinite multiplication of phar- 
maceutical schools could, in our opinion, be hardly otherwise than unfortunate 
in its results. Belleville, we believe, is distant but twelve or fifteen miles from 
St. Louis, where, for a number of years, a college of pharmacy has been strug- 
gling for a foothold, which it now seems to have gained, and will doubtless 
maintain if it receives the hearty support of all those pharmacists of St. Louis 
and vicinity who acknowledge the value of pharmaceutical education. 



Pharmaceutical Society of Paris. — At the meeting held May 7th, a paper 
by Mr. Carles, On a New Variety of Opium,* was read and discussed. Mr. 
Boudet spoke of a paper by Mr. Chautard, read before the Academy of Medi- 
cine, On the Spectrum of Chlorophyll. Mr. Buignet stated the principal 
results to be as follows : A solution of chlorophyll shows in the spectrum 
between the red and orange a large absorption band ; with the micrometer 'of 
the field divided into 100 parts and its position regulated so that the sodium 
line, D, corresponds with 40, the black band occupies the space between the 
points 22 and 30. If to the chlorophyll solution a small quantity of caustic 
potassa or soda is added, the central portion of the band acquires its lumin- 
osity, so that two dark lines are now perceived, corresponding to the extreme 
edges of the primitive band, and consequently situated at 22 and 30 of the 
micrometer. 

A report by Messrs. Mialhe, Lefort and Latour, on iodized tar water and 
syrup, recommended by Mr. Bretet, of Cusset, was read ; the iodine it appears 
is partly taken up to form substitution compounds with the constituents of the 
tar, a portion beiug converted into hydriodic acid. 

Mr. Grassi exhibited ceresin (see page 11 of our January number). Mr. 
Guichard spoke of the crystallized benzoic acid exhibited by him before (see 
June number p. 282), some crystals weighing 0*7 grams and having the crys- 
talline form of gypsum ; he was unable to crystallize ordinary benzoic acid in 
any other form except the well known small plates. 

Mr. Latour presented specimens of fused nitrate of zinc and of caustic 
pencils made from it. The concentrated solution, a paste made from it with 
wheat flour, mixtures of the nitrate and chloride of zinc and the pencils hav© 
been used as caustics in the Hotel-Dieu at Lyons. 

Mr. Roucher recommends the addition of a little glycerin to plasters, to 



* See American Journal of Pharmacy, July, page 314. 



A \ug ra i,m3 RM '} Pharmaceutical Colleges, etc. 381 

prevent them from breaking too readily. Mr. Desnoix said that the same 
result is obtained if the glycerin is not washed out of the lead plaster. 

At the meeting held June 4th Mr. Stan. Martin exhibited Persian opium in 
sticks, from which, by the ordinary processes, no morphia could be obtained ; 
also a sample of kino from Soudan which is unknown in Europe. When ex- 
amined by the microscope it does not appear* to have been subjected to any 
particular manipulation ; water dissolves 80 per cent of it ; its low price recom- 
mends it for use in the arts. 

Mr. Gosselet, Vice-President of the Pharmaceutical Society of Northern 
France, communicated by letter a decision by the court of Douai, that cod- 
liver oil is to be regarded as an aliment, and may be sold by grocers. Some 
questions submitted by the district attorney were discussed, and by the Society 
of Paris unanimously decided as follows : Cod-liver oil is a simple drug and a 
true medicine, and should not be sold in medicinal quantities by druggists or 
grocers ; there is a distinction to be made between the oil prepared according 
to the pharmacopoeia by a particular process for internal use, and that used by 
tanners, which is usually more or less impure fish oil. 

Mr. L. Soubeiran communicated an extract of a letter from Mr. J. E. Howard, 
informing that he had planted in the open air near Cottenham several speci- 
mens of Cinchona calisaya, which are thriving well ; he adds that Professor 
Baillon has had a similar experience this year near Paris. 

Mr. Planchon, in behalf of Prof. Fliickiger, presented a detailed inventory 
of a pharmacy at Dijon from the year 1439. It is a curious document, and 
valuable for the history of pharmacy. 

Mr. Toselli, by invitation, exhibited his apparatus for making ice, and pro- 
duced in five minutes a block weighing 500 grams, using nitrate of ammonium 
by dissolving it in water, as the source of cold. Mr. Poggiale regards the 
apparatus as very ingenious, but believes that of Mr. Carre preferable, because 
it does not require the transportation of material at an elevated price for the 
production of the ice. 

Mr. Mayet read a note on the preparation of antiscorbutic syrup from a fluid 
extract; this created considerable discussion in favor of and in opposition to 
the proposed change. It appears that the fluid extracts and concentrated 
tinctures now met with in French commerce are often worthless preparations ; 
Mr. Mayet therefore proposes to critically experiment with the processes. 

Mr. Boudet reported that the Minister of Public* Instruction, on behalf of 
the Minister of War, had addressed a letter to the Academy of Medicin, 
requesting an opinion on the fusion of military medicin and pharmacy, on the 
subordination of the latter to the former, or on maintaining their present rela- 
tions. The Academy has appointed a committee of nine, only three of which 
number, the Pharmaceutical Society regrets to hear, are pharmacists, while six 
are physicians. Mr. Poggiale, a member of the committee, believes that the 
Academy will decide in favor of the present status. 

The General Pharmaceutical Association of Belgium met in the free 
unirersity of Brussels, May 4th last. The principal business transacted was 
*'he consideration of the amended constitution ; as adopted every member has 



382 



Editorial, 



< Am. Jock. Phakk. 
t Aug. 1, 1873. 



the right to vote, personally if present, or by proxy if absent. The officers 
were re-elected as follows : Victor Pasquier, President ; De Bauque, N. Gille^ 
Van Bastelair and Van Pelt, Vice-Presidents; E. Vande Vyvere, Secretary* 
and Vanden Heuvel, Assistant Secretary. 



(Editorial Department. 



The Twenty-First Annual Meeting of the American Pharmaceutical. 
Association will convene at the Virginia Opera House (formerly Virginia 
Hall), in the city of Richmond, on Tuesday, the 16th day of September, at 3 
o'clock P.M. The following arrangements have been made for visiting mem- 
bers : those from the Eastern cities will leave Baltimore on Monday, the 15th 
of September, at 4 o'clock P.M., by the York river line of steamers, the trains- 
leaving New York at 9 A.M. and Philadelphia at 12.15 M., making close con- 
nections. The steamers will reach West Point at 8.30 A.M. on Tuesday, the 
party arriving in Richmond at 11 o'clock the same morning. A reduction of 
fare from Balt